جميع مصطلحات phrasalverbs -أساس اللغة الانجليزية


THE ULTIMATE PHRASAL VERB BOOK Contents 4 TO THE TEACHER 6 TO THE STUDENT 7 1 FOCUS ON separable and nonseparable phrasal verbs 9 come from 9 figure out 10 give back 10 look for 10 put on 10 run into 11 show up 11 take off 12 2 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and do does and did 16 come off 17 doze off 19 fall for 19 give in 19 hear about 19 pull through 19 stay off 20 throw up 20 3 FOCUS ON three-word phrasal verbs 23 feel up to 23 get over with 23 go along with 23 go in for 24 look forward to 24 put up with 24 screw out of 24 talk down to 24 4 FOCUS ON present and past continuous phrasal verbs 27 cheat on 27 go after 27 look up 28 pay for 28 plan for 29 point to 29 put to 29 wrap up 30 5 FOCUS ON pronunciation of two-word phrasal verbs 33 break down 33 burn down 35 call in 35 find out 35 hand back 35 look at 36 setup 36 6 FOCUS ON pronunciation of three-word phrasal verbs 41 boil down to 41 come down with 41 come up with 42 get around to 42 get out of 42 go back on 42 go through with 43 monkey around with 43 7 FOCUS ON separable phrasal verbs with long objects46 cut up 46 hold up 47 let out 47 point out48 run over48 see about 49 take in49 8 FOCUS ON present perfect phrasal verbs56 burn out56 fall over57 fight back 57 hear of58 pick out 58 tear down58 work in59 9 FOCUS ON two-word phrasal verbs that require an additional particle when used with an object 1 63 break out 64 catch up64 chicken out65 get along65 give up 65 hang up65 hook up 66 work up 66 10 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used as nouns 171 fall off 71 kick back74 lay off74 screw up 75 11 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used in compound nouns 80 backup81 cut off82 drop off 83 follow up84 take out84 try out85 wake up86 work out86 12 FOCUS ON past perfect phrasal verbs93 back off93 come across94 come up94 fall through95 put out95 13 FOCUS ON passive phrasal verbs 1100 call off100 dose off 100 hand in 101 let off102 light up102 track down103 14 FOCUS ON participle adjectives formed from phrasal verbs 1107 butt in109 dress up 109 dry up109 fill out110 put away110
stick up 110 use up 111 15 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and will or be going to 117 blow away 118 come through 118 dry out 119 fix up 119 go with 120 head back 121 tell on 122 16 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with gerund objects 1 126 believe in 126 carry on 127 count on 127 get through 128 go for 129 hold off 129 put past 129 think about 130 17 FOCUS ON adverbs and phrasal verbs 135 come over 136 get back at 136 go about 137 grow out of 137 rip up 137 wear down 138 18 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and can could will and would 143 breakthrough 144 figure on 144 get off 145 go beyond 146 lift upon 146 line up 146 stand around 147 tell apart 147 19 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and the adverb right151 aim at 151 bring back 152 bring over 152 cool off 152 go back 153 hand over 153 pull over 153 warm up 154 20 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs followed by the -ing form 159 end up 159 go around 159 Go off 161 hang around 162 lie around 163 start out 163 stay up 163 21 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and should and ought to 168 look around 169 look over 169 pick on 169 settle down 170 step on 170 take out on 170 think ahead 171 zip up 171 22 FOCUS ON the particle up and the adverbs right and all175 burn up177 clear up177 count up 178 eat up178 heat up178 pay up178 plug up 179 wipe up179 23 FOCUS ON two-word phrasal verbs that require an additional particle when used with an object 2 183 crack down183 cut down183 drop out185 get away 185 hold out 186 make up186 stay out188 watch out188 24 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used as nouns 2192 come down192 Let up193 print out193 show off 194 slow down194 stop over195 trade in 195 25 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and have to have got to and must 200 do with 201 have on201 hurry up202 knock over202 lighten up 202 plan ahead 202 settle for 203 think up 203 26 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and the adverb back 206 get together 206 go over 207 go up 208 let in on 208 open up209 put together 209 shut off209 start up 210 27 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the particle off and the adverb right214 bite off215 break off215 dry off 215 knock off216 tear off216 wash off 216 wear off217 wipe off217 28 FOCUS ON passive phrasal verbs 2222 beef up 222 break up 222 call back 223 call up223 carry out223
give away 224 mess up 224 stand up 225 29 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and might may and can 229 ask for 229 come apart 230 drop in 230 flip out 230 look out 230 luck out 230 make out 231 run across 231 30 FOCUS ON participle adjectives formed from phrasal verbs 2 235 lock in 236 Lock out 236 punch in 237 put out 237 sort out 238 space out 239 wash up 239 31 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and gerund subjects 245 care for 245 cut out 246 do away with 246 do without 247 look into 247 plan on 247 put off 247 rule out 248 32 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the particle out 251 clean out 252 clear out 253 come out 253 empty out 255 fall out 255 go out 255 leave out 256 stick out 256 33 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and midsentence adverbs 262 blow up 264 catch on 264 come about 265 fall behind 265 goof around 265 help out 266 know about 266 pull off 266 34 FOCUS ON pronunciation of two-and three-word phrasal verbs 2 270 do over 270 float around 271 lead up to 271 put up to 271 stand for 271 stick around 272 stick to 272 take back 273 35 FOCUS ON gerund phrasal verbs 277 fool around 278 go by 278 hold against 279 leave behind 279 live with 279 make of 280 narrow down 280 trick into280 36 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the particle down 284 back down284 calm down285 fall down 285 go down 285 lay down286 put down 286 run down 287 sit down288 37 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used as nouns 3293 brush off293 come on294 cover up 295 hang out 295 leave over left over295 Let down 296 talk to 297 38 FOCUS ON the verb keep and adverbs and adverbials showing degrees of variability 302 keep at303 keep away 303 keep down303 keep from304 keep off304 keep on304 keep to305 keep up305 39 FOCUS ON passive phrasal verbs 3309 chop up310 cross off 310 fill up310 pick up 311 sell out312 straighten out313 take over313 wipe out 314 40 FOCUS ON gerund phrasal verbs vs phrasal verbs followed by the -ing form320 -ing form320 gerund320 blow off320 burst out 321 come back 321 get off on322 go away322 run around322 The cat ran around the room chasing the mouse322 The children were running around the museum and the guard told them to stop322 stick with323 41 FOCUS ON two-word phrasal verbs with the particle in that require into when used with an object327 break in 328 Check out329
go in 330 let in 330 plug in 330 sneak in 331 sneak out 331 42 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with get 1335 get back 335 get behind 336 get down 337 get in 337 get out 338 get over 339 get up 340 43 FOCUS ON modals and present perfect phrasal verbs 344 blow out 345 give out 346 gross out 346 run up 346 shut up 347 stop off 347 try on 347 44 FOCUS ON participle adjectives and passive phrasal verbs with the verb get 354 beat up 355 mix up 356 piss off 357 rip off 357 45 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the verb turn 362 turn down 362 turn in 362 turn into 363 turn off 363 turn on 364 turn out 365 turn over 366 turn up 367 46 FOCUS ON pronunciation of phrasal verbs with the particle into 372 build in 372 bump into 372 con into 373 con out of 373 freak out 373 make for 373 talk into 373 talk out of374 47 FOCUS ON particles used without verbs379 brush up 379 come in380 cut back380 move in 381 move out 381 pull out382 put in 382 run out383 48 FOCUS ON modals and present perfect passive phrasal verbs387 close down 388 knock out 388 look down on389 look up to 389 put back389 switch off 390 throw out390 49 FOCUS ON combinations of get right back and to395 dog up 398 get ahead 398 get back to398 get on 398 get to 399 hang on400 start off400 throw away400 50 FOCUS ON Keep at it 405 ask out405 come down to405 deal with405 hold on 406 pay back406 take up on406 turn around406 wear out 407 Answers 414 Index 444 Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS To the Teacher iv To the Student v 1 Separable and Nonseparable Phrasal Verbs 1 2 Phrasal Verbs and do does and did 8 3 Three-Word Phrasal Verbs 14 4 Present and Past Continuous Phrasal Verbs 18 5 Pronunciation of Two-Word Phrasal Verbs 24 6 Pronunciation of Three-Word Phrasal Verbs 32 7 Separable Phrasal Verbs with Long Objects 37 8 Present Perfect Phrasal Verbs 46 9 Two-Word Phrasal Verbs That Require an Additional Particle When Used with an Object 1 53 10 Phrasal Verbs Used as Nouns 1 61 11 Phrasal Verbs Used in Compound Nouns 70 12 Past Perfect Phrasal Verbs 83 13 Passive Phrasal Verbs 1 91 14 Participle Adjectives Formed from Phrasal Verbs 1 98 15 Phrasal Verbs and will or be going to 107 16 Phrasal Verbs with Gerund Objects 1 116 17 Adverbs and Phrasal Verbs 125 18 Phrasal Verbs and can could will and would 133 19 Phrasal Verbs and the Adverb right I 141 20 Phrasal Verbs Followed by the -ing Form 149 21 Phrasal Verbs and should and ought to 158 22 The Particle up and the Adverbs right and all I 165 23 Two-Word Phrasal Verbs That Require an Additional Particle When Used with an Object 2 172 24 Phrasal Verbs Used as Nouns 2 180 25 Phrasal Verbs and have to have got to and must 188 iii 26 Phrasal Verbs and the Adverb bade 194 27 Phrasal Verbs with the Particle off and the Adverb right I 202 28 Passive Phrasal Verbs 2 210 29 Phrasal Verbs and might may and can 217 30 Participle Adjectives Formed from Phrasal Verbs 2 223 31 Phrasal Verbs and Gerund Subjects 233 32 Phrasal Verbs with the Particle our 239 33 Phrasal Verbs and Midsentence Adverbs 250 34 35 Gerund Phrasal Verbs 264 36 Phrasal Verbs with the Particle down 271 37 Phrasal Verbs Used as Nouns 3 280 38 The Verb keep and Adverbs and Adverbials Showing Degrees of Variability 289 39 Passive Phrasal Verbs 3 296 40 Gerund Phrasal Verbs vs Phrasal Verbs Followed by the -ing Form 307 41 Two-Word Phrasal Verbs with the Particle in That Require into When Used with an Object 314 42 Phrasal Verbs with get 1 322 43 Modals and Present Perfect Phrasal Verbs 331 44 Participle Adjectives and Passive Phrasal Verbs with the Verb get I 340 45 Phrasal Verbs with the Verb rum 348 46 Pronunciation of Phrasal Verbs with the Particle into 358 47 Particles Used Without Verbs 364 48 Modals and Present Perfect Passive Phrasal Verbs 372 49 Combinations of get right back and t 380 50 Keep at It 390 Answers to Exercises 398 Index 410
TO THE TEACHER The inspiration for The Ultimate Phrasal Verb Book came about when a student asked me for a textbook to help her learn the meanings of common phrasal verbs I had nothing to offer The only textbook focusing on common verbs that I could give her contains not one phrasal verb it teaches arise but not get up awake but not wake up seek but not look for Phrasal verbs are verbs not idiomatic curiosities There is no logic to classifying take over with take the bull by the horns Phrasal verbs are an essential part of spoken and written English at all levels and no student who hopes to master the language can afford to overlook them Although this textbook is intended primarily for high-intermediate to advanced students ambitious students at lower levels will benefit from it as well Only some FOCUS sections may prove to be a little beyond them otherwise there is nothing to prevent any student from studying the definitions and examples and attempting the exercises A vocabulary textbook should provide mechanics as well as meaning Students want to know more than what a word means they want to know how to use it correctly The importance of mechanics is the reason for the emphasis on the prepositions required when some phrasal verbs are used transitively and for the inclusion of reviews of points of grammar not specific to phrasal verbs Prepositions are the glue that holds English together but many students falter when using newly learned verbs because they do not know that a preposition is also required or if they do which one This aspect of English is not given the attention it deserves because it is difficult to teach there are no rules that govern when a preposition or which preposition is required and no teacher likes to say quotYou just have to rememberquot The hope of the latter feature the discussion of points of grammar not specific to phrasal verbs is that combining practice with phrasal verbs and practice with a variety of grammatical structures will increase not only the students confidence in the knowledge of phrasal verbs but also his or her willingness and ability to use them in a wider range of situations There is inevitably a degree of oversimplification That phrasal verb particles are sometimes prepositions and sometimes adverbs is mentioned only once No purpose is served by differentiating between them and the overlap between the two is confusing to the student Phrasal verbs are not identified as transitive or intransitive because this is dictated by logic Less common meanings of some phrasal verbs have not been included Adverb placement is presented and illustrated in simplified form without discussion of the different types of adverbs doing so would have gone beyond the scope of this textbook iv
THE ULTIMATE PHRASAL VERB BOOK Student And no differentiation is made between recognized adjectives derived from past participles and past participles with adjectival meaning The adjectival use of past participles both phrasal and nonphrasal is an extremely important aspect of spoken English something every student of English should be familiar with yet the dividing line between true adjectives derived from past participles and passive sentences employing past participles with adjectival meanings is ill-defined and problematic Native speakers of English regularly use past participles in superficially passive sentences with purely adjectival meaning Whether the past participles are verbs or actually adjectives is of no concern to the native speaker and is entirely irrelevant to the student of English Rather than distract the student with an unnecessary element of confusion both are referred to as participle adjectives throughout this textbook The exercises in this textbook are intended to reinforce meaning and mechanics A cloze exercise always comes first followed by exercises focusing on sentence structure and the FOCUS discussion Last are exercises that ask the student to answer questions or write original sentences There is a good deal of review built into this textbook Every section contains two or more exercises requiring the student to refer back to a previous section in order to review a phrasal verb participle adjective or noun When a phrasal verb has two or more meanings it is intentional that no help is provided to the student in determining which meaning applies students have to review them all and figure it out for themselves I have tried in this textbook to imitate the form and content of everyday English If occasionally the register and subject matter of some examples and exercises seem not quite right for formal discourse that is deliberate Students need to learn formal English of course but since most people speak informally most of the time students need to gain familiarity with the syntax usage and content of the informal English they read and hear every day at work at school at home and on television TO THE STUDENT Phrasal verbs are combinations of ordinary verbs like put take come and go and particles like in out on and off They are a very important part of everyday English Every student of English needs a basic understanding of the most common phrasal verbs and also of common nouns and adjectives made from phrasal verbs Most phrasal verbs are nor informal slang or improper for educated speech or formal writing Exactly the opposite is true most phrasal verbs are acceptable at all levels of spoken or written English In fact for many of the phrasal verbs in this textbook there is no alternative to the phrasal verb there is no other way to say it v
However a few phrasal verbs in this textbook are identified as informal and it is better not to use them in serious formal speech or writing But these informal phrasal verbs are important because they are very common in everyday informal speech and writing Some phrasal verbs are very easy to understand For example it is not difficult to understand sit down or come in because their meanings are obvious But many phrasal verbs are very idiomatic Idiomatic means that there is no way to know what the verb and particle mean together by knowing what the verb and particle mean separately For example every beginning-level student learns what the words call run off and out mean but that does not help the student to know that call off means cancel or that run out means use all of something Each section of this textbook starts with a FOCUS an explanation of something important about phrasal verbs Then eight phrasal verbs and an explanation of each important meaning of each one are presented along with one or more example sentences for each meaning Following that are several exercises to help you understand and remember what the phrasal verbs mean and how to use them in a sentence And like real conversation questions asked with I or we are answered with you and questions asked with you are answered with or we And because there is a lot to learn in this textbook there is a lot of review to help you learn it Every phrasal verb is reviewed at least twice later in the book The more idiomatic phrasal verbs are reviewed more often and the more important meanings of phrasal verbs with several meanings are reviewed more often Terms Abbreviations and Symbols Used in this Textbook verb Verb refers to the verb part of a phrasal verb In other words the phrasal verb minus the particle In the phrasal verb pull over pull is the verb and over is the particle particle The adverbs and prepositions in phrasal verbs are both called particles in this book Many particles are adverbs and prepositions and it can be very difficult and confusing to figure out if a particle in a particular phrasal verb is one or the other Fortunately this is almost never important to the student so it is a lot easier to simply call them both particles pv phrasal verb n a noun made from a phrasal verb partadj participle adjective a past participle of a phrasal verb used as an adjective put on it When words or sentences have a line through them it means that they are incorrect Three dots between the verb and the particle mean that the object of the phrasal verb can be placed between the verb and the particle vi
1 FOCUS ON separable and nonseparable phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are either separable or nonseparable Unfortunately there is no rule that will help you to look at a phrasal verb and always know whether it is separable or nonseparable Separable phrasal verbs Separable phrasal verbs can be separated by their object When the object is a noun it is usually entirely optional whether the object is placed between the verb and the particle or placed after the particle Both sentences below are correct I took my shoes off I took off my shoes However when a pronoun is used instead of a noun the pronoun must be placed between the verb and the particle I took them off I took off them But in one type of sentence separable phrasal verbs must be separated when the phrasal verb has two objects She put a blanket on She put on a blanket She put a blanket on the bed She put on a blanket the bed Nonseparable phrasal verbs Nonseparable phrasal verbs cannot be separated by their object He ran into a tree He ran a tree into Throughout this book phrasal verbs that can be separated have three dots between the verb and the particle Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come from come from amp comes from coming from came from come from 1 come from pv When you come from a place you were born there or lived there previously When you come from a family or a social situation your past experience helps to explain your present attitudes and behavior Mike comes from Alaska so hes used to cold weather Jane had a difficult childhood She came from a broken home 1
2 come from pv When something comes from a source that is where it originated The word quotadmiralquot comes from an Arabic word The mechanic heard a strange sound coming from the engine Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle figure out figure out amp figures out figuring out figured out figured out 1 figure out pv the object can be a noun or a noun clause When you figure out something such as the answer to a question the solution to a problem or why a person is a certain way or acts a certain way you think about and succeed in understanding it Joes so hostile all the time I cant figure him out I looked everywhere for my keys but I couldnt figure out where I put them give back give back amp gives back giving back gave back given back 1 give back to pv When you return something to someone you give it back Can I use your pen Ill give it back after the test Timmy give that toy back to your sister right now look for look for amp looks for looking for looked for looked for 1 look for pv When you look for things or people you try to find them looked for you at the party but I didnt see you Excuse me can you help me Im looking for 303 Main St put on put on amp puts on putting on put on put on 1 put on pv When you place something on or apply something to your body you put it on I put on my new dress before going to the party Eric forgot to put suntan lotion on and now hes as red as a lobster 2 put on pv When you place something on or apply something to another surface you put it on I put the book on the table Jerry put too much fertilizer on his lawn and now he has to cut it twice a week 3 put on pv When you attach or affix something to another thing you put it on The Wilsons put a new roof on their house last year I told the tailor to put red buttons on the dress hes making for me 4 put on pv When you put on weight you gain weight Comment S1 n area of grass lawn tennis
THE ULTIMATE PHRASAL VERB BOOK Did you see Mike Hes put on so much weight that I didnt recognize him I need to go on a diet Ive been putting on a lot of weight lately 5 put on pv When you organize or perform something for other peoples entertainment such as a play or a concert you put it on The club put on a show to raise money for the party That opera hasnt been put on in more than 200 years 6 put on pv informal When you put people on you kid or tease them You won the lottery Youre putting me on Dont put me on tell me the truth put-on n Something done with the intention of fooling or deceiving people is a put-on He didnt really win the lottery It was all a big put-on to impress his girlfriend Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle run into run into amp runs into running into ran into run into 1 run into pv When you are driving and hit another vehicle or something near the road such as a tree or a telephone pole you run into it Ali was driving too fast and he ran into a telephone pole I was run into by a drunk driver 2 run into pv When you meet people unexpectedly or unintentionally you run into them Bump into is the same as run into We ran into Karen and her new boyfriend at the supermarket yesterday I owe Frank 300 so I hope I dont run into him 3 run into pv When you unexpectedly encounter difficulties or problems you run into them thought it would be easy to fix my car but Ive been running into problems Janice ran into one problem after another at work today 4 run into pv When the total of something grows to a large amount or number it runs into that amount or number If you fixed everything on that old car that needs fixing it would run into thousands of dollars The number of starving people in the country ran into millions show up show up amp shows up showing up showed up shown up 1 show up pv When you appear somewhere you show up Turn up is similar to show up was supposed to meet my sister for lunch but she hasnt shown up yet Over a hundred people showed up for the news conference 2 show up pv When something appears or becomes visible it shows up Its hard to photograph polar bears because they dont show up well against the snow The spots wont show up until the last stages of the disease Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle Comment S2 n it was quite without intention I have no intention of going to the party his intentions are good has he made known his intentions Comment S3 vt amp i - deceive os - I have been deceived in him his hopes were deceive we were deceived into believing that Comment S4 adj Comment S5 adj Comment S6 vt - i - i
take off take off amp takes off taking off took off taken off 3 1 take off pv When you remove something from your body you take it off was so tired when I got home that I took my clothes off and went straight to bed Take off your shoes Youre getting mud on the carpet 2 take off pv When you remove something from a surface you take it off I took the book off the table You need to take the old wax off the floor before you wax it again 3 take off pv When you remove something from something it is attached or affixed to you take it off Alfonso always takes the skin off chicken before he cooks it After Jane took the flat tire off her bicycle she put on the new one 4 take off pv When you take time off from work or study you do something different in stead of working or studying I cant work tomorrow I have to take the day off for some tests at the hospital Our company always lets us take the week between Christmas and New Years Day off 5 take off pv When an airplane leaves the ground and flies up into the air it takes off Our plane took off an hour late because of the snow Put on your seat belt were taking off now takeoff n Takeoff is when an airplane leaves the ground and flies up into the air The takeoff was delayed because of the snow 6 take off pv When a business or other organized activity becomes very successful it takes off The new restaurants business is taking off because it got a good review in the newspaper If this business takes off we could make a lot of money 7 take off pv informal When you leave suddenly or quickly you take off 4
After he found out the FBI was looking for him he took off in a hurry This partys boring lets take off 8 take off pv When you reduce the price of something that is for sale by a certain amount you take that amount off the price The sign in the store window said quotEvery Monday take 10 percent off all marked pricesquot The car dealer took 2000 off the list price EXERCISE 1 a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense Example Sergeant Jones is very strict with his children He COMES FROM a military family 1 After the police arrived we quickly 2 Sales of air conditioners really when the temperature got over 100 degrees last summer 3 Megan a lot of weight when she was pregnant 4 Im going to install a new program tonight and I hope I dont any problems 5 The invisible ink only under ultraviolet light 6 I was expecting 100 people at the party but only around 50 7 Jane was lucky she a good family 8 Be sure you a coat of primer before you paint the fender 9 My cousin is so weird that even his mother cant him 10 I dont feel well I think Ill tomorrow and stay home 11 We were scared to death when we heard voices the attic 12 My son always forgets to his coat before he goes outside 13 I was surprised when our plane on time 14 We our dog all night but we couldnt find him 15 Paul finally my CDs after I asked him for them about a million times 16 Im not going to the party because I dont want to Janice 5 Comment S7 3 paint Comment S8 3 US of car
17 The real estate agent said that our asking price was too high and that we should at least 10000 it if we want to sell our house 18 those muddy shoes before you come inside 19 Sending my son to Stanford and my daughter to Yale is going to some serious money 20 the ornaments the Christmas tree isnt as much fun as putting them on 21 You cant be serious youre me 22 Dont forget to a stamp that letter before you mail it 23 A special performance of The Nutcracker was at the childrens hospital 24 The maid the dirty sheets the bed 25 Be careful You almost that truck back there EXERCISE 1 b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place Example I cant figure out the answer it I cant figure out the answer I cant figure the answer out I cant figure it out 1 I finally figured out the instructions them 2 Give back when you are finished my tools them 6
3 She put on her slippers them 4 I took off my shoes them 5 The hurricane took off the roof it EXERCISE 1c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense Example I cant understand where my wallet is What cant I do You cant figure out where your wallet is 1 A lot of guests didnt come to the wedding What didnt a lot of guests do 2 Raul thought about the math problem and he knows the answer now What did Raul do 3 The jet is leaving the ground and flying into the air What is the jet doing 4 In Question 3 what would you call what the airplane did 5 Omar speaks Arabic because he was born in Egypt Why does Omar speak Arabic 6 We left Bobs house quickly What did we do 7 I met Uncle John at the baseball game today What did I do today 8 The source of the smoke was a window on the tenth floor What did the smoke do 9 You almost hit a tree while you were driving your car What did you almost do 7
10 Mr Taylor attached his name to his mailbox What did Mr Taylor do 11 I have to remove the flat tire from my car What do I have to do 12 We didnt have any problems cooking the turkey What did we do 13 Im removing the dirty dishes from the table What am I doing 14 Sales of the companys new product were very successful What did sales of the companys new product do 15 Linda is trying to find her golf ball What is Linda doing 16 Susies blue eyes arent visible in this photo What dont Susies eyes do in this photo 17 Jim always forgets to place salt and pepper on the table What does Jim always do 18 Bill didnt go to work last Friday What didnt Bill do 19 Sally returned Franks camera What did Sally do 2 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and do does and did Like ordinary verbs phrasal verbs form negatives and questions with do does and did Present tense questions In the present tense questions are formed with do except when the subject is he she it or the name of one person or thing Why do I always fall for losers Do you sometimes doze off in class Do we ever give in to pressure How do these bottle tops come off When the subject is he she it or the name of one person or thing does is used Remember that the -s form of the verb is not used in questions Does this welding torch throw sparks up into the air Present tense negatives In the present tense negatives are formed with do not or dont except when the subject is he she it or the name of one person or thing 8
used to doze off while driving but I dont anymore I think he has the flu because you dont usually throw up when you have a cold We dont usually fall for crazy stories like that If his dogs do not stay off our lawn Im going to call the dogcatcher When the subject is he she it or the name of one person or thing does not or doesnt is used Remember that the -s form of the verb is not used in negatives If Mark doesnt pull through five children will be without a father Past tense questions In the past tense questions are formed with did Remember to use the infinitive form of the verb Im so embarrassed Why did I fall for his lies Did the patient pull through How many times did he throw up Did we give in to their demands Did they hear about the explorer who was eaten by piranhas Past tense negatives In the past tense negatives are formed with did not or didnt Remember to use the infinitive form of the verb was really sick but I didnt throw up You didnt fall for that nonsense I hope He pulled and pulled but the bowling ball did not come off We didnt hear about the half-price sale until it was too late Im sorry We tried everything but she didnt pull through Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come off come off amp comes off coming off came off come off
1 come off pv When something comes off it becomes detached from what it was attached or fastened to Be careful with this old book The covers coming off That paint wont come off your hands unless you use turpentine 2 come off pv When an event comes off it is successful The party came off well Everyone had a lot of fun The attack didnt come off the way the general planned it 3 come off pv When you say quotCome off itquot to people you are saying that you think something they have said is untrue or foolish Its 200 AM you come home smelling like beer and you say you were working late at the office Oh come off it 9 Comment S9 n
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle doze off doze off amp dozes off dozing off dozed off dozed off 1 doze off pv When you fall into a light sleep you doze off I went to a movie last night but it was so boring I dozed off If I have a drink at lunch Im sure to doze off at my desk fall for fall for amp falls for falling for fell for fallen for 1 fall for pv When someone successfully tricks or deceives you you fall for the trick or deception or you fall for it I feel like an idiot The salesman promised me it was a real diamond not glass and I fell for it Your girlfriend told you that guy she was dancing with at the party was her brother How could you fall for a story like that 2 fall for pv When you suddenly feel a strong attraction to someone or something you fall for that person or thing Jim met Sams sister last week and now he calls her every day I guess he really fell for her in a big way When I saw this house I fell for it immediately and I made an offer the same day give in give in amp gives in giving In gave in given in 1 give in to pv When someone pressures or forces you to do something or allow something even though you do not want to you give in My son drove me crazy asking me to buy him a new bicycle and I finally gave in The strike lasted for eight months but the company never gave in to the workers demands hear about hear about amp hears about hearing about heard about heard about 1 hear about pv When you hear and learn information about someone or something you hear about it Have you heard about the new Thai restaurant downtown I heard about the earthquake on CNN pull through pull through amp pulls through pulling through pulled through pulled 1 pull through pv When you recover from a serious illness or injury you pull through The doctor didnt think his chances were very good but he pulled through Erik is very sick but hes young and strong so Im sure hell pull through 10 Comment S10 n 1 dodge device f pl he knows all the tricks of the trade he tried every trick in the book I know a trick worth two of that 2 deception mischievous act he is always playing tricks on me he is up to his old tricks again a trick of the light a dirty trick play a dirty trick on so pf - he is good at card tricks 3 feat their dog can do a lot of tricks you cant teach him any new tricks that will do the trick theres no trick to it coll trick cyclist lit joc psychiatrist 4 knack theres a trick to operating this machine 5 mannerism he has a trick of repeating himself 6 at cards we won by the odd trick he never misses a trick fig vt 1 cheat beguile - - they tricked him out of a fortune she was tricked into marriage 2 trick out Comment S11 vt amp i - deceive os - I have been deceived in him his hopes were deceive we were deceived into believing that Comment S12 n practise a deception on - Comment S13 vi 1 go on continue - - winter lasts six months will the performance last much longer the rain wont last long if the good weather lasts or Comment S14 n 1 claim Comment S15 vi 1 revive - - Comment S16 n to the body 1 2
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle stay off stay off amp stays off staying off stayed off stayed off 1 stay off pv When you stay off something you dont walk or sit on it You kids can play in the living room but stay off the Persian rug What can I do to get my cat to stay off the kitchen counter throw up throw up amp throws up throwing up threw up thrown up 1 throw up pv When people throw up they vomit Alex was so sick that he threw up all over my shoes I feel like Im going to throw up 1 throw up pv When something causes small particles of dirt dust or a liquid to rise into the air it throws them up Be careful with that chain saw Itll throw sawdust up in your eyes Dont stand too close to the fire its throwing up sparks EXERCISE 2a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Heather calls Tom every day I have a feeling shes him 2 I went to the shoe repair guy because the heel my shoe 3 I ten minutes after the movie started and I missed the whole thing 4 The bride drank too much champagne and she all over the best man 5 I needed a car to go to the party so I told my father I needed his car to go to the library to study and he it 6 Uncle Freds really sick If he itll be a miracle 7 I just shampooed the carpet in the living room so it 8 The coup without any bloodshed 9 I dont care if you beg me all night Im not 10 I your brothers accident last night Is he all right 11 Comment S17 n vt he vomited blood Comment S18 n tool circular saw Comment S19 n pl g -
11 Dont get close to the fire Its ashes and sparks 12 Do you really expect me to believe a crazy story like that it EXERCISE 2b Change the sentences to questions using do does or did Example Francisco usually dozes off after dinner Does Francisco usually doze off after dinner 1 The sick boy threw up 2 Rosa falls for every boy she meets 3 The tops come off easily 4 The dog stays off the bed 5 Erik heard about the new job EXERCISE 2c Change the sentences to negatives using do not or dont does not or doesnt or did not or didnt Example Francisco dozes off after dinner Francisco doesnt doze off after dinner 1 I always give in to her demands 2 Mr and Mrs Taylor fell for the salesmans promises 3 These machines throw up sparks 4 The patient pulled through 5 The plot come off as planned EXERCISE 2d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 My mother told me not to walk on the kitchen floor What did my mother tell me 2 When Dan saw that new motorcycle he decided he had to buy it no matter how much it cost How did Dan feel about the motorcycle 12
3 The students are so tired that they are starting to sleep in class What are the students doing 4 Nicole learns about everything that happens in town What does Nicole do 5 The meeting didnt happen the way I planned it What didnt the meeting do 6 You had an accident after one of the wheels separated from your car Why did you have an accident 7 You can ask a thousand times if you want to but Im not agreeing to your demands What am I not doing to your demands 8 My cousin made a lot of promises to me and I believed them How did I react to her promises 9 Dr Wood said Teds disease is very serious and she doesnt think theres much hope that hell recover What doesnt Dr Wood think 10 Timmy is very sick and he was vomiting all night What was Timmy doing all night EXERCISE 2e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from Section 1 Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review Section 1 come from give back put on show up figure out look for run into take off 1 Look what time it is We have to be at work in fifteen minutes Wed better right now 2 I waited for Joe for three hours but he never 3 The maid the dirty sheets and washed them 4 Im a job closer to home 5 Potatoes originally South America 6 Thats mine it right now or Im telling Mom 7 They were killed when they a truck 8 The mechanic cant what the problem is with my car 13
3 FOCUS ON three-word phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are not always composed of two words Three-word phrasal verbs are composed of a verb and two particles the first particle is normally an adverb and the second a preposition Like two-word phrasal verbs three-word phrasal verbs are either separable or nonseparable I know its been a long day but do you feel up to playing tennis after dinner Jake always went in for fishing when he was a kid It was nice to meet you and I look forward to seeing you again Im sorry I cant say yes about the motorcycle but I have to go along with your mothers decision Ive put up with these love handles long enough next week Im getting liposuction Mr Baker tried to screw his ex-wife out of her share of the lottery prize You talk down to me like Im some kind of idiot Karens nervous about the job interview She just wants to get it over with so she can stop worrying about it Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle feel up to feel up to amp feels up to feeling up to felt up to feel up to 1 feel up to pv When you feel up to doing something you have the confidence or energy to do it Im sorry to cancel but I just dont feel up to going dancing tonight The top of the mountain is only 1000 feet away do you feel up to it get over with get over with amp gets over with getting over with got over with gotten over with 1 get over with pv always separated When you want to get something over with it is because it is something unpleasant that you want to finish so that you can stop worrying about it or dreading it Lets fix both cavities today doctor I just want to get it over with I think its better to get the exam over with first period than to be nervous about it all day long go along with go along with amp goes along with going along with went along with gone along ith 1 go along with pv When you agree with people or agree with what they are saying you go along with them I understand your concern Linda but I have to go along with Maria on this matter Whats my opinion I go along with Omar 14 Comment S20 3 trust I have confidence in him he enjoys her confidence he gained her confidence 4 certainty assurance he spoke with confidence 5 confidence trick confidence man trickster Comment S21 n stand in dread of so impf - in dread of ones life adj vt impf g I dread to think what may happen Comment S22 n in tooth Comment S23 n 5 anxiety 1 affair it is no concern of mine
2 go along with pv When you obey a rule or follow a decision you go along with it Mrs Taylor wasnt happy about the committees decision but she went along with it anyway I dont care what the boss says Im not going along with any changes that will mean longer hours for less money Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go in for go in for amp goes in for going in for went in for gone in for 1 go in for pv When you go in for a certain activity you like it and do it regularly Bryan really goes in for any kind of outdoor activity When I was a kid I went in for football but I dont watch it much anymore look forward to look forward to amp looks forward to looking forward to looked forward to looked forward 1 look forward to pv When you look forward to something or look forward to doing something you are excited about something in the future because you enjoy it or because it will benefit you in some way Its been four years since my brother went overseas Im looking forward to seeing him again I look forward to an opportunity to meet with you in person put up with put up with amp puts up with putting up with put up with put up with 1 put up with pv When you put up with something you do not like or are not happy about you accept it and do not try to change it Her neighbors have loud parties every night but she doesnt complain She just puts up with it My husband said quotIve put up with your brother long enoughquot screw out of screw out of amp screws out of screwing out of screwed out of screwed out of 1 screw out of pv informal When you get money or something valuable from people in a dishonest way you screw them out of it That con man screwed me out of my life savings Their sleazy son-in-law screwed them out of thousands of dollars talk down to talk down to amp talks down to talking down to talked down to talked down to 1 talk down to pv When you talk down to people you use a tone of voice or an attitude that shows you think they are less intelligent less educated or from a lower level of society than you 15 Comment S24 vt comply with obey the laws -
was furious about the way he talked down to me Bob hates Jane because of the way she talks down to him EXERCISE 3a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Thanks for inviting me but I dont card games 2 I couldnt my husbands smoking any longer I told him to choose between cigarettes and me 3 Im sorry but I think your plan is a big mistake and I cant it 4 Even though Mr Watson is the richest man in town he never people 5 Its been only two weeks since the tragedy Im sure they dont going to the party 6 If that crook thinks hes going to me 500 bucks hes crazy 7 The whole familys going to be here for Thanksgiving and Mom is really it 8 I volunteered to give my speech first just so I could it 9 Even if you dont like the rules you have to them EXERCISE 3b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Jerrys brother-in-law talks to him like hes an idiot How does Jerrys brother-in-law talk to Jerry 2 Nicole cant work tomorrow and shes nervous about telling her boss What should Nicole do 3 They paid 5000 too much for their house because the salesman lied to them What did the salesman do to them 16
4 Sallys going to fly in an airplane for the first time and shes very excited about it How does Sally feel about flying in an airplane 5 The winters in Minneapolis are terrible but you cant move or change the weather What do you have to do 6 Erik just got out of the hospital and he doesnt feel strong enough to go back to work Why cant Erik go back to work 7 I thought the new policy was an excellent idea and I agreed with it 100 percent How did I feel about the new policy EXERCISE 3c Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from Section 2 Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review Section 2 come off fall for hear about stay off doze off give in pull through throw up 1 Miguel told me he didnt steal my TV but I didnt his lies 2 Jim is really sick and he stayed home from school today He twice last night 3 After a few weeks the gold on this cheap jewelry starts to 4 He kept nagging and nagging and I finally 5 If that cat doesnt learn to the table it will have to go 6 After Bettys temperature got up to 105 degrees we started to think she might not 7 The meeting was so boring that I 8 I a country where people use big stones for money 17
4 FOCUS ON present and past continuous phrasal verbs Like one-word verbs phrasal verbs can normally be used in the continuous tense also called the progressive tense using the -ing form of the verb also called the present participle and a form of be The principal told me youd been cheating on the test Ive been going after my masters for nearly five years Which dictionary is he looking up the words in How will she be paying for her tuition bill The compass needle couldnt be pointing to the south We would be planning for a bigger crowd if the weather werent so bad They should be wrapping the meeting up in a few minutes Thanks for all your help Im sorry for putting you to so much trouble Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle cheat on cheat on amp cheats on cheating on cheated on cheated on 1 cheat on pv When you cheat on your sexual partner you have sex or a romantic relationship with another person Sarah filed for divorce after she caught George cheating on her Can you believe it She was cheating on me with my best friend 2 cheat on pv When you do something dishonest so that you can do better on a test you cheat on the test The teacher caught Ali cheating on the exam If I didnt cheat on the tests Id never pass any of my classes go after go after amp goes after going after went after gone after 1 go after pv When you chase and try to physically stop or to attack people you go after them A policeman saw him stealing the car and went after him Captain Morgan was ordered to go after the enemy soldiers 2 go after pv When law enforcement officials try to prosecute people through a legal procedure they go after them Federal prosecutors are now going after the top drug dealers The senator introduced a bill designed to go after deadbeat dads 3 go after pv When a business tries to increase its profits by trying to increase its market share or its number of customers it goes after them 18
The tobacco company denied going after the teenage market The CEO said he wanted to go after new customers in China 4 go after pv When you go after something you try to obtain it even though it may be difficult to do Sofia went after a degree in accounting Todd trained for a year before going after the record in the 100-yard dash Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle look up look up amp looks up looking up looked up looked up 1 look up pv When you get information from a reference book such as a word from a dictionary or a telephone number from a telephone book you look the word or number up The teacher told the students to look the new words up in a dictionary I looked up his number but its not in the phone book 2 look up pv When you locate and visit people you have not seen for a long time you look them up was in Dallas on business and I looked up Dan Jones my old college roommate If youre ever in Kempton look me up 3 look up pv When a situation is looking up or starting to look up it is improving Business was pretty bad for a while but things are starting to look up Im much happier than I was last year Things are looking up pay for pay for amp pays for paying for paid for paid for 1 pay for pv When you give someone money in exchange for something you pay for it or pay someone for it Can I pay for this stuff with a credit card Alfonso paid the waiter for his dinner paid for partadj After you have paid for something it is paid for My car is old but at least its paid for 2 pay for pv When you are punished for something you pay for what you have done I caught the guy whos spreading these false rumors about me and he paid for ruining my reputation Young people think that drugs are harmless but theyll pay for their foolishness someday 19
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle plan for plan for amp plans for planning for planned for planned for 1 plan for pv When you make preparations for something in the future you plan for it The festival was a disaster because they didnt plan for such a huge crowd Its never to early too start planning for retirement point to point to amp points to pointing to pointed to pointed to 1 point to pv When you indicate people or things with your hand or a finger you point to them When an arrow or a sign indicates something it points to it The waitress couldnt hear me so I pointed to my empty glass and she understood The prosecutor asked quotCan you point to the man you saw carrying the gunquot 2 point to pv When a situation or occurrence causes you to consider something else it points to that thing These terrible test scores point to a need for some major changes in our educational system The fact that all the people with food poisoning ate tuna salad sandwiches pointed to contaminated mayonnaise as the source of the illness put to put to amp puts to putting to put to put to 1 put to pv When you confront people with a difficult or thought-provoking question accusation or proposition you put it to them He didnt want to tell me the truth but I really put it to him and he finally told me the whole story When Prof Kline put his theory to me like that I realized what he was talking about 2 put to pv When you put people to trouble or put them to an expense you cause them to do extra work or to spend money Thanks for helping me with my flat tire Im sorry to put you to so much trouble I know my father would pay my dental bill if I asked him but I hate to put him to such an expense 3 put to pv When you put part of your body or something in your hand to something you touch or press it to something The neighbors were arguing again so we put our ears to the wall to try to hear what they were saying When he put a gun to my head I realized he wasnt joking 20
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle wrap up wrap up amp wraps up wrapping up wrapped up wrapped up 1 wrap up pv When you enclose an object in some kind of paper usually gift wrapping paper or packaging paper you wrap it up have to wrap this gift up before I go to the party The movers wrapped up the china with newspapers wrapped up partadj After you enclose an object in some kind of paper usually gift wrapping paper or packaging paper it is wrapped up 2 wrap up pv When you conclude an event that has been happening for some time you wrap it up Wind up is similar to wrap up We wrapped up the meeting around 400 and went home The salesman blabbered for two hours before I finally told him to wrap it up EXERCISE 4a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Its 1230 Letsthis meetingand goto lunch 2 There was no way he could deny his guilt after the prosecutor it him 3 The high crime rate a need for more police officers 4 Youll what you did to me if its the last thing I ever do 5 The principal gave a zero to each of the students who the test 6 I my ear the wall to try to hear what Sally was saying about me 7 Mike is the words in the dictionary 8 The police officers the robbers but they didnt catch them 9 Linda told Ned that she would divorce him if he ever her again 10 Yes it was quite a surprise we didnt twins 11 We saw an arrowthe door at the end of the hallway 12 After she won the silver medal she the gold 13 Most insurance companies wont plastic surgery 14 I returned to my hometown for the first time in forty years and my first girlfriend 21
15 The guy in the seafood store the fish in old newspapers 16 The FBI is major drug smugglers 17 These last six months have been difficult for Sally but now things are starting to 18 The company started in California but now its customers all over the country 19 You me a lot of trouble to help you move your piano and you didnt even say thank you EXERCISE 4b Write sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 I was looking up in the dictionary a word it 2 I was in Boston looking up some old army buddies them 3 Dads upstairs wrapping up Moms birthday present it 4 The committee is wrapping up their discussion it 22
EXERCISE 4c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 He showed me where the bathroom was with his finger What did he do 2 Were preparing for 300 wedding guests What are we doing 3 The situation is getting better What is the situation doing 4 The little boy ran away and his father chased him and tried to catch him What did the father do 5 Sofia is going to try to break the record in the high jump What is Sofia going to try to do 6 Tom did a lot of work to get his guest bedroom ready for me when I visited him What did I do to Tom 7 Im giving money to the cashier for the book I want to buy What am I doing 8 In Question 7 how would you describe the book after I give the money to the cashier 9 The people in the meeting are concluding the meeting What are they doing 10 When Rosa was in New Orleans she looked for and visited a childhood friend What did Rosa do to her friend 11 Jim asked you a really difficult question What did Jim do to you 12 Megan is trying to find Eriks telephone number in a telephone book What is Megan doing 13 Tom is married but he slept with another woman What did Tom do to his wife EXERCISE 4d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one come from 2 figure out 1 hear about 2 pull through 2 fall for 2 give in 1 look for 1 show up 1 1 I your mother on our first date and we got married three months later 2 Carmens family Michoacan around twenty years ago 3 Paul was supposed to meet us at 800 but he never 23
4 These instructions dont make any sense at all I cant them 5 After Aunt Marys stroke her chances didnt look good but she 1 My daughter begged me to let her get her ears pierced and I finally 7 My father was listening to the radio and he said he a new car that runs on water 2 I spent two hours the remote control before I found it 5 5 FOCUS ON pronunciation of two-word phrasal verbs Nonseparable phrasal verbs Intransitive nonseparable phrasal verbs verbs that do not allow an object are usually accented on the particle The barn got hit by lightning and it burned DOWN Ned drank so much that he passed OUT on the bathroom floor Transitive nonseparable phrasal verbs verbs that require an object are usually accented on the verb Hanks been CHEATING on his wife for years I told the teacher my dog ate my homework but she didnt FALL for it Separable phrasal verbs Separable phrasal verbs which are always transitive are usually accented on the particle The British soldiers tried to burn DOWN the White House The teacher passed them OUT As the examples above show a single phrasal verb can belong to more than one category depending on its meaning Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle break down break down S breaks down breaking down broke down broken down 1 breakdown pv When something mechanical breaks down it does not function 24
was late for work because my car broke down This photocopier is a piece of junk it breaks down every day broken-down partadj When something is old in bad condition or not functioning properly it is broken-down My car is a broken-down piece of junk breakdown n A breakdown is a situation in which something mechanical has broken down After that last breakdown I decided it was time for a new car 2 breakdown pv When an arrangement agreement negotiation plan or marriage breaks down one or more persons involved is not cooperating or participating because of a disagreement or problem After he started drinking heavily their marriage started to break down The peace negotiations broke down because neither side was willing to compromise breakdown n A situation in which an arrangement agreement negotiation plan or marriage has broken down is a breakdown Neither side would give an inch and there was a breakdown in the negotiations 3 breakdown pv When you break down you lose self-control and become emotionally or mentally confused When the judge sentenced Jones to life in prison he broke down and begged for mercy Tom breaks down whenever he thinks of the tragedy breakdown n A situation in which someone has broken down and is very upset or confused is a breakdown Marvin had a complete mental breakdown and started to see invisible people 4 break down pv When something decomposes or reduces to its smallest parts or is reduced by someone to its smallest parts it breaks down After the poison breaks down its quite harmless Anticoagulant drugs are used to break down blood clots 5 break down pv When you reduce a process situation problem plan or idea to its basic parts to make it easier to understand you break it down The professors plan seemed really complicated but after he broke it down for us we understood it a little better If you break the manufacturing process down into steps its easier to train new workers 6 break down pv When you use force to go through a door that is locked you break it down 25
The police broke the door down and arrested the bank robbers A door had to be broken down to rescue the people trapped by the fire Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle burn down burn down amp burns down burning down burned down burned down 1 burn down pv When a building or other structure burns down or someone burns it down it is completely destroyed by fire Though most of Chicago burned down in 1871 a few buildings survived The owner was arrested for deliberately burning his factory down call in call in amp calls in calling in called in called in 1 call in pv When you call your place of employment to say you cannot work that day because you are sick you call in or call in sick The manager was angry when her secretary called in three days in a row Calling in sick too often is a good way to get fired 2 call in pv When you request the help of people or of an organization with more experience power or knowledge to help with a problem or difficult project you call them in When the local police couldnt handle the riot the National Guard was called in The local police chief considered calling the FBI in to help solve the crime find out find out amp finds out finding out found out found out 1 find out pv not usually separated the object can be a noun a noun clause or a complete sentence When you find out information or a fact you learn or become aware of that information or fact If you dont know when the movie starts look in the newspaper to find out I met a nice man at the party but I never found out his name I met a nice man at the party but I never found out what his name was I was surprised when I found out that he can speak fourteen languages I was surprised when I found out he can speak fourteen languages I tried to get the information but I couldnt find it out hand hand back amp hands back handing back handed back handed back 1 hand back to pv When you return things to people by holding them in your hand and extending your arm you hand them back or hand them back to them The teacher will hand the tests back in third period The guard handed my ID card back to me 26
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle look at look at amp looks at looking at looked at looked at 1 look at pv When you focus your eyes on people or things you look at them looked at her and told her I loved her Look at me when I talk to you 2 look at pv When you examine something or a situation and decide what to do about it you look at it The mechanic looked at my car but couldnt find anything wrong with it Your finger might be broken you should have Dr Smith look at it 3 look at pv When you think a certain way or have an opinion about something that is the way you look at it The way I look at it Congress is to blame for this mess not the President What should be done about this situation depends on how you look at it 4 look at pv informal always continuous When you say that people are looking at an amount of money or a length of time you mean that this is how much they think something will cost or how long something will take That was a serious injury Youre looking at months and months of physical therapy Putting a new roof on this house isnt going to be cheap Youre looking at at least 15000 pile up pile up amp piles up piling up piled up piled up 1 pile up pv When things increase in number and start to form a pile they pile up When people add things to a pile they pile them up The snow piled up so high that I couldnt open my door In the fall we pile the dead leaves up in the driveway and burn them piled up partadj When things are in a pile they are piled up A lot of dirty laundry is piled up in the basement 2 pile up pv When work or something else that must be done increases faster than you can do it it piles up Im really worried about money My bills are piling up faster than I can pay them My work really piled up white I was on vacation setup set up amp sets up setting up set up set up 1 set up pv When you arrange the parts of something so that they are in their proper position and can function you set it up 27
The kids got a swing set for Christmas and Dad had to set it up in the snow When youre camping be sure to set your tent up before it gets dark set up partadj After the parts of something are in their proper position and function properly they are set up The party is starting in one hour Are the tables set up setup n A collection or arrangement of parts or equipment necessary for a certain procedure or task is a setup The nurse prepared setups for the hospital emergency room 2 set up pv When you plan and organize an activity or project you set it up I set up a 400 meeting with Jones and his lawyer Setting up a meeting of all fifty governors took a lot of planning set up partadj When an activity or project is planned arranged or organized it is set up The arrangements for the wedding were very complicated but everything is set up now setup n How an activity or project is planned or arranged is the setup Whats the setup for the Fourth of July picnic 3 set up pv informal When you commit a crime but make it appear that another innocent person is guilty of the crime you set the innocent person up Joe robbed the bank and tried to set me up by leaving some of the stolen money in my apartment and then telling the police about it The detective didnt believe me when I told him I was set up setup n informal An attempt by someone to make it appear that an innocent person is guilty of a crime is a setup told the detective it was a setup and that I could prove I had been at the racetrack when the bank was robbed EXERCISE 5a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 When he heard that his brother had been killed he and cried 2 Were expecting company Can you the card table in the dining room 3 Can you help wash the dishes please Theyre really beginning to 4 I gave the cashier my credit card and then she it to me
5 I dont know the answer but Ill try to 6 We were very busy at work today Two people sick 7 Raul his watch and told me he had to leave 8 My car is a real piece of junk It at least once a week 9 Im a little confused about your theory Would you mind it for me 10 Ill tell the judge that Im innocent and that Ned Kellyme 11 Hey any way you it one things for sure we have to get more crooks off the streets and into the jails 12 This is the FBI open the door or well it 13 Maybe I can fix your computer Illit after dinner 14 The family doctor has never seen a case of malaria before so he is a specialist 15 Some chemical compounds start to after only a few hours 16 The arsonist tried to several houses in the neighborhood 17 The secretary is a meeting 18 The civil war started again after the peace talks 19 Jim buys a newspaper every day but he never puts it in the garbage when he is finished Newspapers are slowly in his basement 20 The mechanic said quotTo fix a car after an accident that bad Id say youre at least 4000quot and circle the verb or particle that is accented EXERCISE 5c Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The firefighters broke down the door it
2 They burned down the old barn it 3 He called in Dr Shapiroher 4 Our teacher handed back the papers them 5 I set up the ironing board it EXERCISE 5d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Jane arranged a baby shower What did she do 2 In Question 1 how would you describe the baby shower after Jane arranged it 3 I get magazines in the mail faster than I can read them What are my magazines doing 4 In Question 3 how would you describe my magazines 5 Todd returned the pen to Mark What did Todd do 6 Uncle Freds car had a mechanical problem and it stopped running What did it do 7 In Question 6 how would you describe Uncle Freds car 8 In Question 6 what did Uncle Fred have 9 The soldiers destroyed the building with fire What did the soldiers do 10 The soldiers destroyed the building with fire What did the building do 11 When the detective told Jake he could get the death penalty he became very nervous and upset What did Jake do 12 In Question 11 what did Jake have 13 The boss was angry because you didnt call to say that you were sick and couldnt work Why was the boss angry 14 Judy took her new computer out of the box connected alt the cables and got it ready to use What did she do to her computer 15 In Question 14 after Judy took her new computer out of the box connected all the cables and got it ready to use how would you describe it 16 The door was locked but Hank forced it open and got inside What did Hank do 17 I learned that Alls excuse was a big lie What did I do EXERCISE 5e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are In the correct tense To check
their meanings review the section number given after each one come off 2 feel up to 3 get over with 3 go along with 3 go in for 3 look forward to 3 put up with 3 stay off2 talk down to 3 throw up 2 1 Her husband is a real jerk How does she him 2 I wasnt sure if Charles going scuba diving again so soon after the shark attack 3 Im telling you for the last time the grass 4 Can you help me with this jar The top wont 5 Ive never been to Italy and Im really going there 31
6 Im sorry I cant agree with you Dad but I have to Mom 7 When I had food poisoning I all night long 8 You can be sure Paul will take his vacation out west He really outdoor stuff like camping and mountain climbing 9 Can you believe the nerve of that guy in the meeting yesterday He me as if I was the stupidest guy on Earth 10 Im tired of arguing about the divorce settlement I just want to it 6 FOCUS ON pronunciation of three-word phrasal verbs The pronunciation of three-word phrasal verbs is generally quite simple the second or middle particle is accented regardless of whether the phrasal verb is separable or inseparable think Ive come UP with an answer to your problem The detective didnt get any information OUT of him Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle boil down to boil down to amp boils down to boiling down to boiled down to boiled down to 1 boil down to pv When you say that something boils down to something else you are saying that it is the basic cause of a more complicated situation or problem Most of the crime in this city boils down to drugs My decision to stay at this awful job boils down to one thing money come down with come down with amp comes down with coming down with came down with come down will 1 come down with pv When you are starting to get sick you are coming down with something or coming down with an illness dont feel well Maybe Im coming down with something My grandmother said quotIf you dont wear an undershirt youll come down with pneumoniaquot 32
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come up with come up with amp comes up with coming up with came up with come up with 1 come up with pv When you think of an idea plan or solution you come up with it It took me all night but I came up with the answer Lydia wants to come up with a great idea for the party get around to get around to amp gets around to getting around to got around to gottengot around to 1 get around to pv When you do something after waiting for some time because you are lazy inefficient or do not want to do it you get around to it I didnt get around to doing my taxes until April 14 Dont worry about the broken window Ill get around to it one of these days get out of get out of amp gets out of getting out of got out of gottengot out of 1 get out of pv When you get out of something or get out of doing something you must do but do not want to do you find a way to avoid it Sam got out of gym class by pretending to be sick The boss wants me to work a double shift but Ill get out of it I got out of going to church with my parents by pretending to be sick 2 get out of pv If an activity gives you pleasure satisfaction or some other benefit you get pleasure satisfaction or some other benefit out of it I sat through that boring class for three months and didnt learn a thing I didnt get anything out of it The judge didnt get any pleasure out of imposing such a harsh penalty 3 get out of pv When you use force pressure or deceit to get something such as information or money from people you get it out of them They tortured him for days but they couldnt get any information out of him It took me a while but I got the whole story out of her go back on go back on amp goes back on going back on went back on gone back on 1 go back on pv When you make a promise but you do not do what you promised to do you go back on your promise I promised to take my son to a baseball game and Im not going back on my word The President went back on his pledge not to raise taxes 33 Comment S25 adj of persons of organizations measures etc of machines Comment S26 adj Comment S27 2 severe Comment S28 n 1 thg left as earnest of intent token 2 promise he has signed the temperance pledge 3 goods in pledge take out of pledge vt 1 give as security - pawn - pledge os - I pledge my word 2 enjoin I pledged him to secrecy
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go through with go through with amp goes through with going through with went through with gone through with 1 go through with pv When you do something that you have decided to do even though it may be dangerous or unpleasant or others may object you go through with it The spokeswoman said the company would go through with its plan to move the company to Mexico Despite his familys opposition Erik went through with his decision to quit his job and start his own business monkey around with monkey around with amp monkeys around monkeying around with monkeyed around with monkeyed around 1 monkey around with pv informal When you adjust or try to repair mechanical devices even though you do not have permission or do not have the skill to do it properly you monkey around with them I monkeyed around with my camera and I think maybe I fixed it Frank was monkeying around with my printer and now it doesnt work EXERCISE 6a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Im not surprised that Ali stayed home from work today Yesterday he thought he might be a cold 2 Last year the company its plan to move from downtown to the suburbs 3 Ive thought and thought but I cant any reason why your idea wont work 4 Fixing the leak in the roof is going to be a big job but I have to it before the next rain 5 Heather didnt want to tell me why she was mad but I finally the reason her 6 I dont much satisfaction teaching students who dont want to be in the class 34
7 The explanation for our failure to solve this problem isnt complicated It really a lack of funding 8 I think you should take your VCR to a repair shop If you it youll just make it worse 9 Im supposed to report for jury duty on Monday but I dont want to Ive got to think of a way to it 10 You lied to me You promised me you would quit smoking and now youve your word EXERCISE 6b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Tom was very nervous about getting married but he did it What did Tom do 2 We were in Paris for five days but we never found time to go to the Eiffel Tower What didnt we do 3 My father said I had to cut the grass but I told him I would do it tomorrow What did I do 4 Janice really likes teaching because it gives her a lot of satisfaction Why does Janice like teaching 5 Ms Cummings thought of a way to manufacture her companys products more cheaply What did Ms Cummings do 6 There are many reasons why one house sells for a higher price than other houses but the main reason is the houses location Why does one house sell for more than another 7 You feel a little sick now and you think youll have a cold tomorrow Whats happening to you today 8 I dont really know what to do but Ill try to fix the air conditioner anyway What will I do to the air conditioner 9 My wife didnt talk to me all day but she said nothing was wrong I asked her again and again what the problem was and she finally told me What did I do 10 Raquel promised Alex she would go to the dance with him but she went with Carlos instead What did Raquel do 35
EXERCISE 6c Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one burn down 5 cheat on4 find out 5 go after 4 hand back 5 look at 5 look up 4 pile up 5 plan for 4 point to 4 put to 4 wrap up 4 1 Weve been at this meeting all afternoon Dont you think we should it and go home 2 If we send out 75 invitations to the wedding and everyone we invited brings his or her spouse we should 150 guests 3 Lydia her best friend from college when she was in Las Vegas 4 The students who the test by writing the answers on their hands were expelled from school 5 This camera isnt working right Im going to take it to Jim at the photo shop and ask him to it 6 Bill wont be happy if he that you scratched his car 7 My sons thinking about his masters degree 8 Evidence gathered after the air plane crash engine failure as the cause 9 I really it her and she admitted that I was right 10 Wed better do the laundry soon its starting to 11 The police officer my drivers license to me along with a ticket 12 The detective thinks the owner his restaurant for the insurance money and circle the verb or particle that is accented 36
7 FOCUS ON separable phrasal verbs with long objects We have seen that the object of separable verbs can be placed between the verb and the particle or after the particle clear I looked up the word clear I looked the word up When the object is short one word or just a few words in length the meaning is clear either way However when the object is several words long it can be awkward and confusing to place the object between the particles clear I looked up the words that our teacher said were really important and would probably be on the fiunal exam confusing looked the words that our teacher said were really important and would probably be on the final exam up It boils down to the following Short objects can be placed between the verb and the particle or after the particle She put on her dress She put her dress on pronouns such as him her and it must be placed between the verb and the particle She put it on and long objects should be placed after the particle to avoid confusion She put on the new dress with the red yellow and blue flowers that she bought last week for 40 percent off Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle cut up cut up amp cuts up cutting up cut up cut up 1 cut up pv When you use a knife or pair of scissors to cut something so that there are many small pieces you cut it up The boys mother is cutting a piece of meat up for him I was so angry at her that I cut her picture up and flushed it down the toilet cut up partadj After something has been cut up it is cut up This steak is for Aunt Kathy but give the cut-up one to Uncle Fred he doesnt have any teeth 37
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hold up hold up amp holds up holding up held up held up 1 hold up pv When a wall column or other structure supports the weight of something above it such as a ceiling it holds it up The workers were killed when they removed a column holding the roof up The house was held up by jacks the foundation was repaired 2 hold up pv When you prevent something from happening or cause it to happen late you hold it up When things or people delay you they hold you up The band hasnt arrived yet and theyre holding up the whole wedding Im sorry Im late I was held up by traffic holdup n Something that prevents something else from happening or causes it to happen late is a holdup Why havent you finished this work yet Whats the holdup 3 hold up pv When you use a gun or other weapon to rob a person bank or store you hold it up Stick up is the same as hold up The jewelry store owner was held up by three men wearing ski masks Some idiot tried to hold the bank up with a squirt gun holdup n When someone uses a gun or other weapon to rob a person bank or store it is a holdup A stickup is the same as a holdup The robber fired his gun in the air and yelled quotThis is a holdupquot There was a holdup at First National Bank this morning 4 hold up pv When an object remains in good condition after heavy use it holds up These cheap shoes wont hold up more than six weeks Some Roman aqueducts have held up for 2000 years 5 hold up pv When a plan idea or agreement is still believed in or respected after a period of time it has held up Einsteins theories have held up despite occasional challenges The ceasefire is holding up longer than anyone expected let out let out amp lets out letting out let out let out 1 let out pv When you allow animals or people to leave a place by giving permission or opening a door you let them out The guard lets the prisoners out of their cells every day at 100 I opened the door and let the dog out 38 Comment S29 vt - - - d - d pf d illness prevented him from coming Comment S30 vt - squirt water in the air - Comment S31 n
2 let out pv When you make an item of clothing bigger by changing the seams you let it out After I gained twenty pounds I had to have all my pants let out The tailor let her old dress out so that she could wear it again 3 let out pv When you reveal secret or sensitive information you let it out This information is secret Dont let it out I was furious when my secretary let out that I had interviewed for a new position 4 let out pv When you make a sound that shows your emotion or feelings you let out that sound Heather knew Jim was lying again and let out a sigh The lion let out a loud roar before he attacked the hunter Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle point out point out amp points out pointing out pointed out pointed out 1 point out pv When you bring things or people to someones attention or indicate the location of things or people with your hand or index finger you point them out As we walked through the museum the tour guide pointed several famous paintings out General Johnston showed the satellite photo to the reporter and pointed out the enemy tanks 2 point out pv When you are writing or speaking and you stress or emphasize some important information you think the reader or listener needs to know you point out the information I pointed several flaws out in Prof Childresss theory He said that he thought my plan was basically good but that he wanted to point out several possible problems run over run over amp runs over running over ran over run over 1 run over to pv When you run from where you are to where someone else is you run over or run over to that person I saw a man hitting a child and I ran over and stopped him When I saw Melanie I ran over to her and gave her a big hug 2 run over pv When you drive over people or things with a car truck or other vehicle causing damage injury or death you run them over John was run over by a bus and killed I ran over a glass bottle and got a flat tire 39 Comment S32 n of ship burst at the seams - come apart at the seams lit fig impf geol vt a face seamed with lines Comment S33 vt - - Comment S34 n crack defect I detect a flaw in your argument vt - all flawed articles are reduced
3 run over pv When liquid in a container fills the container and goes over the top it runs over Keep on eye on the bathtub so that it doesnt run over Theres too much water in this pot Its going to run over the side 4 run over pv When you go beyond a limit you run over or run over the limit I hope the 1100 meeting doesnt run over Im meeting a client for lunch at 1200 The speaker was given fifteen minutes for her speech but she ran over Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle see about see about amp sees about seeing about saw about seen about 1 see about pv When you talk to someone to get permission for something or to arrange something you see about it or see someone about it Is Luis going to see about changing his flight from the fifth to the sixth The carpet in my office is filthy I need to see the maintenance guy about getting it shampooed 2 see about pv When you are upset about a change or a new policy and you want to say that you will take some action or talk to someone in authority to prevent or reverse the change or new policy you say quotIll see about thatquot or quotWell see about thatquot Now theyre saying I cant even smoke in my own office Ill see about that Those crooks in City Hall want to double my real estate taxes Well just see about that take apart take apart amp takes apart taking apart took apart taken apart 1 take apart pv When you completely separate the parts of something you take it apart Take apart is the opposite of put together I had to take my bike apart when I moved The mechanic took the engine apart take in take in amp takes in taking in took in taken in Comment S35 adj filthy lucre joc
1 take in pv When you bring a car or other household appliance to a mechanic or repair person you take it in Sally took her car in to have the oil changed The VCR is broken again I need to take it in 2 take in pv When you take in a play movie museum or other attraction you go to it or see it We stopped in Charleston and took in the sights After dinner we took in a movie 40
3 take in pv When you allow people to live with you you take them in Judys brother had nowhere to go so she took him in The Ortegas offered to take their neighbors in after the fire 4 take in pv usually passive When you are taken in by someone that person successfully tricks or deceives you Stalin was taken in by Hitlers assurances They were completely taken in by Jakes elaborate hoax 5 take in pv When you make an item of clothing smaller by changing the seams you take it in Let out She likes some of her maternity clothes so much that shes going to take them in after the baby is born If I lose any more weight Ill have to have all my pants taken in EXERCISE 7a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 When the bullet hit him he a slight gasp and fell dead 2 My friends were supposed to be here an hour ago What is them 3 Will you please drive more carefully You almost that lady back there 4 Ann that she was going to go to Las Vegas with her boss and the whole office was talking about it 5 Take two pounds of beef it and put it in a frying pan 6 The expedition leader spoke to us and the importance of taking plenty of water with us in the desert 7 Open the gate and the horses 8 Im embarrassed to admit I was by his lies 9 After Todds parents were killed his Aunt Judy and Uncle Henry him 10 The soldier was his rifle and cleaning it 11 In Ecuador I rode on a steam locomotive thats still after 80 years 41 Comment S36 adj an elaborate pattern an elaborate dinner Comment S37 n vt - - - Comment S38 n attr maternity benefit maternity dress maternity home hospital maternity nurse the doctor is out on a maternity case
12 After we saw the Empire State Building we a Broadway play 13 These aluminum polesthe tent 14 Nicole is at the computer store getting more memory installed in her computer 15 I had my old uniform so that I could wear it to the reunion 16 A robber a liquor store with a shotgun last night 17 When I got into the tub the water the side and onto the floor 18 The health department inspector walked around the restaurant and several rats to the owner 19 Jims phone was ringing so I to his desk and answered it 20 The suit was too big but the stores tailor said he could it 21 I heard a weird noise coming from my cars transmission I think Id better my car 22 Its an unusual arrangement but it has for several years 23 The conference is scheduled to end Tuesday at 500 but theres a good chance that it will 24 I was just notified that Im going to be transferred to Mongolia Well that Im going to talk to the boss 25 The robber was shot while trying to an off-duty police officer EXERCISE 7b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses 1 The cook cut up the meat it 2 The snowstorm held up air travelers them 42
3 Dont let out the dog it 4 The real estate agent pointed out the swimming pool it 5 The truck ran over the man him 6 Im going to take apart the broken doorknob it 7 The tailor took in the pants them EXERCISE 7c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I dont like this hotel room Im going to ask the desk clerk about changing to a different room What am I going to do 2 No one believes in the scientists theories anymore What havent the scientists theories done 3 Janice is going to make her pants smaller What is she going to do 4 Mr Ortega was tricked by the salesman What happened to Mr Ortega 43
5 A car drove over you What happened to you 6 The jeweler showed me several flaws in the diamond What did the jeweler do 7 The game started late because it was raining What did the rain do 8 Susie is using scissors to make several small pieces of paper from a larger piece of pap What is Susie doing 9 The posts are supporting the porch What are the posts doing 10 The woman told the bank teller to give her all the money in the cash register or she would shoot him What did the woman do 11 In Question 10 what happened at the bank 12 I put my broken TV in my car drove to the repair shop and carried the TV in What did to my TV 13 Bill separated all the parts of his typewriter What did Bill do 14 There was too much water in the bathtub and it spilled onto the floor What did the water do 15 After my parents died my grandparents let me live with them What did my grandparents do 16 Mr Young told some people about the secret information What did Mr Young do with the secret information 17 I saw an empty luggage cart at the airport and I went to it quickly and grabbed it What did I do 18 When the thief started to open the womans door a scream came from her mouth What did the woman do 19 Ive been using this lawn mower for twenty-five years and it still works fine What has the lawn mower done 20 The cowboy opened the gate so that the cattle could leave the corral What did the cowboy do 21 Dr Smith went to a museum while he was in Rome What did Dr Smith do 22 The meeting was supposed to end at 200 but it hasnt ended yet What is the meeting doing 23 Im making my pants bigger What am I doing 44
EXERCISE 7d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one boil down to 6 figure out 1 go through with 6 come down with 6 get around to 6 look forward to 3 come off 2 get out of 6 monkey around with 6 come up with 6 go after 4 put on 1 doze off 2 go back on 6 11 thought about what I was going to say to her but when the time came I was so nervous I couldntit 2 The Presidents news conference didnt well because it revealed his poor understanding of the situation 31 watching Aunt Kathys vacation videotape by saying I had to study for a test 4 I dont usually doing my Christmas shopping until December 24 5 Ive been this broken refrigerator all day but I still dont know whats wrong with it 6 Mexico Citys problems one thing too many people 7 Have you seen my pen I cant what happened to it 8 If you a coat of paint that old house it wouldnt look so bad 9 One police officer helped the mugging victim while her partner the mugger 10 My son promised that he would stop cutting school and so far he hasnt that promise 11 The company a way to decrease labor costs without lowering wages 12 I have never been to Thailand and Im really going there 13 She was so tired she as soon as she sat down 14 The show was canceled after the star laryngitis 45
8 FOCUS ON present perfect phrasal verbs The present perfect is used to talk about the past and the present at the same time They have torn down the building The building is not there now because they tore it down in the past or to say that something is completed She has picked out some library books The present perfect is formed with have or when the subject is he she it or the name of one person or thing has and the past participle of the verb present The tree falls over past The tree fell over present perfect The tree has fallen over Remember that have can be combined with pronouns as ve Theyve never heard of him and has with nouns and pronouns ass The trees fallen over Hes never heard of her Be careful not to confuse thes contraction of has and thes contraction of is Shes picked out some library books She has Shes picking out some library books She is Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle burn out burn out amp burns out burning out burned out burned out 1 burn out pv When a fire candle or other flame stops burning because it has no more fuel it burns out We need more wood the fire has burned out Dont worry the sun wont burn out for another four billion years burned-out partadj After a fire candle or other flame stops burning because it has no more fuel it is burned-out The burned-out rocket landed in the ocean burned-out partadj When people are extremely tired either physically or psychologically because of stress or hard work they are burned-out Teaching those awful students for so many years has left him burned-out Taking care of four small children day after day would leave any mother burned-out 46
2 burn out pv When a light bulb stops producing light because it has reached the end of its useful life it burns out These new bulbs are guaranteed not to burn out for ten years I cant see what Im doing because this bulb has burned out burned-out partadj A light bulb that no longer produces light because it has reached the end of its useful life is burned-out climbed the ladder and unscrewed the burned-out bulb 3 burn out pv When people are forced to leave their home or some other shelter or hiding place because of fire or fire damage they are burned out The only way to get the enemy soldiers out of the tunnels was to burn them out Seven families were burned out of their homes by the huge fire burned-out partadj Something that has been damaged or destroyed by fire is burned-out After the war nothing was left but burned-out cars and buildings Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle fall over fall over amp falls over falling over fell over fallen over 1 fall over pv When people or things fail over they fall to the ground from an upright position That tree has been dead for fifty years but it still hasnt fallen over I almost fell over when I heard the terrible news 2 fall over pv When you fall over yourself or usually fall all over yourself you try so hard to serve someone or to make someone like you that you appear foolish The supervisor fell all over himself trying to satisfy the customer Mike was falling all over himself trying to impress Heather fight back fight back amp fights back fighting back fought back fought back 1 fight back pv When you fight back you fight either physically or with words someone or something that attacked you first The soldiers fought back bravely but the situation was hopeless After being accused of corruption the senator said she would fight back and prove her innocence 2 fight back pv When you fight back an emotional response such as tears or fear you try very hard to overcome the emotion The mother fought back tears when she saw the little white coffins I had to fight back the urge to punch him in the nose 47
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hear of hear of amp hears of hearing of heard of heard of 1 hear of pv When you learn about something for the first time you hear of it Do I know Fred Smith No Ive never heard of him I told my real estate agent quotIf you hear of a good deal on a three-bedroom house please call me right awayquot 2 hear of pv When you learn information about something that makes you angry and you say you will not hear of it you mean that you will not tolerate or allow it Our daughter wants to fly to Mexico with her boyfriend I wont hear of it I told him that his scheme was outrageous and that I wouldnt hear of such a thing pick out pick out amp picks out picking out picked out picked out 1 pick out pv When you choose something from a group because you prefer it to the others in the group you pick it out Have you picked out a dress to wear to the party yet Mikes dog had puppies and he asked me to pick one out 2 pick out pv When you are able to find and recognize something in a group you pick it out Even though the class photo was fifty years old I picked my father out easily The police detective asked me if I could pick the mugger out from a group of photos ring up ring up amp rings up ringing up rang up rung up 1 ring up pv When you want to buy something in a store a cashier uses a cash register to ring up what you want to buy in order to determine how much money you must pay Well I guess Ill take this one Can you ring it up please I couldnt believe it when the clerk finished ringing it all up 946 2 ring up pv mainly British When you call people on the telephone you ring them up He rang up Nancy and asked her to go to the dance If you need a ride ring me up when you arrive at the airport tear down tear down amp tears down tearing down tore down torn down 1 tear down pv When you tear down a building you deliberately and completely destroy it 48
They tore so many old buildings down in my hometown that I barely recognize it A lot of smaller homes in the suburbs are being torn down and replaced with larger ones Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle work in work in amp works in working in worked in worked in 1 work in pv When you make room with some difficulty for something in a schedule or plan you work it in Were going to be in Chicago for only a couple of days but Ill try to work in a Cubs game I told him my schedule was pretty tight but that Id try to work the meeting in EXERCISE 8a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The Leaning Tower of Pisa still hasnt 2 Every year I have to replace the Christmas tree lights that have 3 The enemy was so strong that there was no way we could have 41 dont have time to talk about it now Ill you after dinner 5 Sarah always tries to a little sightseeing on her business trips 6 My brother is pretty easy to in a crowd hes almost seven feet tall 7 If you havent a video yet youd better hurry the stores closing in five minutes 8 The firefighters decided to let the fire in the lumberyard itself 9 That cashier has been yakking with his friends for ten minutes and still hasnt our stuff 10 A screen door on a submarine Thats the most ridiculous thing Ive ever 11 When I told the waiter I was the owner of the restaurant he all himself trying please me 49
12 The taco stand moved across the street after it was by the fire 13 When I found out that one of my employees cheated a customer I said I wouldnt such a thing in my store 14 I had to my fear as I waited for my turn to jump from the plane 15 Theyll have to most of the buildings that were damaged by the earthquake EXERCISE 8b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The sheriff burned out the escaped convicts them 2 Bill has picked out a new car one 3 The clerk hasnt rung up yet these CDs them 4 The new owners have torn down the garage it 5 The mayor tried to work in a tour of the factory it 50
EXERCISE 8c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Make all the phrasal verbs present perfect 1 I asked my father if I could smoke in the house and he became angry and said he wouldnt allow it What did my father say about smoking in the house 2 The forest fire has stopped because there arent any more trees left to burn What has the fire done 3 The cashier has totaled how much we must pay for our groceries What has the cashier done 4 They have chosen a hotel for their wedding reception What have they done 5 Sallys mother couldnt stop her tears What couldnt Sallys mother do 6 One of my cars headlights isnt working anymore What did the headlight do 7 In Question 6 how would you describe the headlight 8 The stack of books was too high and now the books are on the floor What did the books do 9 The coffee shop had to move to a different location because of a fire What happened to the coffee shop 10 In Question 9 how would you describe the coffee shops previous location 11 After they attacked us we didnt attack them What didnt we do 12 Ive made room in my busy day for a game of tennis What have I done 13 She hasnt called me on the telephone What hasnt she done 14 Theyve completely destroyed the old factory What have they done 15 The sergeant tried extremely hard to show the captain how well he was training the soldiers What did the sergeant do 16 I asked Jim if anyone had ever told him about the new seafood restaurant in the mall What did I ask Jim 51
EXERCISE 8d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one cut up 7 go in for 3 point out 7 see about 7 fall for 2 hold up 7 pull through 2 show up 1 get over with 3 let out 7 put up with 3 take apart 7 give in 2 look up 4 run over 7 take in 7 1 My bicycle was really dirty so I it and cleaned it 2 it was a very serious injury and no one expected Raul to 3 Ive been waiting for the TV repair guy all day but he still hasnt 4 I feel just awful I was driving to work and I a dog 5 The detectives werent by the crooks explanation 6 The detectives didnt the crooks explanation 7 Mrs Taylors husband doesnt have any teeth so she has to all his food 8 The freight train traffic for twenty minutes so we were late for work 9 In his report yesterday the head of marketing several ways to increase the companys sales 10 I the word Internet in an old dictionary but I couldnt find it 11 Susies mother told her quotIm not going to you of this house until you finish your homeworkquot 12 The company finally to demands that it hire more women and minorities 13 Im having root canal surgery next week Ill be glad to it 14 David called the travel agency to getting his ticket changed 52
15 Karen loves to ski In fact she most winter sports 16 Betty told the doctor she couldnt the pain any longer and she asked him for morphine 9 FOCUS ON two-word phrasal verbs that require an additional particle when used with an object 1 With some two-word verbs you must use a second particle when the verb has an object The criminal broke out The criminal broke out prison The criminal broke out of prison Tom and Jerry dont get along Tom and Jerry dont get along each other Tom and Jerry dont get along with each other Sometimes as with break out and break out of there is no change in meaning Sometimes as with hang up and hang up on there is a small change in meaning And sometimes as with hook up and hook up to the second particle is necessary not when there is one object but only when there are two I hooked up my new CD player I hooked up my new CD player my stereo I hooked up my new CD player to my stereo There is no good way to always know which second particle must be used or if and how it will change the meaning of the verb The best thing to do is to simply memorize each case Throughout this book two-word phrasal verbs that require an additional particle when used with an object are shown with the second particle in parentheses break out of Do not confuse two-word phrasal verbs that require an additional particle when used with an object with three-word phrasal verbs Three-word phrasal verbs always have three words there is no two-word version or if there is a phrasal verb with the same verb and first particle it has a different meaning and is classified as a different verb For example break out and break out of are included in one definition because they have the same meaning but put up and put up with have different meanings and are classified separately 53
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle break out breakout amp breaks out breaking out broke out broken out 1 break out of pv When you escape from a place where you are a prisoner you break out or break out of that place Bubba broke out of prison last month The police have been looking for him ever since he broke out breakout n An escape from prison is a breakout There hasnt been a successful breakout from the state prison in more than twenty-five years 1 breakout pv When fighting begins suddenly it breaks out Rioting broke out after the general canceled the election Millions wilt be killed if nuclear war breaks out catch up catch up amp catches up catching up caught up caught up 1 catch up with pv When you move faster and reach the same level or place as people who had been moving faster or doing better than you were you catch up or catch up with them We left an hour before Luis but he drove fast and quickly caught up After missing several weeks of class Raquel is so far behind that shell never catch up Pepsi has caught up with Coca-Cola in some markets The mugger was running so fast that the angry mob couldnt catch up with him caught up partadj After you have moved faster and reached the same level or place as people who had been moving faster or doing better than you are you are caught up When I was sick I missed a lot of schoolwork but I worked hard and now Im caught up 1 catch up on pv When you study or learn something you are interested in but have not had time for you catch up on it I wonder what the latest gossip is Lets call Michael so we can catch up After I returned from vacation I read the newspaper to catch up on the local news caught up partadj After you have studied or learned something you are interested in but have not had time for you are caught up Now that Ive read the newspapers I missed while I was on vacation Im caught up 54
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle chicken out chicken out amp chickens out chickening out chickened out chickened out 1 chicken out of pv informal When you do not do something because you are afraid you chicken out or chicken out of it was going to ask Heather to go to the dance with me but I chickened out Miguels mad at himself because he chickened out of asking his boss for a raise yesterday get along get along amp gets along getting along got along gottengot along 1 get along with pv When you get along with people you have peaceful harmonious relations with them Get on is similar to get along Jim and his cousin arent good friends but they get along I havent gotten along with my neighbors for years 2 get along pv When you are able to do some sort of work without any serious problems you get along How are you getting along in your new job Oh Im getting along okay thank you give up give up amp gives up giving up gave up given up 1 give up on pv When you stop trying to do something because you think you will never succeed you give up or give up on it Forget it This is impossible I give up Ive tried for years to have a nice looking lawn but Ive just given up on it 2 give up pv When you are running from or fighting with the police or enemy soldiers and you surrender you give up or give yourself up When the bank robbers realized they were surrounded by police they gave up The suspect got tired of hiding from the police and he gave himself up 3 give up pv When you stop doing something you do regularly such as a sport or a job you give it up My father didnt give sky diving up until he was eighty-two I had to give up my second job because I was so exhausted all the time hang up hang up amp hangs up hanging up hung up hung up 1 hang up on pv When you stop talking on the telephone and put down the receiver you hang up the telephone When you are angry and hang up the telephone without saying good-bye to someone you hang up on the person you are talking to 55
After I finished talking to her I said good-bye and hung up When he called me a moron I got so mad I hung up on him 2 hang up pv When you hang something in a high place so that it cannot touch the ground you hang it up When I get home the first thing I do is hang my coat up Timmy never hangs anything up he just leaves it on the floor hung up partadj After you have hung something in a high place so that it cannot touch the ground it is hung up Timmy why are your clothes on the floor and not hung up Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hook up hook up amp hooks up hooking up hooked up hooked up 1 hook up to pv When you connect one electronic device to another you hook it up or hook it up to something bought a new printer but I havent hooked it up yet I hooked my sound system up to my TV and now the TV is in stereo hooked up partadj After one electronic device has been connected to another it is hooked up Theres a VCR on my TV but dont try to use it because its not hooked up hookup n A hookup is an electrical connection The cable TV hookup usually costs 20 but its free this month 1 hook up with pv informal When you meet people somewhere usually after you have done some things separately you hook up or hook up with them You do your shopping Ill go to the post office and well hook up around 230 okay Ill hook up with you at 1200 at the corner of State and Madison and well have lunch work up work up amp works up working up worked up worked up 1 work up to pv When you gradually improve at something difficult that you do regularly you work up to that improvement You cant lift 200 pounds on your first day of weight training You have to work up to it When I started running I couldnt go more than a mile but now Ive worked up to five miles 2 work up pv When you gradually develop the energy confidence courage and so on to do something difficult or something you do not want to do you work up the 56
energy confidence courage and so on When you gradually develop a feeling you work up the feeling It took me a long time to work up the nerve to ask my boss for a raise If I work up some energy Ill wash the car I really worked up a sweat in the gym today Raking leaves all day sure works up an appetite worked up partadj informal When you are anxious worried or upset about something you are worked up or worked up about it Mark has been acting nervous all day Whats he all worked up about Relax were only a few minutes late Its nothing to get worked up about EXERCISE 9a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 My elbow has gotten so bad that I think I might have to tennis 2 After several years of tension between the two countries war in 1972 3 Maria how are you at your new job 41 am so lazy today I just cant the energy to finish my school project 5 The murderer was tired of running from the police and he himself 6 The other runners were so far ahead that I couldnt 7 Susieyour clothes right now 8 For a long time I could type only around twenty-five words per minute but Ive slowly to sixty 9 Im really behind in my work If I dont take work home with me Ill never 10 Lydia is a nice easygoing person You wont have any trouble her 11 I tried and tried to learn to speak Japanese but I finally 12 Hello Mark Im really angry and Ive got some things to tell you and dont you dare on me 57
13 Dan is so shy He was supposed to give a speech today at school but he 14 Okay heres the plan You go to the bookstore Ill get my laundry and well around 1100 15 I wonder whats been happening while we were on vacation I think Ill read the newspaper so I can 16 This is a maximum security prison No one has ever 17 Bob tried to my new dishwasher but he didnt do it right and he flooded the kitchen EXERCISE 9b Complete the sentences with the correct second particles 1 I called my girlfriend to apologize for forgetting her birthday but she hung up me 2 When I started lifting weights I could lift only thirty kilograms but little by little I worked up fifty 3 Hes very sick but the doctors havent given up him yet 4 Sofia was going to bleach her hair but she chickened out it 5 Dont invite Carmen to Rosas birthday party They dont get along each other 6 The bank robber was carrying 2000 quarters so it was easy for the police catch up him 7 No prisoner has ever broken out this prison 8 I need a different cable to hook my monitor up my computer 9 Youve been gone a long time and you have to catch up a lot of things EXERCISE 9c Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 Tonight Im going to try to hook up my fax machine it 58
2 After my accident I had to give up scuba diving it 3 You can hang up in the closet your coat it EXERCISE 9d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 When I went on vacation three weeks ago my sister and her husband were talking about getting a divorce Now that Im back from vacation I want to know what happened while I was gone What do I want to do 2 Lydia has to stop driving because her eyesight is so bad What does Lydia have to do 3 Susie was walking with us but she stopped to look in a store window and we continued walking What does Susie need to do now 4 I spilled wine on your white carpet and you became angry and upset How would you describe yourself 5 Connecting a printer to a computer is easy What is easy 6 In Question 5 how would you describe the printer after it is connected to a computer 7 Several prisoners are going to try to escape from the state prison tonight What are the prisoners going to try to do tonight 8 In Question 7 if the prisoners are successful what would their escape be called 9 Linda and Nicole dont like each other and they argue sometimes What dont Linda and Nicole do 59
10 We argued with our daughter for months but we stopped trying to get her to stop smoking What did we do 11 Fights start in that bar all the time What happens in that bar all the time 12 Paul slowly developed the courage to ask his boss for a raise What did Paul do 13 In Question 12 what didnt Paul do 14 The police told the robber to surrender What did the police tell the robber 15 Karen is trying to gradually be able to lift 100 pounds What is Karen doing 16 Betty was so angry with her boyfriend that she put the telephone receiver down without saying good-bye What did Betty do to her boyfriend EXERCISE 9e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one burn out 8 find out 5 pick out 8 ring up 8 cheat on4 hand back 5 pile up 5 run into 1 fall over 8 hear of 8 point to 4 tear down 8 fight back 8 look at 5 put to 4 work in 8 1 Who is he Ive never him before and I dont know anything about him 2 My mail while I was on vacation 3 Thanks for all your help Im sorry to you so much trouble 4 That dead tree is rotten Im surprised it hasnt yet 5 I several cars last weekend but I cant decide which one to buy 6 Can you help me a tie to wear with this shirt 7 What a surprise I my fifth grade teacher at the mall today 8 Charles a beautiful Mercedes-Benz across the street and said it was his 9 Okay class youve got until the bell rings When youre finished with your tests them to me 60
10 Everyone in town knows that Jake has been his wife for years 11 Im not sure if there will be time to meet with you today but Ill try to it 12 The invasion was so sudden that there was no way to 13 The cashierour stuff and said quotThat comes to 14256quot 14 Bobs not in a good mood today He just that he needs surgery 15 It was fun to visit my hometown but I was sad to see that my old house was being 16 I need to buy a new 100-watt bulb this one yesterday 10 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used as nouns 1 Many two-word phrasal verbs can be used as nouns All the verbs in this section have a noun form Notice that the two-word noun is sometimes written with a hyphen verb go ahead noun go-ahead and sometimes as one word verb lay off noun layoff Unfortunately there is no rule that will help you to always know which form to use Also not everyone agrees which nouns should be hyphenated and which should be written as one word so you will occasionally see a noun written both ways Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle fall off fall off amp falls off falling off fell off fallen off 1 fall off pv When people or things drop to a lower level from a higher place they fall off the place where they were The dish fell off the table and broke Be careful you dont fall off your bicycle 61 2 fall off pv When the quality degree or frequency of something decreases it falls off Sales of fountain pens fell off after the ballpoint pen was invented The quality of his work has fallen off as he has gotten older falloff n A decrease in the quality degree or frequency of something is a falloff The chairman was asked to explain the falloff in the companys sales Egypt experienced a big falloff in tourism after several terrorist incidents Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle fill in fill in amp fills in filling in filled in filled in 1 fill in pv When you fill in a form you put information in the correct spaces Fill out is the same as fill in Maria filled in the job application and gave it to the secretary The teacher gave us the quiz and told us to fill the blanks in with the correct answers filled in partadj After you write all the information in the correct spaces of a form the form is filled in Are those forms blank or filled in This check isnt any good the amount isnt filled in 2 fill in pv When people want or need more information about a plan situation or occurrence and you supply that information you fill them in Something interesting happened while you were gone Ill fill you in later I fell asleep during the meeting Can you fill me in 3 fill in for pv When you temporarily do someone elses job you fill in for that person The regular bartender is on vacation so Todd is filling in Shes the star of the show No one can fill in for her fill-in n Someone who temporarily does someone elses job is a fill-in Jerry is Anns fill-in while shes on vacation The regular driver is in the hospital and the fill-in doesnt know the route go go ahead amp goes ahead going ahead went ahead gone ahead 1 go ahead with pv When you take an action you have already considered doing you go ahead with the action Ive decided to go ahead with my plan to reorganize the company After she learned about Jims drug problem Raquel went ahead with the marriage anyway 62
2 go ahead pv When you tell people to go ahead you tell them to do something without any further delay or hesitation If you are in a position of authority and you tell someone to go ahead with an action you give permission for that action What are you waiting for Go ahead Yes go ahead and leave work early Its no problem We approved his plan and gave him the go-ahead The Food and Drug Administration gave the pharmaceutical company the go-ahead to test the drug on humans Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle grow up grow up amp grows up growing up grew up grown up 1 grow up pv When you grow up you gradually change from a child to an adult I grew up on a small farm in North Dakota Growing up without a father wasnt easy grown-up partadj informal used primarily by children When children behave in a mature way they are grown-up Something that relates to adults and not children is grown-up Susie is only eleven but she acts very grown-up Timmy doesnt like grown-up books because they dont have any pictures grown-up n informal used primarily by children A grown-up is an adult There were children and grown-ups at the party Only grown-ups are allowed to sit in the front seat of the car 2 grow up pv When you tell people to grow up you are saying that their behavior is childish and immature Youre acting like a baby Why dont you grow up When he put his fist through the wall I said quotOh grow upquot hand out hand out amp hands out handing out handed out handed out 1 hand out pv When you distribute something to other people you hand it out Give out is similar to hand out The teacher handed the tests out to the class Emergency loan applications were handed out to the flood victims handout n Something given free to people in need to help them is a handout 63
Handouts of food and clothing were given to the homeless people Even though my father was poor he was too proud to ask for a handout handout n Printed material given to students or other people to provide them with important information The teacher prepared a handout for his students There are several handouts on a table by the library entrance Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle kick back kick back amp kicks back kicking back kicked back kicked back 1 kick back to pv When you kick back money or kick back money to businesspeople or government officials you illegally and secretly give them a percentage of the money that they spend with your company as a reward for giving you the business The prosecutor said that 5 percent of every contract was kicked back to the head of the purchasing department She offered to kick back 10 percent if Id switch to her company kickback n Money you illegally and secretly give to businesspeople or government officials as a reward for giving you business is a kickback The FBI agent heard the governor asking for a kickback The reporter discovered that the loan was really a kickback 2 kick back pv informal When you kick back you relax Its been a tough week Tonight Im going to buy a case of beer and kick back Lets kick back and watch the football game tonight lay off lay off amp lays off laying off laid off laid off 1 lay off pv When a company no longer needs workers because it does not have enough business it temporarily or permanently lays off the workers Ford laid off 20000 workers during the last recession My wife had to go back to work after I was laid off from my job layoff n Jobs cut by a company because it does not have enough business are layoffs The company said there wouldnt be any layoffs despite the decline in profits 2 lay off pv informal When you lay off people you stop criticizing teasing or pressuring them Youve been bugging me all day If you dont lay off youre going to be sorry Lay off Nancy shes having a bad day 64
3 lay off pv When you lay off something such as a food or an activity you stop consuming the food or doing the activity Listen to the way youre coughing Youve got to lay off cigarettes After Ned had a heart attack he laid off cheese and butter sandwiches Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle screw screw up amp screws up screwing up screwed up screwed up 1 screw up pv informal When you damage something or do something wrong or badly you screw up or you screw up what you are doing tried to fix my computer but I couldnt do it and I just screwed it up instead Mark sent his wife a letter that he wrote to his girlfriend He sure screwed up screwed up partadj When people or things are screwed up they are damaged or confused My back is so screwed up I cant even walk George was a nice guy but a little screwed up in the head screwup n A problem or confused situation caused by someones mistake is a screwup Two babies were switched because of a screwup in the maternity ward There was a screwup in the finance department and the bill was paid twice 2 screw up pvinformal When people make a mistake that causes a problem for you they screw you up The travel agent forgot to reconfirm my flight and it really screwed me up You really screwed me up when you lost my car keys EXERCISE 10a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The teacher asked me to the exams 2 Why dont you let a mechanic fix the car If you try to do it yourself youll just it 3 Nobody likes the new priest in our church and attendance has 4 My feet were killing me a couple of weeks ago so I jogging for a while and now theyre fine 5 It really me when you told my boss what I said about him 65
6 The Ortegas wont take a vacation this year because Mr Ortega has been and they need to save money 7 When Mother was there wasnt any TV People went to the movies or read instead 8 The head of purchasing at my company went to jail because he made all the suppliers 2000 of every contract 9 My husband told me my plan to enter medical school was crazy but I with it anyway 10 The secretary in the human resources department saidHeres an application Take it and it quot 11 If you want to borrow my car tonight Im not going anywhere 12 The other mountain climbers are nervous about Jim because they think hes going to a cliff 13 Youve been criticizing me for the last three hours Will you 14 The manager asked his assistant to him about the problems in the warehouse 15 Its Friday night Lets buy some beer and 16 I cant work tomorrow Can you for me 17 Youre acting like a big baby EXERCISE 10b Complete the sentences with nouns from this section 1 At the party the children ate in the living room and the ate in the dining room 2 The boss said quotOne more and youre firedquot 3 The reporter discovered that the mayor was taking from the construction company 4 Every year at this time the king gives to the poor 5 Ned will be my while Im on my honeymoon 66
6 The teacher prepared a to give to the students 7 The CEO said he regretted the but that there was no other way for the company to avoid bankruptcy 8 The team lost every game of the season and suffered a 60 percent in attendance 9 The president called General Chambers and gave him the for the attack EXERCISE 10c Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 You havent filled in all the spaces them 2 Is the teacher handing out the tests them 3 The company is going to lay off my brother him 4 Im sorry I screwed up your plan it
EXERCISE 10d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I wasnt sure if my plan would work and I thought about it for a long time before I finally decided to try it What did I do with my plan 2 The secretary gave me an application and told me to put the correct information in the spaces What did the secretary tell me to do 3 In Question 2 how would you describe the application after I put the correct information in the spaces 4 The mechanic is trying to fix my cars transmission but shes making a lot of mistakes What is the mechanic doing to my cars transmission 5 In Question 4 how would you describe the transmission after the mechanic finishes fixing it 6 You give 3000 to the mayor every month so that he will give your company city business What do you do every month 7 In Question 6 what is the 3000 that you give to the mayor every month 8 Business is bad at Nancys company and they told her that they dont need her anymore What happened to Nancy 9 The hotel clerk forgot to call me in the morning to wake me up and I was late for a very important meeting What did the hotel clerk do to me 10 I was born in Hawaii and I lived there until I was eighteen What did I do in Hawaii 11 Sallys parents told her she cant watch a TV show because its for adults What did Sallys parents tell her about the TV show 12 New home construction will decrease if there is a recession What will new home construction do if there is a recession 13 In Question 12 if there is a decrease in new home construction what would it be called 14 Timmy was teasing Susie all day until his mother told him to stop What did Timmys mother tell him to do 68
15 All is doing Omars job while Omar is on vacation What is Ali doing 16 Blankets and boxes of food will be given to the people whose homes were destroyed by the tornado What will be done with the blankets and boxes of food 17 Sarah had to answer the phone while she was watching a movie After she returned to the TV room Sarahs friend Sally told Sarah everything she had missed What did Sally do for Sarah EXERCISE 10e Review Complete the sentences with these nouns from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one breakdown 5 breakout 9 holdup 7 hookup 9 put-on 1 setup 5 takeoff 1 1 The pilot said that the would be on time 2 There was a on the highway and traffic was barely moving at all 3 A cable is usually 3995 but this month its free 4 The guards suspected the prisoners were planning a 5 Waiter weve been waiting for our dinner for an hour Whats the 6 I told my lawyer that it was a and that I was innocent 7 When the detectives came and arrested Hank we didnt think it was real just a big EXERCISE 10f Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one catch up 9 chicken out 9 get along 9 give up 9 hook up 9 pick out 8 talk down to 3 work up 9 1 Dont try to run ten miles at first you have to to it 2 After searching for three days without any luck the rescue team on finding any survivors 3 The police showed me some pictures to see if I could the guy who mugged me
4 You go to the bank Ill go to the post office and well with each other at the corner in forty-five minutes 5 I wasnt happy about having Nancy for a partner on the project I dont with her 6 Just because you went to college and I didnt doesnt make it okay for you to me 7 The teacher said quotYour daughter has missed a lot of school and shell need to work hard to to the rest of the classquot 8 Maria got scared andof jumping off the high diving board 11 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used in compound nouns As we saw in Section 10 many two-word phrasal verbs can be used as nouns Many of these nouns formed from two-word phrasal verbs can be combined with ordinary nouns to form compound nouns noun backup compound noun backup disk noun follow-up compound noun follow-up call Like ordinary compound nouns the first noun has a function similar to that of an adjective question What kind of clothes answer Dirty clothes adjective question What kind of clothes answer Workout clothes noun The adjective dirty and the noun workout serve the same function modifying the noun clothes Always accent the first word in a compound noun noun BACKup compound noun BACKupdisk noun FOLLOW-up compound noun FOLLOW-up call 70
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle backup back up amp backs up backing up backed up backed up 1 back up pv When you walk backward you backup When you drive a vehicle in reverse you back up or back the vehicle up The fire was so hot that we had to back up I put the car in reverse and backed it up 2 back up pv When you are explaining something and you repeat something that you already said you back up Youre going too fast Can you back up a little and explain your plan again Sorry I forgot part of the story Let me back up a little 3 back up pv When you make a claim or statement and then show people evidence or give them information proving that the claim or statement is true or correct you back it up No one believed Jims accusations because he couldnt back them up with any evidence The IRS asked me for some receipts to back up my deductions 4 back up pv When you support people in a conflict or a confrontation you back them up When you support people by doing some work or a difficult assignment you back them up Linda said she would back me up if I complained about our supervisor The general backed up his threats with 400000 soldiers Jerry is the bars main bartender and Tanya backs him up when it gets busy backup n Someone or something that supports or is ready to provide support in a conflict or a confrontation by doing some work or a difficult assignment is a backup When the rioters grew more violent the police called for backup The firefighter entered the burning building without a backup 5 back up pv When you duplicate important information such as a computer program or data so that you will still have it if the original information is lost or damaged you back it up If youre going to install that new software be sure you back up your entire hard disk first I back my work up every day before I go home backup n A duplicate of important information such as a computer program or data is a backup keep a backup of my important computer files on floppy disks The major gave a backup copy of the battle plan to his secretary 71
backed up partadj After you duplicate important informationsuch as a computer program or data the original is backed up accidentally erased your book from your computer I hope your work was backed up 6 back up pv When a piece of equipment or machinery is very important and another is kept available in case the one that is normally used fails the second piece of equipment or machinery backs up the first The hospital bought a generator to back up the unreliable city power supply We kept the old computer to back the new one up backup n When a piece of equipment or machinery is very important and another is kept available in case the one that is normally used fails the second piece of equipment or machinery is a backup The skydiver checked his main parachute and his backup before the flight The school had to dose when the main power and the backup both failed 7 back up pv When something backs up it is being prevented from moving progressing or flowing normally An accident backed up traffic for three miles The assembly line is going to back up if Erik doesnt get the parts he needs soon backup n A backup is a situation in which something is being prevented from moving progressing or flowing normally sat in that backup for three hours without moving an inch The huge number of Christmas cards and packages caused a backup at the post office backed up partadj When something is being prevented from moving progressing or flowing normally it is backed up Lets take the train downtown Traffic is always backed up at this time of the morn in a Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle cut off cut off amp cuts off cutting off cut off cut off 1 cut off pv When you completely remove part of something with a knife saw or pair of scissors you cut it off He cut off a piece of cheese so that I could taste it One of the kings of England had his head cut off 2 cut off pv When you stop the supply or flow of something such as water electricity or money you cut it off or you cut off the people receiving it wont be surprised if my electricity is cut off I havent paid the bill in three months The bartender told the drunk guy that she was cutting him off 72
cutoff n The time when something such as water electricity or money is cut off is the cutoff cutoff point or cutoff date got a notice saying that if I dont pay my water bill soon the cutoff date will be March 10 Ninety is the cutoff students with lower scores on the exam wont be accepted into the advanced program 3 cut off pv When you abruptly and rudely drive a vehicle in front of other peoples vehicles causing them to suddenly slow down or stop you cut them off had to slam on the brakes when some jerk cut me off on the way to work The lady in the red car tried to cut me off but I wouldnt let her get in front of me was in the middle of an important call when I was cut off Getting cut off happens all the time when youre on the phone to China 5 cut off pv When you create a physical or psychological barrier between yourself and other people you cut yourself off from them When you are separated from other people because of a barrier or a great distance you are cut off from them After Dan joined a cult he completely cut himself off from his family and friends A flash flood cut us off from the rest of the expedition cutoff partadj When you are separated from other people because of a barrier or a great distance you are cutoff The bridge was destroyed by the earthquake and now were cut off Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle drop off drop off amp drops off dropping off dropped off dropped off 1 drop off pv When you take things or people to another place and leave them there you drop them off Can you drop me off at the train station on your way to work Luis dropped off his laundry at the cleaners drop-off n Something that has been dropped off is a drop-off The place where something or someone is dropped off is a drop-off point drop off window and soon Luis left his laundry at the drop-off window The north side of the train station parking lot is for drop-offs 2 drop off pv When a businesss sales the occurrence of some event or the interest some people have in something declines it drops off Attendance at baseball games has been dropping off in the last few years After CDs were introduced sales of records dropped off sharply 73
drop-off n A decline in a businesss sales in the occurrence of an event or in the interest some people have in something is a drop-off There has been a drop-off in traffic deaths thanks to strict drunk driving laws The drop-off in car sales was explained by the recession 3 drop off pv When the level of the ground declines steeply it drops off Be careful hiking this trail it drops off steeply on the other side of the mountain The island has no beach at all The land drops off straight into the sea drop-off n A steep decline in the level of the ground is a drop-off The bus driver didnt see the drop-off and the bus plunged into the gorge It was hard to see the drop-off because of the dense jungle Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle follow up follow up amp follows up following up followed up followed up 1 follow up on pv When you follow up on something you return to something that was important to you previously because you now have more information or more time or because you want to make sure some effort you made previously is correct or effective saw a beautiful house with a quotfor salequot sign and I followed up on it when I got home The doctor told me Id need to follow up the treatment with physical therapy follow-up n A follow-up follow-up call follow-up visit and so on is a return to something that was important to you previously because you now have more information or more time or because you want to make sure some effort you made previously is correct or effective The customer service manager made a follow-up call to make sure I was happy with the repair job The doctor asked me to see him two months after the operation for a follow-up take out take out amp takes out taking out took out taken out 1 take out of pv When you take something out or take it out of a container storage place or building you remove it Put ininto is the opposite of take out want to take some books out of the library tonight Jake took out a gun and shouted quotThis is a holdupquot Nancy took 500 out of the bank takeout n Takeout is food that is taken from a restaurant to be eaten at another location Carryout and carry-out food are the same as takeout and take-out food dont feel like cooking tonight Lets get takeout That take-out chicken is good but it sure is greasy 74
2 take out of pv When you remove something because you do not want it or because it is damaged you take it out or take it out of something Put ininto is the opposite of take out The teacher said my story would be a lot better if took this part out of the third paragraph The school will be closed while the asbestos insulation is being taken out and replaced 3 take out of pv When you take money out or take money out of a bank or a bank account you withdraw the money Put in is the opposite of take out had to take money out of my savings account to pay for my medical bills Nicoles at the bank taking 1000 out 4 take out pv When you take people outyou go with them to do something enjoyable dinner in a restaurant a movie and so on and pay for it yourself What do you think about taking Mom out for Mothers Day Jim took his girlfriend out last Friday 5 take out pv informal When you take people out you kill them The snipers will try to take out the kidnapper when he opens the door The hit man took Vito out with a shotgun blast to the head Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle try out try out amp tries out trying out tried out tried out 1 try out pv When you try something out you try it to see if you want to buy it or to see if you want to start using it regularly Im not going to spend 2000 on a bicycle unless I try it out first You can try it out for thirty days without any obligation tryout n When you give something a tryoutyou test it to see if you want to buy it or start using it regularly gave Bettys new diet a tryout but I actually gained weight The airline gave the new plane a thorough tryout before making a decision 2 try out pv When you try people out you give them a chance to show that they can perform a job well before hiring them or before giving them more difficult work to do The manager agreed to try him out for a week I told the supervisor that if she tried me out shed see that I could do the job tryout n When you give people a tryout you give them a chance to show that they can perform a job well before giving them more difficult work to do Tryouts for the football team will be next Saturday and Sunday If you give Mike a tryout Im sure you wont be disappointed
3 try out for pv When you try out or try out for something you try to show that you can perform a job well in order to get hired A lot of guys will try out but only a handful will make the team Danielas mother told her quotTrying out for the cheerleading squad isnt as important as doing your homeworkquot Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle wake up wake up amp wakes up waking up woke up woken up 1 wake up pv When you stop sleeping you wake up When you cause other people to stop sleeping you wake them up AH is so sleepy in class that the teacher must wake him up every five minutes I woke up at 200 AM and couldnt get back to sleep wake-up partadj When you are staying at a hotel and you ask the desk clerk to call you at a certain time to wake you up you ask for a wake-up call asked the desk clerk to give me a wake-up call at 730 2 wake up pv When you learn something that causes you to understand the truth about something or someone it wakes you up or wakes you up to the truth about something or someone used to smoke but when my best friend died of lung cancer it really woke me up Hey wake up Nicole is lying to you Cant you see that work out work out amp works out working out worked out worked out 1 work out pv When a situation works out a certain way it happens that way When a situation does not work out it is not satisfactory The switch to the new system worked out a lot better than anyone expected She said that living with her in-laws wasnt working out very well 2 work out pv When a situation works out the end result is successful Yes I thought your idea was terrible but I must admit it worked out The marriage didnt work out and they were divorced after six months 3 work out pv When a calculation or measurement works out to be a certain amount this amount is the result of the calculation or measurement The cost of the booze we need for the reception works out to more than 1500 The monthly payment on a 6 percent loan works out to 642 4 work out pv When you work out a calculation measurement or other problem you do the work necessary to determine the result of the calculation or measurement or think about how to solve the problem 76
Maria worked out bow much paint we will need for the living room twenty-five gallons Ive forgotten how to work out math problems without a calculator You need to go to the airport I need to go to work and we have only one car How are we going to work this out 5 work out pv When you work out a solution or plan you decide what to do after careful consideration either alone or in discussion with other people The opposing lawyers worked out a compromise I think Ive worked out a way to buy a new car without borrowing money 6 work out pv When you exercise in order to improve your health or physical appearance you work out Bob works out in the gym for two hours every night Im a fat slob I need to start working out again workout n A series of exercises done in order to improve your health or physical appearance is a workout Workout clothes are clothes you wear while exercising Im really sore from that workout last night The trainer designed a workout for each player on the team workout n When you say that you gave a mechanical device or system a workout you mean that you caused it to perform some lengthy or difficult work Driving to Alaska sure gave this old truck a workout The snack bar got a real workout when three buses full of hungry tourists stopped at the same time EXERCISE 11 a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 11 almost had an accident on the way to work when another driver me 2 With so many delivery truck drivers out sick with the flu deliveries are starting to 3 You should always your important computer files 4 The art restorers are trying to a way to clean the painting without damaging it 51 hit a tree while I was my car 6 The butcher has only nine fingers He the other one 77
7 Professor Childress has some interesting theories but can he them with any evidence 8 After every sale a good salesperson with a cat to make sure the customer is satisfied 9 Im going to leave early tomorrow so that I can some film at the photo lab 10 No one believed I was telling the truth until Charles me 11 I usually around 700 but this morning I overslept 12 Lydia had planned to spend the summer in Italy but it didnt 13 The sharpshooter was ordered to the enemy leader 14 The designers put in manual controls to the automatic system 15 David and Maria how much their wedding is going to cost 16 The cost of their wedding to 225 per person 17 Be careful the north side of the mountain sharply 18 Hello Hello The phone is dead I guess we were 19 Next weekend were Mom and Dad for their fiftieth wedding anniversary 20 The professors lecture was really confusing so I asked him to please and explain it again 21 The bank robbers tried to escape through the back door but the police went to the back of the bank and them 22 Peoples fascination with the quintuplets quickly after the sextuplets were born 23 Bob bought some new skis and this weekend hes going to them 24 I wasnt very responsible when I was younger but having children really me 25 Ned used to exercise every day but he hasnt in months 78
26 The baseball manager decided to the new pitcher to see what he could do 27 I like most of this article you wrote about me but theres one thing Id like you to 28 Sam had a tot of big ideas when he was young but his life sure hasnt the way he expected 29 The electricity was after a tree fell during the storm and cut some power lines 30 I my ID card of my pocket and showed it to the guard 31 Lydia has never a penny of her savings account EXERCISE 11 b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 Did you back up your work it 2 Theyre cutting off the power it 3 I dropped off at the airport Frankhim 4 Mom asked me to take out the garbage it 79 5 Alex tried out his new bicycle it 6 Mike has woken up Ali him EXERCISE 11 c Write answers to the questions using nouns and compound nouns from this section There may be more than one way to answer a question 1 The photographer always keeps two cameras with him One is his main camera Hell use the second if theres a problem with the first What is the second camera 2 The phone company says my telephone service will stop on July 1 if I dont pay my bill before that date What is July I 3 Dr Smith is a new doctor If hes not sure how to treat a patient hell call Dr Wood for help What is Dr Wood to Dr Smith 4 You used the new exercise equipment to see if you wanted to buy it What did you do to the exercise equipment 5 The police arrested Mrs Taylors husband because he was beating her A social worker visited Mrs Taylor a few days later to talk to her What did the social worker do 6 The clothes I wore yesterday white I was exercising got very dirty What got dirty 7 We got food from a Chinese restaurant and ate it at home What kind of food did we eat 8 Because of construction traffic on the interstate stopped and there was a long line of cars What was on
the interstate 9 The number of arrests for burglary is a lot lower this year than last year What has happened to the number of arrests for burglary 10 Sally lost something very important on her computer because she didnt make another copy in case there was a problem with the original Why did Sally have a problem 80
11 At the edge of the continental shelf the sea floor falls several thousand feet What is at the edge of the continental shelf 12 I made 7000 copies on this photocopier What did I do to the photocopier EXERCISE 11d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The electric company stopped my electricity because I didnt pay my bill What did they do to the electricity 2 I bought some fried chicken and I took it to my house What kind of food did I buy 3 Exercising is good for your health What is good for your health 4 The long-distance company offered to let me use their service free for thirty days and Im going to try it What am I going to do to the long-distance companys service 5 In Question 4 what is the long-distance company letting me do 6 During the flood a lot of people couldnt leave their houses because of the water What did the water do to them 7 In Question 6 how would you describe these people 8 Youre making an extra copy of your work just in case What are you doing 9 In Question 8 what would you call the extra copy of your work that youre making 10 The newspaper reporter is getting more information about something interesting that someone told her on the phone What is the reporter doing H My exercise routine is very difficult What is difficult 12 The prosecutor proved his accusation with some photographs What did the prosecutor do with the photographs 13 Jane wants to show the basketball coach that she would be a good member of the basketball team What does Jane want to do 14 I have a second alarm clock in case the first doesnt wake me up What does my second alarm clock do to my first 81
15 In Question 14 what would you call my second alarm clock 16 Nicole takes her friend to the train station every morning What does Nicole do to her friend 17 I have an appointment with my doctor next month so that he can see if my surgery was successful What would you call my appointment next month 18 Marias plan isnt happening the way she expected What isnt Marias plan doing 19 Bill went with Judy to dinner and a movie and he paid for everything What did Bill do 20 Two hundred guests at 45 each calculates to 9000 What does 200 guests at 45 each do 21 I have never stopped sleeping at 330 in the morning before What have I never done before EXERCISE 11 e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one come from 1 give back 1 hand out 10 look for 1 fall off 10 go ahead 10 hear about 2 screw out of 3 feel up to 3 go along with 3 kick back 10 screw up 10 fill in 10 grow up 10 lay off 10 stay off 2 1 If the company doesnt 20 percent of its employees its going to go out of business 2 Blankets and boxes of food were to the flood victims 3 I in Germany because my father was in the Army there 4 Kathy didnt close her car window last night and it rained She really 5 You Ill catch up with you later 6 The percentage of people who smoke after smoking was linked with lung cancer and heart disease 7 What can I do to get my black cat to my white couch 8 Ive been an apartment that allows dogs but I cant find one 9 HesNew York and will be here in two hours 82
10 I was so stuffed from that huge dinner my mother cooked that I didnt playing tennis afterward 11 Their lawyer tried to them 120000 12 I dont feel like going anywhere tonight Lets just and take it easy 13 Im sorry I cant agree with you Joe but I have to Linda on this decision 14 Heres my flashlight Make sure you it when youre finished using it 15 I didnt get 100 on the test because I forgot to one of the blanks 16 This restaurant is wonderful Im surprised I havent it before 12 FOCUS ON past perfect phrasal verbs The past perfect is used to say that one thing in the past happened before another thing in the past Mike said the wedding had fallen through past earlier in the past When I got to work Mr Toy for had already signed in past earlier in the past The past perfect is formed with had and the past participle of the verb present He wakes up past He woke up past perfect He had woken up Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle back off back off amp backs off backing off backed off backed off 1 back off pv When you move away from danger or a person you are arguing or fighting with in order to avoid injury or a more serious fight or argument you back off When you tell people to back off you are warning them that you are becoming angry and that a fight or argument is likely 83
Im warning you Youd better back off Tom backed off when he saw that Jake had a gun Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come across come across amp comes across coming across came across come across 1 come across pv When people cross from one side of a space or distance to where you are they come across As soon as Nicole saw me she came across the room and gave me a big hug By 1910 millions of immigrants had come across the ocean to America 2 come across pv When you come across people or things you see or find them without planning or expecting to Run across is similar to come across asked the antique dealer if she had ever come across a Windsor chair On the trail we came across some hikers from Australia 3 come across pv When something you say or do comes across a certain way your attitude or feelings are perceived in this way by other people was just joking but I dont think it came across that way His American humor didnt come across well in Britain come up come up amp comes up coming up came up come up 1 come up to pv When people move toward you to a higher level or position or from the south to the north they come up Come down is the opposite of come up Why dont you come up and see me some time My cousin from San Antonio came up to Detroit last week 2 come up pv When you move to a higher social or professional position you come up saw Dan driving a Mercedes Hes really coming up in the world The major didnt go to the military academy He came up through the ranks 3 come up pv When a new topic is introduced into a conversation it comes up dont agree with Jim about anything so if politics comes up I just leave the room We were discussing possible candidates to manage the new office and your name came up 4 come up pv When something unexpected happens that requires further attention it comes up Im sorry I cant go to your party something important has come up Until this situation came up we were having a nice relaxing weekend 5 come up pv always continuous When something is coming up it will happen soon 84
Mothers Day is coming up so I need to buy my mother a gift soon The TV announcer told the audience what was coming up after the commercial Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle fall through fall through amp falls through falling through fell through fallen through 1 fall through pv When people or things drop through an opening from one side to the other side they fall through The roofer had fallen through a hole in the roof My Uncle Fred was ice fishing when he fell through a hole in the ice and was never seen again 2 fall through pv When a plan an arrangement or a business deal does not happen or is canceled because of a problem or because someone does not do what is expected it falls through The family reunion fell through after Dad got sick Our house is back on the market The deal fell through because the buyers couldnt get a loan put out put up amp puts up putting up put up put up 1 put up pv When you move something to a higher level you put it up Put these knives up where the baby cant reach them He aimed the gun at me and said quotPut your hands up or Ill shootquot 2 put up pv When you attach something such as a picture or a sign to a wall you put it up The teacher had put some posters up in her new classroom Our real estate agent is putting up a quotfor salequot sign 3 put up pv When you build or install something such as a building shelf fence or wall you put it up We need to put up a fence to keep the rabbits out of our garden I talked to a carpenter about putting up some shelves in the family room 4 put up pv When you erect or assemble something that is collapsed folded or in several pieces you put it up The circus put up their tent outside of town The Native Americans stopped by the river and put up their teepees 5 put up pv When you contribute money to pay for or help pay for something you put up the money 85 The mayor offered to put up half the money necessary to build a new stadium for the team Mr Taylor said he would put up 3 million toward the cost of a new cancer treatment facility 6 put up pv When you fight resist or argue against something you put up a fight or put up resistance The union put up a fight when the company tried to lay off workers The Japanese put up little resistance when the marines landed
7 put up pv When you put people up you let them stay with you usually temporarily in your house or in a hotel Sam didnt have anywhere else to go after the fire so I said I would put him up for a couple of nights The hotel desk clerk apologized for not being able to put us up Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle screw on screw on amp screws on screwing on screwed on screwed on 1 screw on pv When you screw on the top of a circular container you turn it so that it becomes tight and keeps the contents of the container inside I hadnt screwed the top of the gas can on tight enough and all the gas leaked out If you dont screw the top of the bottle on the soda pop will go flat screwed on partadj After you turn the top of a circular container so that it becomes tight and keeps the contents of the container inside the top is screwed on 2 screw on pv When you attach part of a mechanical device with spiral grooves to another part with spiral grooves you screw it on Make sure you screw each of the nuts on tightly Put the new ink cartridge in the bottom half of the pen and then screw on the top screwed on partadj After you attach part of a mechanical device with spiral grooves to another part with spiral grooves the first part is screwed on The top of that water bottle isnt screwed on and it might leak all over the place sign in sign in amp signs in signing in signed in signed in 1 sign in pv When you sign in you write your name on a list to show that you have arrived at your workplace or at some other place such as a hotel or a club Im going to be late Could you sign me in All visitors to the consulate are asked to sign in 86 Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle sign out sign out amp signs out signing out signed out signed out 1 sign out pv When you sign out you write your name on a list to show that you have left your workplace or some other place such as a hotel or club Jim isnt here He signed out at 506 Dr Wood usually forgets to sign out when she leaves the dink 2 sign out pv When you sign something out such as a book or something valuable or important you write your name on a list to show that you have borrowed the item and are responsible for returning it The professor signed the book out of the rare book room
Remember to sign out your lab equipment before chemistry class EXERCISE 12a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The information in this file is top secret You have to it before you can remove it from this room 2 Something at the last minute and I had to cancel my trip 3 Wed better the tent before it gets too dark 4 I was in the library and I some interesting books 5 I was sure Janice was still in the building somewhere because she hadnt yet 6 The wedding when the groom was arrested for bigamy 7 My son always a big fight when I try to get him to go to bed 8 I wasnt in the mood for a fight so I decided to 9 The search party found that the snowmobiler had a hole in the ice and drowned 10 No one said anything about you last night Your name didnt even once 11 The store owner a quotno smokingquot sign 12 To attach the filter to the camera lens you just it 13 The manager always checked to see who didnt on time 87 14 The charity was asked to 2 million toward the purchase of new medica equipment 15 Someone had the lid so tightly that I couldnt get it off 16 My house was destroyed by a tornado Can you me for a few days 17 I was upstairs working when my wife to ask me what I wanted for lunch 18 The applicants criticism of his previous employer didnt well with the interviewer 19 I bought a plastic Christmas tree thats really easy to 20 Nancy the Golden Gate Bridge every morning to go to work 21 I didnt go to a fancy Ivy League college I the hard way 22 Can you the window shade so that we can get more light in here please 23 Susies mother told her that Christmas was so she had better be a good girl EXERCISE 12b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Make all the phrasal verbs past perfect 1 Mike told me that Jerry had been angry and was going to hit Bill but that Jerry had then changed his mind and walked away What had Jerry done 2 Luis had written his name on a piece of paper to show that he had come to work What had Luis done 3 The carpenter had dropped suddenly from the second floor to the first floor through a hole IN the floor What had the carpenter done 4 Timmy had argued with his mother because he didnt want to go to bed What had Timmy done 5 Todds explanation made a good impression on the jury What had Todds explanation done 6 The rich lady had given the money to build an animal shelter What had the rich lady done 88
7 The host of the TV talk show had said that the dancing bear act was going to take place right after the commercial What had the host of the TV show said about the dancing bear act 8 The cook had turned the lid of the jar so that it was tight What had the cook done 9 In Question 8 how would you describe the lid of the jar after the cook turned it so that it was tight 10 The homeless shelter had allowed them to sleep there overnight What had the homeless shelter done 11 The president canceled his vacation because a serious problem had suddenly occurred Why did the president cancel his vacation 12 Wed had a deal to buy a new house but we didnt buy it because of a problem What had happened to our deal 13 Marshas name had been mentioned during the meeting What had Marshas name done 14 The Ortegas had built a fence around their swimming pool What had the Ortegas done 15 You had found some old newspapers while cleaning the attic What had you done 16 Miguel had traveled from Miami to New York What had Miguel done 17 The doctor had written her name on a piece of paper to show that she had left the hospital What had the doctor done EXERCISE 12c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section Try to make some of them questions some negative and some present or past perfect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 89
EXERCISE 12d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one back up 11 follow up 11 point to 4 try out 11 cut off 11 go after 4 put to 4 wake up 11 drop off 11 pay for 4 take out 11 work out 11 fall off 10 plan for 4 throw up 2 wrap up 4 1 I dont care if it takes me the rest of my life youll the terrible thing you did 2 The salesman got a good lead from a friend and he on it immediately 3 We need to take the baby to the doctor right now Shes twice in the last hour 4 Sales have by 13 percent in the last year 5 That was a very interesting question you Mark at the meeting 6 Relax everythings going to okay 7 Can you follow me in your car so that I can my car at the mechanic 8 Erik his son and told him it was time for school 9 I drove into the mountains to my trucks four-wheel drive 10 You should always anything important before you install a new program 11 The police officer asked the boy where his father was and the boy the bar across the street 12 Its getting pretty late Lets this meeting 13 The guy behind the counter a small piece of cheese so I could taste it 14 It was a bit of a problem when Jane brought her children with her to my dinner party I hadnt so many people 15 The censor told the film director to some of the violent scenes 16 Janes going to that new job in the Boston office 90
13 FOCUS ON passive phrasal verbs 1 The passive voice is used when what happened the verb is more important than who did it the subject The scene of the crime was dosed off by the police when the subject is obvious The tests were handed in by the students who else or when the subject is unknown My dog was run over by an unknown person The passive is formed with be and the past participle of the verb Be can be in any tense and can be continuous The game has been called off My name was left off The tent Is being set up The criminals will be tracked down As we saw in the first three examples saying who performed the action with a by phrase is optional but it is always possible This is a good way to test a sentence to see if it is in the passive The game has been called off by the referee My name was left off by Charles The tent is being set up by the campers The criminals will be tracked down by the police Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle call off call off amp calls off calling off called off called off 1 call off pv When you call off an event such as a party game or something else that had been previously planned you cancel it The football game was called off because of rain We cant call the party off its going to start in half an hour dose off close off amp closes off closing off closed off closed off 1 close off pv When you close off an areayou prohibit people from entering it or passing through it by locking the door or blocking the entrance The police closed several streets off because of the parade The house was so expensive to heat that the owners closed several rooms off 91
closed off partadj An area that you are prohibited from entering or passing through because the door has been locked or the entrance has been blocked is closed off Three rooms in the museum are closed off Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hand in hand in amp hands in handing in handed in handed in 1 hand in to pv When you complete a test report or project and you give it to the person who assigned the work you hand it in or hand it in to that person Turn in is similar to hand in The tests must be handed in no later than 1100 He finished his investigation and handed his report in to the committee 2 hand in pv When you hand in your resignation or letter of resignation you inform your employer that you are quitting your job was so furious that I handed my letter of resignation in the next day The President asked the cabinet members to hand in their resignations 3 hand in to pv When you give something to a person of authority who has demanded it or because you no longer need or want it you hand it in or hand it in to a person of authority Turn in is similar to hand in The guard was ordered to hand his gun in after he shot the window washer The drivers return to the factory at 500 and hand their keys in to the dispatcher before they leave hit on hit on amp hits on hitting on hit on hit on 1 hit on pv When you think of an interesting idea or a solution to a problem you hit on it think Ive hit on a way to solve this problem After two years of tests they finally hit on the solution 2 hit on pv informal When you hit on a person of the opposite sex you approach and aggressively try to interest that person in you romantically or sexually Lydia had a terrible time at the party She was hit on by every guy there Lets go somewhere else Mark keeps hitting on me and Im tired of it leave off leave off amp leaves off leaving off left off left off 1 leave off pv When you do not include people or things on a list either accidentally or deliberately you leave them off After what happened at the last party Dan wasnt surprised that he was left off the guest list Check to make sure you dont leave anyone off the list 92
2 leave off pv When you interrupt something that you intend to finish later you leave off at the point where you stop Okay class we left off on page 92 last week so open your books to page 93 Finish your story Uncle Fred You left off where the giant octopus was about to eat you Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle let off let off amp lets off letting off let off let off 1 let off pv When you let someone off a bus or other form of transportation you stop it so that person can leave it The driver let her off at the corner Thats my house there Can you let me off please 2 let off pv When you are let off by a person in authority you are not punished or you are given only a light punishment It was Jakes first offense so the judge let him off with a warning People were shocked that he had been let off so lightly 3 let off pv When you fire a gun or explode bombs or fireworks you let them off regional When you let off steam you express angry feelings or frustration or do something to relieve those feelings The high school was evacuated after someone let off a smoke bomb When I was a kid I used to love letting off firecrackers on the Fourth of July Im sorry I was so angry this morning I was just letting off steam light up light up amp lights up lighting up lit up lit up 1 light up pv When you shine lights on something or attach lights to something you light it up Airport runways are lit up so that pilots can see them in the dark The police lit the house up with their spotlights lit up partadj After a light is shined on something or you put lights inside or attach lights to the outside of something it is lit up The signs arent lit up so its hard to see them at night 2 light up pv When you light up a cigarette cigar or pipe you use a match or lighter to start it burning Here are the matches lets light up Lighting a cigarette up next to the gasoline truck was the last thing he ever did 93
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle track down track down amp tracks down tracking down tracked down tracked down 1 track down pv When you find things or people after looking very hard for them you track them down The terrorists were tracked down by Interpol I finally tracked down that book Ive been looking for EXERCISE 13a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The judge her with a warning 2 It wasnt cold enough so we the hockey game 3 As soon as Nancys boyfriend went to the washroomthe guy at the next table her 4 Every Christmas my father used to our house with thousands of lights 5 The police finally the killers and arrested them 6 The principal caught me as I was a cigarette in the washroom 7 The room that was damaged by the fire was to the public 8 I was really angry that I was the list 9 Thats a great idea Youve really something 10 Three students got a zero because their projects werent on time 11 Driver can you me at the next corner 12 Dr Smith resumed his lecture where he had before the lunch break 13 After Wilson screwed up the finance department he was asked to his letter of resignation 14 Even though the enemy soldiers were half a mile away we a few shots 15 The crooked police officers were ordered to their badges 94
EXERCISE 13b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The bride hasnt called off the wedding it 2 Are they closing off the gallery it 3 The accountant handed in her report it 4 Have you left off Carmen her 5 The judge let off the pickpocket him 6I told him not to light up the cigarette it 95
7 The EPA tracked down the polluters them EXERCISE 13c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Make all the phrasal verbs passive 1 He discovered the source of the rumor What happened to the source of the rumor 2 The students finished their quizzes and gave them to the teacher What happened to the quizzes 3 The judge never sends first-time offenders to jail What always happens to first-time offenders 4 A guy started talking to Heather at the dance What happened to Heather 5 The list of candidates didnt include your name What happened to your name 6 The referee canceled the game What happened to the game 7 They are putting ropes around the plaza so that no one can go in What is happening to the plaza 8 In Question 7 after they finish putting ropes around the plaza how would you describe it 9 The battleship shined lights on the enemy submarine What happened to the enemy submarine 10 In Question 9 how would you describe the submarine after the battleship shined lights on it 96
EXERCISE 13d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one burn down 5 let out 7 point out 7 set up 5 call in 5 look at 5 run into 1 take apart 7 give back 1 pile up 5 run over 7 take off 1 hand back 5 plan for 4 screw out of 3 talk down to 3 1 Most of the city was by the invading soldiers 2 Teacher will points be for spelling 3 Dan is so rude I have never been like that before 4 A conference will be between the lawyers for each side 5 The Taylors were their life savings by their stockbroker 6 The children were happy to be of school early 7 The entire staff was to the office and given pink slips 8 Several flaws in the plan were 9 Raquel was almost by a cement truck while she was driving to work 10 There wasnt enough room inside the cabin so the firewood had to be outside H The general said the occupied territory would never be 12 The test will be to the students tomorrow 13 This engine has been three times but no one can figure out whats wrong with it 14 This is a very important project Every possible problem must be 15 My neighbor stopped at the side of the road to change a flat tire and he was and killed by a drunk driver 16 Each proposed design for the new flag was and rejected 97
14 FOCUS ON participle adjectives formed from phrasal verbs 1 The past participles of many English verbs can also be used as adjectives You will see that sentences with adjectives formed from past participles are very similar to sentences with verbs in the passive voice in both cases a form of be is used with the past participle For this reason it is not always easy to say whether a sentence contains an adjective formed from a past participle or a verb in the passive voice The door was closed Is this a passive sentence or is dosed an adjective Sometimes whether a sentence contains an adjective formed from a past participle or a verb in the passive voice is clear from the sentence structure The door was closed by the secretary passive The door was closed when I came home last night adjective or the context question What happens if the health inspector finds rats in a restaurant answer Its closed passive question Is the window open answer Its closed adjective But in some cases it is not possible to say absolutely whether a sentence contains an adjective formed from a past participle or a verb in the passive voice Fortunately it is usually not very important because the meaning is often essentially the same For that reason throughout this book true adjectives formed from past participles and past participles functioning as adjectives are both classified as participle adjectives Much more important than the difference between adjectives formed from past participles and past participles functioning as adjectives is what the words mean Some participle adjectives are written with a hyphen make-up some without a hyphen fixed up and some as one word rundown Because not everyone agrees which participle adjectives should be hyphenatedwhich should not and which should be written as one word you will occasionally see the same participle adjective written with or without a hyphen or written as one word Also British English hyphenates many participle adjectives that are not normally hyphenated in American English many of the participle adjectives shown unhyphenated in this book are hyphenated in British English 98
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle butt in butt in amp butts in butting in butt in butt in 1 butt in pv When you enter a conversation situation or place especially a line aggressively rudely and without invitationyou butt in was trying to talk to Mm at the party but Bob kept butting in My father taught me that its not polite to butt in line you have to go to the back and wait your turn dress up dress up amp dresses up dressing up dressed up dressed up 1 dress up pv When you dress up you wear very nice clothes often for a special occasion When you dress people up you put very nice clothes on them often for a special occasion You should always dress up for a job interview The Taylors dressed their children up so they could take some pictures dressed up partadj When you are dressed up you are wearing very nice clothes often for a special occasion Where are Tom and Nancy going Theyre all dressed up I felt like an idiot at the party everyone was really dressed up except me 2 dress up likeas pv When people wear old-fashioned clothes or costumes they dress up dress up like someone or dress up as someone Did you see Charles at the Halloween party He dressed up like a cowboy At Janes costume party everyone has to dress up as a clown dry up dry up amp dries up drying up dried up dried up 1 dry up pv When something dries up or something dries it up all the water or other liquid in it goes away The sun came out and dried up all the rain The Great Salt Lake is slowly drying up dried up partadj After all water or other liquid in something goes away it is dried up The cowboys reached the river only to find that it was dried up These leaves will burn okay now that theyre dried up 2 dry up pv When the amount or supply of something gets smaller and then disappears completely it dries up The factory switched to synthetic rubber after the supply of natural rubber dried up The small grocery stores business dried up after a huge supermarket opened across the street 99
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle fill out fill out amp fills out filling out filled out filled out 1 fill out pv When you fill out a form you put information in the correct spaces Fill in is the same as fill out The personnel director asked Sofia to fill out an application Fill the withdrawal slip out and give it to the teller filled out partadj After all the information is in the correct spaces of a form the form is filled out Heres my application its all filled out Are these forms blank or filled out 2 fill out pv When slender people gain weight they fill out Jake was really thin when he got out of prison but he has really filled out since then Nicole started to fill out after she started working at the candy shop put away put away amp puts away putting away put away put away 1 put away pv When you return something to the place where it is usually stored while it is not being used you put it away told you to put away your toys before you go outside Todd always dries the dishes and I put them away put away partadj If something is in the place where it is usually stored while it is not being used it is put away Where is my tool kit I looked in the closet and its not put away The dishes are put away Now lets watch TV 2 put away pv When people are put away they are sent to prison or a mental institution hope they put that maniac away and throw away the key Jake was put away for ten years after he was convicted of murder 3 put away pv informal When you consume large quantities of food or drink especially alcoholic drink you put it away Be sure to buy plenty of beer if David is coming to the party He can really put it away I dont feel well I put away four hot dogs and a bag of cookies stick up stick up amp sticks up sticking up stuck up stuck up 1 stick up pv When you use a gun or other weapon to rob people banks or stores you stick them up Hold up is the same as stick up 100
Call the police Theyre sticking up the bank If we need some money we can always stick up a liquor store stickup n When someone uses a gun or other weapon to rob a person bank or store there is a stickup A holdup is the same as a stickup A man wearing a ski mask yelled quotThis is a stickupquot The detective was asking questions about the stickup last night 2 stick up pv When you put something such as a picture sign or notice in a place where people can see it you stick it up Sam stuck a notice up about his lost dog Im going to stick these quotno smokingquot signs up all over the school 3 stick up pv When you push something inside a container or space that is long and narrow you stick it up We had to take Susie to the emergency room after she stuck a paper clip up her nose Mark stuck his hand up the chimney to try to find the hidden key 4 stick up pv When something long and narrow is raised above the surface it sticks up Be careful walking around a construction site there might be a nail sticking up My hair was sticking up in the back after woke up from my nap stuck-up partadj informal although the participle adjective stuck-up derives from stick up the verb form is never used in this sense When you think you are better than other people because you are more beautiful or more intelligent or because you come from a higher level of society you are stuck-up Heather is the most popular girl in the school but she isnt stuck-up Theyre so stuck-up theyll never sit at our table Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle use up use up amp uses up using up used up used up 1 use up pv When you use up something you use all of it After you use something up be sure to write it on the grocery list I used up all the glue we need to buy more used up partadj After all of something has been used it is used up Do we have another tube of toothpaste in the house This ones used up wind wind up amp winds up winding up wound up wound up 1 wind up pv When you turn the handle or key of a mechanical toy watch or clock to make it operate you wind it up 101
overslept because I forgot to wind up my alarm dock This toy doesnt use batteries you have to wind it up wound up partadj After someone turns the handle or key of a mechanical toy watch or clock it is wound up The toy soldier is wound up Just push the button to make it walk What is wrong with this watch Its wound up but it still doesnt work wound up partadj When you are nervous or tense you are wound up Dont even talk to Joe today Hes really wound up Im feeling really wound up I need a drink 2 wind up pv When you say that someone or something winds up a certain way or winds up doing something you mean that this situation was the result of a series of decisions actions or unplanned and unexpected occurrences End up is similar to wind up We got totally lost and wound up 100 miles from the campground If you dont start driving more carefully youre going to wind up dead 3 wind up pv When you wind up an activity or event you finish it or get ready to finish it Wrap up is similar to wind up The detective wound up her investigation and made several arrests Wed better wind things up here its getting late 4 wind up pv When you wrap something long such as an electrical cord rope string or measuring tape around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool you wind it up Thats enough fishing for today Lets wind up our lines and go home The firefighters wound up their fire hoses and went back to the station wound up partadj When you wrap something long such as an electrical cord rope or measuring tape around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool it is wound up This rope is a mess You should keep it wound up This electrical cord is realty wound up tight EXERCISE 14a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 We couldnt decide where to go so we staying home 2 Be sure you this form carefully 3 My son loves to eat He can an extra large pizza in less than fifteen minutes 102
A Ill this notice on the wall 5 Were going out to a nice restaurant tonight so be sure to 6 Business at the ski shop always in summer 7 When youre finished with your Monopoly game it 8 Congress is some unfinished business before the summer recess 9 The firefighter her hand the drain pipe to try to reach the kitten 10 The meetings almost over theyre it now 11 Janice went to the costume party like Marie Antoinette 12 The desert is so hot that rainwater almost immediately 13 I dont know what time it is I forgot to my clock 14 Be careful when you sail your boat in this shallow water Sometimes logs from the bottom 15 Lydia has a little since she had the baby 16 Aunt Kathy finished knitting the sweater and her knitting needles 17 Frank and Jesse James a bank in Northfield Minnesota in 1876 18 I hope they catch those crooks and them for a long time 19 I all my time on the first half of the test and didnt have any time left for the second half 20 My brother is so rude Whenever I try to talk to my friend Karen he and wont let me talk EXERCISE 14b Complete the sentences with participle adjectives from this section 1 I hope it rains soon Our lawn is really 2 Why are you Are you going to a party 3 Some of these forms are blank and others are 4 All the people who live in that neighborhood think theyre better than everyone else in town Therere so 5 I cant use my printer The toner cartridge is and I need to buy a new one 6 The clock isnt working because it isnt 7 Tirnrny are your toys all over the floor where they were last night or are they EXERCISE 14c Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 Janice dressed up her son him
The sun quickly dries up the water it Filling out isnt necessary the entire form it Ed put away in an hour six beers them They stuck up notices them 104
6 Im winding up my clock it EXERCISE 14d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Jake was riding his motorcycle too fast and not being careful Now he is in the hospital with a broken leg What happened to Jake 2 It was hard talking to my mother because my sister kept rudely interrupting our conversation What did my sister keep doing 3 A lot of rain fell and made a small lake in the field Now after a week the water is not there anymore What happened to the water 4 Alex was playing with his toy trains Now they are in the box where he keeps them when he is not playing with them What did Alex do 5 In Question 4 how would you describe Alexs toys 6 It rained three hours ago but now there is no more water in the streets How would you describe the streets 7 I turned the key in this grandfather clock and now it is working What did I do to the clock 8 In Question 7 how would you describe the clock 9 Daniela put on her best clothes for the dance What did Daniela do 10 In Question 9 how would you describe Daniela 11 Luis wrote all the necessary information on the form What did Luis do 12 In Question 11 how would you describe the form 105
EXERCISE 14e Review Complete the sentences with these participle adjectives from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one backed up 11 cut off 11 hooked up 9 screwed up 10 broken-down 5 cut up 7 hung up 9 set up 5 burned-out 8 filled in 10 paid for 4 wake-up 11 caught up 9 grown-up 10 piled up 5 worked up 9 1 The clothes are in the closet 2 I dont owe any money to the bank for my house Its 3 My VCR is connected to my TV My VCR is 4 We live far out in the country away from town our friends and our families I dont like being so 5 My cars so I have to take the bus to work 6 All the plans and arrangements for our vacation are ready everything is 7 All the spaces in this form have the necessary information in them The form is 8 Nancys four-year-old son was playing with her computer and now its all 9 I was sick and missed several homework assignments in school But I worked hard and finished all the homework I missed and now Im 10 Im very nervous and upset about something Im 11 These videotapes arent for children theyre videotapes 12 Timmys mother used a knife to cut his meat into many small pieces Timmys meat is 13 Im tired all the time I hate my job and I need a vacation Im 14 My computer crashed last night but fortunately all my important files are 15 The hotel forgot my call and I missed my plane 16 The magazines are in a big stack 106
15 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and will or be going to Both will and be going to are used to talk about the future in English but they are not the same Predictions will or be going to Use will or be going to for predictions When you predict the future you say what you think will happen The wind will blow away these paper plates The wind is going to blow away these paper plates Willingness will Use only will for willingness When you offer to do something that you do not have to do you are willing to do it will put up the shelves for you Plans be going to Use only be going to for plans When you decide to do something in the future whether it is long and complicated or short and simple you plan to do it He is going to head for Mexico next week The future with will is formed by using will plus the infinitive form of the verb statements He will come through San Francisco question Will he come through San Francisco negative He will not come through San Francisco These contractions are used with will I will Ill you will youll he will hell she will shell it will itll they will theyll will not wont When two contractions are possible it is more common to contract will with not rather than with a pronoun common He wont come through San Francisco uncommon Hell not come through San Francisco The future with be going to is formed with a form of be plus going to plus the infinitive form of the verb statement He is going to head for Mexico next week question Is he going to head for Mexico next week negative He is not going to head for Mexico next week 107
These contractions are used with be going to I am Im you are youre he is hes she is shes it is its they are theyre are not arent is not isnt When two contractions are possible both are equally common common Hes not going to head for Mexico next week common He isnt going to head for Mexico next week In informal spoken English going to is often pronounced gonna It is not necessary to pronounce going to in this way but it is necessary to understand it Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle blow away blow away amp blows away blowing away blew away blown away 1 blow away pv When the wind moves something away from where it was it blows it away Dont leave the newspaper outside The wind will blow it away The picnic wasnt much fun It was really windy and everything kept blowing away 2 blow away pv informal When a person or company has an ability product or service that is much better than that of a competing person or company it blows away the competing person or company Apples new computer is so fast its going to blow away the competition I thought I had a chance to win the race but Erik just blew me away 3 blow away pv informal When something you have seen or heard makes you very shocked amazed or emotional it blows you away The first time I saw the Pyramids they just blew me away I was blown away when my mother told me that I was adopted come through come through amp comes through coming through came through come through 1 come through pv When you are in a place and people or things come through it they pass from one side to the other side where you are Betty came through the door and sat down at our table The soldiers were coining through the hole in the wall 108
2 come through pv When people travel to your town stay for a while and then leave they come through or come through town Aunt Sally promised shed come through Milwaukee on her way to Indianapolis 3 come through pv When important information authorization or permission that you have been waiting for is received it comes through We can buy the house the loan finally came through The execution was stopped when the call from the governor came through 4 come through with pv When you promise to do something or produce something and keep your promise you come through or come through with what you promised to do or promised to produce We were all surprised when Bob came through with front row tickets just like he said he would The state legislature promised to provide the financing for a new stadium but they didnt come through 5 come through pv When you come through a difficult or dangerous experience you survive it My Uncle Fred saw lots of action during the war but he came through without a scratch Coming through the earthquake alive was a miracle 6 come through pv When someones feelings attitudes or opinions can be perceived by someone else they come through The authors hatred of the dictatorship came through in the novel The professors enthusiasm for the subject really comes through in his lectures Infinitive present tense ing form past tense past participle dry out dry out amp dries out drying out dried out dried out 1 dry out pv When something dries out or something dries it out all the water or other liquid in it goes away Before you put this tent away be sure you dry it out After the flood it took weeks for our house to dry out dried out partadj After all the water or other liquid in something goes away it is dried out My skin always gets dried out in the winter We shampooed our carpet a week ago and its still not dried out fix up fix up amp fixes up fixing up fixed up fixed up 1 fix up pv When you fix up a place such as a building street or park you repair and decorate it 109
am going to fix this place up and try to sell it The city decided to fix up the park fixed up partadj After you repair and decorate a place such as a building street or park it is fixed up Now that his house is fixed up it looks pretty nice When you see how fixed up Jims apartment is now youll be surprised fixer-upper n informal A fixer-upper is a building in poor condition that can be repaired renovated or redecorated in order to increase its value The way to make money in real estate is to buy a fixer-upper and do as much of the work yourself as you can If youre going to that fancy restaurant youd better fix yourself up Heather is upstairs fixing herself up for the prom fixed up partadj After you style your hair nicely and put on make-up and nice clothes you are fixed up Wheres Lydia going Shes all fixed up I got all fixed up and my boyfriend took me to a demolition derby 3 fix up with pv When you fix people up with something you arrange for them to have or to use something that they need or want We told the hotel desk clerk that we wanted their best room and she fixed us up with the honeymoon suite The travel agent fixed me up with a limo to take me to the resort 4 fix up with pv informal When you fix people up or fix them up with someone you arrange a date for them with a member of the opposite sex Linda and Tom are perfect for each other Im going to fix them up I asked Jerry if hed fix me up with his sister Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go with go with amp goes with going with went with gone with 1 go with pv When one thing is usually or always found with another they go with each other A lot of responsibility goes with being a doctor I never wanted to own an old house because of all the maintenance that goes with it 2 go with pv When two things are part of one unit or set or are meant to be with each other they go with each other 110
One of the fringe benefits of that job was the car that went with it You cant buy the cup without the saucer that goes with it 3 go with pv When one item of clothing looks nice with another they go with each other She needs to find a blouse that goes with her new skirt I like white shirts because they go with everything 4 go with pv When you go with people you agree with and support their idea or plan Senator Dolittle has no opinions He just goes with the majority Weve decided to go with the committees recommendation 5 go with pv When you choose someone or something from a group you go with your choice That gray suit was nice but I think Im going to go with the black one Everyone who applied for the job is highly qualified I dont know who Im going to go with Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle head back head back amp heads back heading back headed back headed back 1 head back to pv When you head back or head back to a certain location you return to a place where you were before When you are headed back or are heading back to a certain location you are returning to a place where you were before Well spend a month in California and then head back to Des Moines We got to the beach around 1000 and we headed back when it started to get dark head head for amp heads for heading for headed for headed for 1 head for pv When you head for a certain location you move toward it When you are headed for or are heading for a certain location you are planning to go there or you have stopped and will resume going there Head toward is the same as head for Tomorrow were going to leave Des Moines and head for California I told the guy at the gas station I was headed for Santa Fe 2 head for pv When you are headed for or are heading for a certain situation condition or consequence it is becoming more likely If you dont shut your mouth youre headed for trouble This is going to be a great vacation were heading for a good time 111
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle tell on tell on amp tells on telling on told on told on 1 tell on pv informalused primarily by children When you tell on people you inform someone in authority such as a parent or teacher that they have made a mistake or broken a rule broke a glass Youre not going to tell on me are you Timmy didnt do his homework and his sister told on him EXERCISE 15a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The first time I held my newborn son in my arms it just me 2 I asked Linda if she would me with her friend Nancy 3 Bob said he could get us backstage after the concert and he just like he promised 4 This house is dump now but after I it itll look nice 5 I saw you eating cookies before dinner when Mommy told you not to Im going to you 6 The composers love for his native land really through in his music 7 Can you help me Im Toronto but Im lost 8 Ive never been to the opera before I think Id better myself 9 The train town three times a week 10 If you keep charging stuff like crazy on your credit cards youre bankruptcy 11 Do you think these brown pants this blue shirt 12 All the books damaged in the flood have to be 13 Cokes new sales promotion is going to Pepsi 14 We sat by the phone nervously waiting for the judges decision to 112
15 My brother works in a car rental place and he said he can me with a Mercedes at no extra cost 16 After looking at pictures of several models the photographer decided to Nicole 17 Dr Wood the door and said hello 18 All the clothes I left outside to dry were by the storm 19 My father hated being a salesman because of all the travel that the job 20 Two of my brothers went to Vietnam but only one it alive 21 I asked the clerk in the computer store if the monitor the computer 22 Its getting late and Im tired I think Im going to to my house 23 His proposal made a lot of sense so we decided to it EXERCISE 15b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Use will or be going to with all phrasal verbs 1 I asked the restaurant manager for the best table in the house and he is going to give us a table next to the fireplace What is the restaurant manager going to do 2 Lindas father promised to pay for her wedding and she is sure that he will What is Linda sure about 3 Raquels husband is going to be very surprised when she tells him she won 10 million in the lottery What is the news going to do to her husband 4 Hell repair some things in his house and paint it before he puts it on the market What will he do 5 In Question 4 how will the house be after he makes some repairs and paints it 6 Timmy wont tell the teacher that Susie didnt do her homework if she gives him a candy bar What wont Timmy do 7 Those mobile homes arent going to be there after the tornado What is the tornado going to do 113
8 If theres an earthquake no one in this old building will survive What wont the people do if theres an earthquake 9 Shell put on her nicest outfit and her best jewelry and get a perm What will she do 10 In Question 9 how will she look after she puts on her nicest outfit and her best jewelry and gets a perm 11 Tomorrow youre going to leave San Diego and go to Tucson What are you going to do tomorrow 12 A month from now youre going to leave Tucson and return to San Diego What are you going to do a month from now 13 Erik said he wont ask his sister if she will go on a date with Mike What wont Erik do 14 Lydia is at the paint store to choose a paint color for her house She hates the color blue What isnt Lydia going to do 15 IBM has a new chip thats twice as fast as the competitions fastest chip What is IBM going to do to the competition 16 Uncle Fred is going to visit our town stay for a short time and then continue on his trip to Florida What is Uncle Fred going to do 17 This pond is going to slowly evaporate and disappear What is the pond going to do 18 In Question 17 after the pond evaporates how will it be EXERCISE 15c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section Try to use will and be going to 1 2 3 4 5 114
6 7 8 EXERCISE 15d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one back off 12 call off 13 close off 13 come across 12 come up 12 fall through 12 hand in 13 hit on 13 leave off 13 let off 13 light up 13 put up 12 screw on 12 sign in 12 sign out 12 track down 13 1 Did my ex-husband talk about me at the party Yes your name several times 2 Our vacation plans after Tom broke his leg 3 I told you not to that cigarette in here 4 Flying Mom here for the holidays is going to cost 1000 My brother is going to pay 300 and Im going to the rest of the money 5 So far the police have been unable to the stolen paintings 6 The searchlights the night sky looking for enemy bombers 7 You cant go in that part of the museum its been 8 When you travel always the tops of your toiletries tightly 9 We decided to our ski trip because there wasnt enough snow 10 I was getting really angry and I told him that I was going to punch him in the nose if he didnt 11 The teacher told the students to their homework 12 I didnt agree with that list of the 100 best movies Theysome of my favorites 13 The manager reminded Maria not to forget to when she comes to work in the morning 115
14 Mrs Nash isnt in the office anymore She about an hour ago 15 The Judge told Jake that the next time he got in trouble he wouldnt him with a warning 16 I was going through some stuff in the attic and I some interesting old pictures 16 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with gerund objects 1 Gerunds verbs in the -ing form that function as nouns can serve as objects of many phrasal verbs It is more common to use gerund objects with nonseparable two- and three-word phrasal verbs Shes counting on getting that job gerund I dont feel up to playing hockey gerund but gerund objects are sometimes used with separable phrasal verbs wouldnt put robbing a bank past him gerund Mr Taylor wants to give smoking up gerund Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle believe in believe in amp believes in believing in believed in believed in 1 believe in pv When you believe in something or believe in doing something you have a strong opinion about something that is important to you believe in working hard and saving money Maria doesnt believe in sex before marriage 2 believe in pv When you believe in something you think it exists Do you believe in ghosts Ned is an atheist he doesnt believe in God 116
3 believe in pv When you believe in people you have confidence in them and believe what they say because you think they are honest correct or competent dont care what anyone else says I still believe in you We want to believe in you but we need some proof that your invention really works Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle carry on carry on amp carries on carrying on carried on carried on 1 carry on pv When you carry on you continue as before despite a difficult experience in your life Youll have to carry on for the sake of the children It was difficult for Mrs Nelson to carry on after her husband died 2 carry on with pv When you carry on carry on with an activity or carry on doing an activity you continue it or continue doing it The men stopped working when General Chambers entered the room and he told them to carry on She plans to carry on with her career after the baby is born They knew I was trying to sleep but they carried on talking and singing anyway 3 carry on pv When you carry something on an airplane you keep it with you in the passenger compartment instead of giving it to an airline agent to put in the baggage compartment This suitcase is pretty big I hope theyll let me carry it on You should carry your laptop computer on You dont want to take any chances carry-on n Carry-on carry-on luggage carry-on baggage carry-on bags and so on are not given to an airline agent to put in the baggage compartment but are kept in the passenger compartment of an airplane Im staying only one night in New York so all Ill need is a carry-on bag 4 carry on about pv informal When you carry on or carry on about something you are very persistent and vocal about something that upsets you forgot our anniversary and she carried on all day I said I was sorry now will you please stop carrying on about it count on count on amp counts on counting on counted on counted on 1 count on pv When you need something important to happen or a certain condition to exist you are counting on it When you need someone to do something important you are counting on that person Im counting on getting a ride to the airport with Betty Farmers count on a lot of rain in the spring 117
2 count on pv When you rely on someone or something for help or support if you need it you are counting on that thing or that person Im going to sell this car and buy one that always starts I need a car I can count on The governor said that shes counting on our support in the next election 3 count on pv When you are certain than something will happen or that a certain condition will exist you are counting on it Manin makes a fool of himself at every party You can count on it You can count on crowds and long lines at Disney World if you go in August Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get through get through amp gets through getting through got through gottengot through 1 get through with pv When you get through get through with an activity or get through doing an activity you finish it or finish doing it have so much homework that I might not get through with it until midnight After you get through washing the dishes you can start ironing 2 get through to pv When you get through or get through to someone usually on a telephone or radio you are able to speak to that person Nancy tried calling Jim last night but she couldnt get through It wasnt easy but I finally got through to my brother in Borneo 3 get through to pv When you get through or get through to someone you make that person understand your opinion or point of view Mr Toylor has tried to make his daughter understand why its important to work hard in school and get good grades but he just cant get through Ive explained it a hundred times What do I have to do to get through to you 4 get through pv informal When you get something through someones head you make that person understand your opinion or point of view When you get something through your own head you understand it finally got it through my sons head that I was serious about sending him to military school When are you going to get it through your head that our marriage is over 5 get through pv When something gets you through a difficult experience it comforts and supports you Julias faith in God was what got her through the loss of her husband He was very nervous about giving the speech so he had a drink to help get him through the ordeal 118
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go for go for amp goes for going for went for gone for 1 go for pv informal When you go for something you like it a lot Erik really goes for scuba diving Lets go to a different nightclub I dont go for jazz 2 go for pv When you go for something you try to achieve it The gymnast said she was going to go for the gold at the next Olympics After she finished her masters she went for a PhD 3 go for pv always continuous When you have something going for you you have an advantage that makes it easier for you to do something or get something that you want Sams not especially good at basketball but he has one thing going for him hes seven feet tall I have ten years of experience going for me so I think I have a good chance of getting the job 4 go for pv When you say that a statement about one person or thing goes for another person or thing you mean that it is also true about the other person or thing When you say quotThat goes for mequot you are agreeing with someone elses opinion Heather said that Tom was a jerk and I said that that goes for Toms brother Bill too Bettys really angry about it and that goes for me too hold off hold off amp holds off holding off held off held off 1 hold off pv When you hold off or hold off doing something you delay doing it held offsetting our house until our youngest child moved out Youd better hold off accusing Mike until youre 100 percent sure 1 hold off pv When you hold off an attack you prevent the attacker from getting close to you or from winning the fight If you hold off a competitor you prevent the competitor from winning The enemy was so strong that there was no way to hold them off The champion held off the challenger and won the game put past 1 put past pv used only in the infinitive form and only in negative sentences When you want to say that you think someone is capable of doing something wrong you say that you wouldnt put it past that person When you want to warn someone that you think another person is capable of doing something wrong you say quotDont put it past that personquot 119
Is he capable of murder Well I wouldnt put killing someone past him Marvin is evil There isnt any crime I wouldnt put past him You dont think Hank would steal money from his grandmother I know him better than you do dont put it past him Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle think about think about amp thinks about thinking about thought about thought about 1 think about pv When you think about something or think about doing something you consider it before making a decision The salesman tried to get me to sign the contract but I said Id think about it Im thinking about quitting my job EXERCISE 16a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 This house is too small for our family Were moving to a bigger one 2 These skis are pretty big Do you think theyll let me them 3 This work is very important and I know you can do it Im you 4 At the next Olympics Rauls going to a new record in the pole vault 5 I dont talking about people behind their backs 6 I tried several times to call Tim in Timbuktu but I couldnt 7 The roller coaster is very popular If you go on the weekend you can waiting in line for three hours 8 As soon as you washing the car come inside and eat lunch 9 I wanted to buy a digital camera but I buying one until the prices fell 10 Marvin seems like a nice guy but he isnt I wouldnt anything him 11 David asked me to buy beer when I went to the store but I forgot and he about it for an hour 12 The defenders the attackers as long as they could 120
13 Mike really auto racing when he was young 14 Sally has a good education and a pleasant personality She has a lot her 15 How can I after this terrible tragedy 16 Ive explained the rules a thousand times Why cant you it your head that Im the boss around here not you 17 Everyone else thinks Dr Hatchers ideas are crazy but I him 18 Uncle John was the only one who knew how to run this business Now that hes dead we wont be able to 19 I didnt used to ghosts but what I saw last night changed my mind 20 Ive tried to get her to understand my point of view but I cant to her 21 The Republicans are idiots and that the Democrats too 22 Letters from his family helped Jake his prison sentence 23 I always knew that my brother was the one person I could if I had a problem EXERCISE 16b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Judy likes taking pictures a lot How does she feel about taking pictures 2 Maria didnt finish studying until 1100 PM What didnt Maria do until 1100 PM 3 The Ortegas took two bags with them to keep in the passenger compartment when they flew to New York What did they do to the two bags 4 In Question 3 what kind of bags did the Ortegas keep with them 5 Jane is considering spending the summer in Bolivia What is Jane doing 6 Bill feels strongly that hunting is wrong How does Bill feel about hunting 121
7 Paul couldnt continue his career as a dancer after his accident What couldnt he do after his accident 8 We delayed having children until after we had done some traveling What did we do 9 You think stealing is something Hank would do What do you think about Hank 10 Nancy is going to try to call her sister in Nepal tonight What is Nancy going to try to do tonight 11 Hank isnt reliable You cant be certain he will do what he says he will do What cant you do to Hank 12 Dan was very angry and he yelled and complained for three hours What did Dan do for three hours 13 You cant be 100 percent certain that the weather will be nice in Florida in the winter What cant you do to the winter weather in Florida 14 Many children are sure that monsters are real What do many children think about monsters EXERCISE 16c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section Try to use gerund objects 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 122
EXERCISE 16d Review Complete the sentences with these participle adjectives from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one closed off 13 dressed up 14 dried up 14 filled out 14 fixed up 15 lit up 13 put away 14 screwed on 12 stuck-up 14 used up 14 wound up 14 wrapped up 4 1 Charles is so He thinks hes better than everyone else because he comes from a rich family 2 Now that your house is its worth a lot more 3 There isnt any more paper for the copier its 4 I washed and dried the dishes and now theyre in the cabinet 5 Franks really about his wedding tomorrow 6 The presents have wrapping paper on them Theyre 7 This form has all the information in the correct spaces Its 8 The floor of the bathroom isnt wet anymore its 9 Why is Sarah all Is she going out dancing 10 Be sure the top of the Coke bottle is If it isnt the Coke will go flat 11 You cant go in the east wing of the palace because its 12 I can see the road easily at night when Im driving because its EXERCISE 16e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one break down 5 get over with 3 put up with 3 break out 9 give up 9 see about 7 butt in14 go in for 3 take in 7 feel up to 3 leave off 13 wind up 14 get around to 6 look forward to 3 work out 11 get out of 6 put up 12 1 We couldnt decide where to go for dinner last night so we staying home 123
2 Sally loves all outdoor sports and she especially swimming 3 I hate cigarettes and I will not smoking in my house 4 Its been seven years since Tom saw his sister Hes really seeing her again 5 My eyesight got so bad that I had to driving 6 Im exhausted I really dont doing any more sightseeing 7 The heat in my apartment doesnt work I need to the manager getting it fixed 8 Its been three hours since I asked you When are you going to taking out the garbage 9 I promised Sally I would lend her 1000 but now I dont want to give it to her How can I lending her the money 10 Raking the leaves is a big job but I have to it before it snows 11 The teacher continued her lecture where she the previous week 12 I havent all the details but Ive decided to quit my job and start my own business 13 I was late to work because my car on the expressway 14 My TV was broken so I it and had it fixed 15 When youre camping you should always your tent before it gets dark 16 Fighting between protesters and government troops after the general canceled the election 17 The line to buy tickets for the football game was really long so a lot of people tried to 124
17 FOCUS ON adverbs and phrasal verbs Adverbs are words that modify verbs Many adverbs end with -ly for example quickly slowly suddenly foolishly but other adverbs such as always sometimes and never do not The placement of adverbs in sentences with phrasal verbs depends on whether the verb is intransitive or transitive and if transitive whether it is separable or nonseparable In general adverbs are placed like ordinary one-word verbs with the exception of nonseparable phrasal verbs which also allow for the placement of adverbs between the verb and the particle All possible placements of adverbs in sentences containing the various types of phrasal verbs are shown with Xs Intransitive phrasal verbs X subject X verb particle X Immediately he came over He immediately came over He came over immediately Separable phrasal verbs X subject X verb particle object X X subject X verb object particle X Angrily she ripped up the paper Angrily she ripped the paper up She angrily ripped up the paper She angrily ripped the paper up She ripped up the paper angrily She ripped the paper up angrily Nonseparable phrasal verbs X subject X verb X particle object X Slowly we headed into town We slowly headed into town We headed slowly into town We headed into town slowly Three-word phrasal verbs X subject X verb particle object X Eventually I grew out of the sweater I eventually grew out of the sweater I grew out of the sweater eventually Placing adverbs within three-word phrasal verbs is sometimes possible but it can be problematic Sometimes an adverb between the verb and first particle sounds acceptable and other times it does not Sometimes an adverb placed 125
between the two particles sounds acceptable and other times it will not This is more a matter of style than of what is correct or incorrect so unless you are sure it sounds okay it is better not to place adverbs within three-word verbs Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come come over amp comes over coming over came over come over 1 come over to pv When people move from one side of a place to the other where you are they come over or come over to where you are Come over here and say that again When he saw me he immediately came over to my table and said hello 2 come over to pv When people come to your house for a visit they come over or come over to your house Would you like to come over tonight Jim comes over to my house every night 3 come over pv When people cross a river or cross the ocean from east to west or west to east they come over My grandparents came over from Sweden in 1904 The ferry comes over to this side of the lake every day at 530 PM fall apart fall apart amp falls apart falling apart fell apart fallen apart 1 fall apart pv When the parts of something become completely separated because it is old or in bad condition it falls apart These old shoes are starting to fall apart Theres no way to fix this thing It has completely fallen apart 2 fall apart pv When a plan arrangement system or agreement fails it falls apart After five difficult years their marriage totally fell apart The peace agreement is slowly falling apart 3 fall apart pv When people suddenly lose control and start laughing or become very upset or emotional they fall apart Sally fell apart when she heard the tragic news Tom was so funny at the party last night that I just fell apart laughing get back at get back at amp gets back at getting back at got back at gottengot back at 1 get back at pv When you get back at people you do something bad to them because they have done something bad to you 126
John wont forget what you did to him Hell definitely get back at you someday She wants to get back at her ex-husband for the way he treated her Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go about go about amp goes about going about went about gone about 1 go about pv When you go about something or go about doing something you begin or continue to follow all the steps necessary to do it have no idea how to go about opening a restaurant Everyday he quietly went about his business and never caused any problems grow out of grow out of amp grows out of growing out of grew out of grown out of 1grow out of pv When people become too tall or too big to wear an item of clothing they grow out of the item of clothing bought Susies shoes one size too big but shes quickly growing out of them Do you want these clothes for your daughter Mine has grown out of them 2 grow out of pv When people become too mature for a toy for an interest or for a form of behavior they have grown out of it Judy had a big crush on a rock star when she was in high school but after a while she grew out of it Jims son is going through a difficult stage but hell grow out of it in a couple of years head into head into amp heads into heading into headed into headed into 1 head into pv When you head into or are headed into a place or area you begin to enter it almost had an accident as I was heading into town We scared away the bear and it headed slowly into the woods Jim was headed into Ashland when his car broke down rip up rip up amp rips up ripping up ripped up ripped up 1 rip up pv When you tear paper or cloth into many pieces you rip it up Nancy was furious when she read Toms letter and she angrily ripped it up Always rip up a check before you put it in the wastebasket ripped up partadj After a piece of paper or cloth has been torn into many small piece it is ripped up After the kids opened their Christmas presents the floor was covered with ripped up paper 127
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past particip wear down wear down amp wears down wearing down wore down worn down 1 wear down pv When something wears down or when someone wears something down the top or surface gradually disappears because of friction The feet of thousands of visitors a year have worn down the marble steps The mechanic told me that my cars brake pads have worn down badly and need to be replaced worn down partadj After the top or surface of something has gradually disappeared because of friction it is worn down The marble steps are very old and worn down The tread on these tires is dangerously worn down 2 wear down pv When people wear you down they gradually persuade you through persistent pressure to change your mind about a decision He wouldnt tell me the answer but little by little I wore him down She still will not give us permission but I think were wearing her down EXERCISE 17a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I waved to Jim when I saw him across the street and he and talked to me 2 This company has been since that idiot was made the manager 3 Dont leave the newspaper where the dog can get it Hell totally it 4 We need a lot of things from the supermarket When are you town 5 Jake told the boss I was drinking on the job and I got fired but I Jake I told his wife about his girlfriend 6 During the American Revolution the French fleet and helped the Americans fight the British 128
7 The heels on my boots have badly and I need to get them replaced 8 Can you help me get hooked up to the Internet I have no idea how to it 9 Dont spend a lot of money on baby clothes shell them in a few weeks 10 I need a new car This piece of junk is 11 Sally asks her parents for a pony about a hundred times a day Shes trying to them 12 When his wife said she wanted a divorce he just 13 If youre not busy tonight would you like to and watch TV 14 My four-year-old son thinks its really funny to say bad words I hope he it EXERCISE 17b Rewrite these sentences and place the adverb in parentheses in two possible positions 1 frequently Ms Taylor comes over 2 sometimes These cheap toys fall apart 3 nervously He went about making the bomb 129
4 eventually Sally will grow out of her childish behavior 5 reluctantly Jim headed into the swamp 6 suddenly Pat upped up Mikes letter 7 soon Frank will getback at Todd 8 gradually He wore down my resistance EXERCISE 17c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The contract was torn into many small pieces What was done to the contract 2 In Question 1 how would you describe the contract 3 Her plan is not working properly and theres a lot of confusion What is happening to her plan 130
4 My friends visited me last night What did my friends do last night 5 Mike doesnt know anything about applying for a mortgage What doesnt he know 6 Tomorrow were going to drive from the country to the city What are we going to do tomorrow 7 When Judy was a teenager she was very shy but shes not shy anymore What did she do to her shyness 8 The old lions teeth are not as sharp or as long as they used to beWhat has happened to them 9 In Question 8 how would you describe the lions teeth 10 I did something bad to my brother and now he has done something bad to me What has my brother done to me 11 The Vikings crossed the ocean before Columbus What did the Vikings do before Columbus 12 The teacher walked across the room and looked at your paper What did the teacher do 13 Jim became very sad and lost control when he heard that his brother had died What did Jim do 14 This sweater will be too small for my daughter soonWhat will my daughter do to the sweater soon 15 The pages are coming out of this old book What is the book doing 16 The police are pressuring the suspect to tell the truth What are the police trying to do to the suspect EXERCISE 17d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one boil down to 6 fight back 8 hear of 8 chicken out of 9 find out 5 kick back 10 come down with 6 get along 9 monkey around with 6 come up 12 go ahead10 set up 5 fall over 8 go through with 6 work in 8 131
1 I dont know when the train to Boston leaves Ill ask the ticket agent and 2 I dont like our neighbors and they dont like me We dont 3 Julia was nervous about bleaching her hair blond and she decided not to it 4 Sarah was nervous about bleaching her hair blond and she it 5 The ambassador will try to a meeting between the president and the rebel leader 6 We have a really busy day planned but Id like to a visit to the museum 7 If someone hits you you have to 8 I missed a week of work when I German measles 9 Having a mechanic fix my car will cost a lot of money so Ill it to see if I can fix it myself 10 The owner of the construction company was thousands of dollars to the mayor 11 Are you kidding Thats the most ridiculous thing Ive ever 12 The countrys economic problems are very complicated Can you tell me what it 13 Im sorry I have to cancel our lunch date but something very important has and I have to return to my office immediately 14 After the car hit the telephone pole the pole and crushed the car 15 I was so angry at my boss that I told him I was going to quit and he saidquot I dont carequot 132
18 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and can could will and would Can could will and would are modal auxiliary verbs often called models Modals are very important in English but they can be confusing because they are used to say many different things Here is a basic review of can could will and would and their most common uses Could is used as the past tense of can I cant come over tonight I couldnt come over last night Would is used as the past tense of will the future use of will has already been discussed in Section 15 to talk about something that was future in the past didnt buy that nice coat for my son because I knew he would quickly grow out of it Would is used in place of will when repeating someone elses words She said she would get next Friday off Would is used as the past tense of will to talk about a repeated past action When I worked as a bank guard I would stand around all day doing nothing Normally can could will and would have different uses and it is important to use the correct one however in one special case making requests they can be used with very little difference in meaning Can you get off the couch Could you get off the couch Will you get off the couch Would you get off the couch Can and could are used with little difference in meaning to ask for permission Can I think about it before I make a decision Could I think about it before I make a decision Can could will and would are used in conditional sentences Conditional means that a condition usually stated in an if clause must be satisfied for the main clause to be true When the condition is something that is actually possible the verb in the if clause is normally in the present tense If the condition in the if clause is something that could not actually be true the past tense form of the verb is used When the condition in the if clause is something that is actually possible can is used in the main clause to discuss a real ability If I have a car I can come over 133
When the condition in the if clause is something that is actually possible will is used in the main clause to discuss a real willingness or intention If I have a car I will come over When the condition in the if clause is not something that is actually possible could is used in the main clause to discuss an unreal or imaginary ability If I had a car I could come over When the condition in the if clause is not something that is actually possible would is used in the main clause to discuss an unreal or imaginary willingness or intention If I had a car I would come over Either the if clause or main clause can occur first in a sentence with a slight change in punctuation If I had a car I would come over I would come over if I had a car Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle breakthrough breakthrough amp breaks through breaking through broke through broken through 1 breakthrough pv When you use force to go through a wall or other barrier you break through it The thieves broke through the wall of the jewelry store The attackers couldnt break through the thick walls of the fort 2 breakthrough pv When you cannot do something because of a problem and you find a way to solve or eliminate the problem you breakthrough After the problem of tissue rejection is broken through organ transplants will become more common It took three days of negotiation but we finally broke through the deadlock breakthrough n An important discovery or development that solves or eliminates a problem that is preventing you from doing something is a breakthrough Dr Wood announced an important breakthrough in the search for a cure for AIDS figure on figure on amp figures on figuring on figured on figured on 1 figure on pv When you figure on something you expect it or plan for it didnt figure on such cold weather I wish Id brought a coat You can figure on spending a least hundred bucks if youre going to that restaurant 134
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get off get off amp gets off getting off got off gottengot off 1 get off pv When you get off a bus airplane or train you leave it The bus stopped and I got off You cant get off the train while its moving 2 get off pv When you are standing lying or sitting on something such as a horse bicycle motorcycle stage platform or piece of furniture and you step down from it onto the ground you get off it Youre so lazy Why dont you get off the couch and help me Get off your bicycle and come inside 3 get off pv When you are standing within an area of ground or on something that covers an area of ground and you move to the side of it and step off of it you get off it The referee told the player to get off the field Youre standing on our beach blanket get off it 4 get off pv When you get something off you remove it even though it may be difficult cant get this paint off my hands The top of this bottle is on so tight I cannot get it off 5 get off pv When you get a certain period of time off you are allowed by your employer to miss work during this period Pregnant women usually get three months off with pay Could I get tomorrow morning off to go to the doctor 6 get off pv When you get off or get off work you finish that days work and leave your place of employment Sally said she wouldnt get off work until 600 I havent gotten off early all week 7 get off pv When you do something wrong but are not punished or you are punished only lightly for it you get off Someone who helps you to avoid punishment gets you off He killed four people but he got off with only three years in jail If his lawyer hadnt been so incompetent he would have gotten him off with a lighter sentence 8 get off pv When you stop talking on the telephone you get off the telephone Get off the phone I need to use it Its late wed better get off the phone 135
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go beyond go beyond amp goes beyond going beyond went beyond gone beyond 1 go beyond pv When people or things are better or worse or do something in a better or worse way than is normal or expected they go beyond what is normal or expected Did you say Jacksons new book is good I think it goes beyond good its fantastic Sams wife discovered that he wasnt just friends with his secretary their relationship went way beyond friendship lift upon lift up amp lifts up lifting up lifted up lifted up 1 lift up pv When you lift up something you use your hands to raise it above the surface that it was on That rock is too heavy I cant lift it up Lift up the cover and look in the box line up line up amp lines up lining up lined up lined up 1 line up pv When people or things form a row they line up When you arrange people or things so that they form a row you line them up People lined up to buy Superbowl tickets Timmy is lining his toy cars up lined up partadj People or things that form a row are lined up People have been lined up outside the box office for three days The children are lined up for attendance 2 line up pv When something lines up with something else or when you line up something with something else it is positioned correctly in relation to something else If this bolt doesnt line up with that hole the lock wont work The holes in part A have to line up with the holes in part B before you screw them together 3 line up pv When you arrange for someone or something to be available at a future activity or event you line that thing or person up couldnt line a clown up for Susies birthday party Who have they lined up for the show lined up partadj Someone or something that you have arranged to be available for a future activity or event is lined up Dont worry about the show everything is lined up The singer is lined up but the band isnt 136
lineup n The people or things planned for an event are the lineup The network has planned quite a lineup of entertainers for the half-time special Theres always a trapeze act in the circus lineup Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle stand around stand around amp stands around standing around stood around stood around 1 stand around pv When you stand around you stand in a place wasting time and not doing anything useful have all this work to do and you guys just stand around watching me The manager told them to stop standing around and get to work tell apart tell apart amp tells apart telling apart told apart told apart 1 tell apart pv When it is possible to see how two similar things are different you can tell them apart The twins are identical no one can tell them apart All the puppies look the same and I have a hard time telling them apart EXERCISE 18a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Could you the phone I want to make an important call 2 Neither side would give an inch There was no way to the stalemate 3 If you put this fake Rolex watch next to a real one you can them easily 4 Jim wanted to go to a movie tonight but I told him I wouldnt work until late 5 If the holes dont the screws wont go in 6 There werent any chairs at the party so we just talking 7 I told Frank that his drinking problem isnt just hurting him it that its hurting his family too 8 The lawyer was sure he could him with only two years in prison 9 When I took this job after I finished high school I never spending thirty-five years here 137
10 Mother was the last one to the airplane 11 Bob everything in his cabinet so that its easy to find what hes looking for 12 Lydia told me she would try to three weeks so we can go on vacation 13 There were police barricades around the palace but some of the protesters 14 Children stop jumping on the bed with your dirty shoes right now 15 Can you the TV while I put the VCR under it 16 Some CDs come wrapped in plastic thats almost impossible to 17 I couldnt a magician for the birthday party 18 the carpet I just shampooed it EXERCISE 18b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Paul said he would remove his cat from the table What did Paul say 2 I cant see any difference between the original and the copy What cant I do 3 Erik cant raise the box of books because its too heavy What cant Erik do 4 Bill said he hadnt expected snow in May What did Bill say 5 Nancy arranged for a great band to play at the prom next week What did Nancy do 6 In Question 5 how would you describe the band 7 Jerry thought the problem with his car is that it needs a tune-up but the mechanic said its worse than that What did the mechanic say 8 The soldiers smashed a hole in the wall and entered the city What did the soldiers do to the wall 9 Carlos stops working at 500 everyday What does Carlos do at 500 everyday 138
10 You were arrested for drunken driving but the judge gave you only a warning What did you do 11 The teacher moved all the desks in his classroom so that they were in straight rows What did the teacher do 12 In Question 11 how would you describe the desks 13 She asked me if I would stop talking on the telephone What did she say 14 I stood at the bus stop for an hour waiting for the bus What did I do for an hour 15 The personnel manager at my new job said I wouldnt have to work on Sundays What did the personnel manager say 16 When you put a doorknob on a door the two sides have to be directly across from each other How do the two sides have to be 17 Sam stepped from the train What did Sam do 18 Marks father told him to move from the grass to the sidewalk What did Marks father tell Mark EXERCISE 18c Complete these sentences using your own words with phrasal verbs from this section or previous sections 1 Last week he couldnt 2 When I was younger I could 3 Hell 4 When I I would 5 Could you 6 Would you 7 Can I 8 Could I 139
EXERCISE 18d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one believe in 16 go along with 3 hold off 16 carry on 16 go for 16 put past 16 come over 17 go with 15 tell on 15 come through 15 grow out of 17 think about 16 count on 16 head back 15 get through16 head for 15 1 I suggested that we go to Paris and she really the idea 2 After I it I decided not to take the job 3 I buying a new computer because I thought they would be on sale in January 4 Do you think this yellow tie this blue shirt 5 Her uncle promised to pay for her wedding and he 6 Its very important that you do this work correctly Im you 7 Timmy broke a window and his sister him 8 The detective asked me if Jake had robbed the liquor store and I said I didnt know but that I wouldnt it him 9 Todd said he would to my house after dinner and help me with my homework 10 The reason Charles is vice-president of the company is that he the boss on every decision 11 Tomorrow Im going to leave Winnipeg and Toronto 12 I probably wont to Winnipeg for a month or more 13 I didnt get Sally what she wanted for her birthday and she about it all day 14 You have so much work to do When do you think youll 140
15 I bought these pants for my son a month ago and hes them already 16 Ned didntUFOs until he saw one 19 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and the adverb right The adverb right is often used to intensify the meaning of a phrasal verb Placed before the particle right means directly immediately or quickly It is not important whether the phrasal verb is intransitive separable or nonseparable What does matter is whether the action of the verb is something that can logically be done directly immediately or quickly For example it would be illogical to use right with stand around or wear down She aimed right at me She aimed directly at me Ill bring it right over Ill bring it over immediately The room warmed right up The room warmed up quickly Right can be used when a separable phrasal verb is separated by its object however right cannot be used when the object follows the particle He brought my radio right back Ho brought right back my radio Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle aim at aim at amp aims at aiming at aimed at aimed at 1 aim at pv When you point a weapon at people or things you aim it at them The robber aimed the gun right at my head He was aiming the arrow at the apple but he missed 2 aim at pv When you aim at something you want you do what is necessary to get it The manager said she was aiming at a 14 percent increase in sales next year The new taw is aimed at reducing crime in the streets 3 aim at pv When you do something designed to affect one class or type of people you aim it at those people Cigarette manufacturers were accused of aiming their advertising at young people The candidates speech was aimed at female voters 141
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle bring back bring back amp brings back bringing back brought back brought back 1 bring back pv When you take something to another place and then bring it from that place to the place where you were before you bring it back told Tom to bring my pen right back Sally borrowed my blue sweater and brought it back yesterday 2 bring back pv When something that was popular or current in the past is introduced again it is brought back Many schools are bringing back uniforms for children Every few years designers try to bring miniskirts back 3 bring back pv When something causes you to recall memories and emotions from the past it brings the memories and emotions back Looking at these old pictures brought back wonderful memories I had tried to forget that awful incident but this magazine article has brought it all back bring over bring over amp brings over bringing over brought over brought over 1 bring over pv When people take something from one place to the place where you are they bring it over called Frank to ask if I could use his electric drill and he brought it right over Linda is going to bring her wedding pictures over tonight cool off cool off amp cools off cooling off cooled off cooled off 1 cool off pv When the temperature of a thing or place becomes lower it cools off It was really hot yesterday but it cooled off in the evening This is too hot Ill eat it after it cools off 2 cool off pv When people or things cause a thing or place to become cooler they cool it off The coffee was really hot but he put an ice cube in it and it cooled right off This bath is too hot Put more cold water in it to cool it off 3 cool off pv When you become less angry or less excited you cool off Hes furious now but hell cool off by morning Their passion for each other has cooled off 142
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go back go back amp goes back going back went back gone back 1 go back to pv When you return to a place where you were before you go back or go back to that place That restaurant was terrible Well never go back Dorothy left the Emerald City and went back to Kansas 2 go back to pv When a condition problem practice or custom goes back to a certain time it began at that time The tradition of saluting in the military goes back to the Middle Ages His drug problem goes back to his college years 3 go back to pv When you are discussing the age of something you go back or go back to when it was created or started This table is very valuable It goes back to the 1760s The archeologist found ruins that go back 5000 years hand over hand over amp hands over handing over handed over handed over 1 hand over to pv When you give something to people because they demand it because they require it or because you are not its rightful owner you hand it over or hand it over to them Turn over is similar to hand over found some money in the street and I handed it over to the police Thats my calculator hand it right over handover n When you transfer ownership or control of something to someone because that person has demanded it or because you are not its rightful owner a handover takes place The Chinese celebrated Britains handover of Hong Kong The President demanded the immediate handover of the occupied territory 2 hand over pv When you give someone responsibility for an important project duty or problem you hand that project duty or problem over or hand it over to someone Mr Wilson retired and handed control of the company over to his son The TV news anchor handed the show over to the reporter at the White House pull over pull over amp pulls over pulling over pulled over pulled over 1 pull over pv When you are driving and then move your vehicle to the side of the road reduce your speed and then stop you pull over or pull your vehicle over pulled over to fix a flat tire Were lost Lets pull the car over and ask someone for directions 143
2 pull over pv When you are driving and a police officer signals you to move your vehicle to the side of the road reduce your speed and stop the police officer pulls you over or pulls the vehicle over Jim was driving on the wrong side of the road and he got pulled over by the state police When the police officer saw the driver go through a red light he pulled the car right over Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle warm up warm up amp warms up warming up warmed up warmed up 1 warm up pv When the temperature of a thing or place becomes higher it warms up Its cold outside I hope it warms up before the picnic I set the thermostat at eighty degrees and the house warmed right up 2 warm up pv When people or things cause a thing or place to become warmer they warm it up The fireplace doesnt really warm the house up much That soup is cold You can warm it up in the microwave warmed up partadj After a thing or place has become warmer it is warmed up Give the baby the bottle with the flowers on it its warmed up 3 warm up pv When you allow a mechanical device to run for a short time before being used you warm it up When a mechanical device runs for a short time before being used it warms up You should always warm your car up for a few minutes before you go anywhere In the winter I always let my car warm up while I eat breakfast warmed up partadj After a mechanical device has been allowed to warm up and is ready to be used it is warmed up We have to go is the car warmed up yet 4 warm up pv When you do light exercises before playing a sport or exercising with greater effort you warm up When performers play musical instruments or sing just before a performance in order to be ready they warm up Before a race most runners warm up with stretching exercises The singer warmed up in her dressing room before the concert warm-up n Light exercises done before playing a sport or exercising with greater effort are called a warm-up When a performer plays an instrument or sings just before a performance in order to be ready this is a warm-up The runners got to the stadium early so they would have time for a warm-up 144
warm-up n Warm-up clothes are worn during a warm-up Warm-up exercises are done before playing a sport or exercising A warm-up game round and so on is played in order to warm up for the actual game The baseball players wore their warm-up jackets when they werent on the field EXERCISE 19a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The pizza was cold so I put it in the microwave to it 2 My car was making a strange noise so I to look at the engine 3 Can I use your lawn mower Ill it tomorrow 4 Jim always puts milk in his coffee to it 5 The roots of the trouble in the Middle Eastthousands of years 6 The new police chief said that he thinks that abolishing capital punishment was a mistake and that it should be 7 The judge ordered the thieves to the stolen merchandise immediately 8 Hearing Uncle Johns stories about the old country a lot of memories 9 With this new antipollution law were reducing the amount of pollution by 50 percent in ten years 10 I asked Judy if I could use her video camera and she said she wouldit right 11 The mechanic recommended letting the car before driving it 12 The robber changed his mind when he saw the guard his shotgun right him 13 The local police chiefthe investigation to the FBI agents 14 Your fathers angry right now Talk to him about your miserable report card after hes 15 The changes at the factory are reducing costs and increasing profits 16 The mystery of the Pyramids nearly 5000 years 17 The coach always makes the players before the game 18 After lunch Jerry right to work 145
19 This coffee is too hot I cant drink it until it 20 I was by the sheriff for going eighty miles per hour in a school zone 21 Its cold now but itll by noon EXERCISE 19b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 Could you bring back my tool kit it 2 Ill bring over your tool kit it 3 The air conditioner quickly cooled off my apartment it 4 Todd handed over his wallet it 5 The sheriff pulled over the suspects them 6 The drivers are warming up their trucks them 146
EXERCISE 19c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense Replace the underlined adverbs with right Remember that right can be used only when the verb and the particle are separated 1 They lit a fire and the cabin became warm quickly What did the cabin do 2 You will return to work immediately What will you do 3 After the sun set the backyard became cooler quickly What did the backyard do 4 If I saw the flashing lights of the police car I would slow my car and stop at the side of the road immediately What would I do 5 Sergeant Jones pointed his rifle directly at the enemy soldier What did Sergeant Jones do 6 She told me to return her dictionary immediately What did she say 7 Lindas father told her to give him his credit card immediately What did Lindas father tell her to do 8 I called Lydia and told her I needed medicine for my son and she took the medicine from her house to my house immediately What did Lydia do to the medicine EXERCISE 19d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one back off 12 go beyond 18 stand around 18 break through 18 head into 17 tell apart 18 come across 12 hit on 13 track down 13 come up with 6 let off 13 wind up 14 fall through 12 lift up 18 figure on 18 put up 12 1 The prisoners the wall of the prison and escaped 2 It was easy for them to escape because the guards had been smoking cigarettes 147
3 The warden wasnt just upset with the guards the problem that 4 The guards used dogs to one of the escaped prisoners the next day 5 The other prisoner some dense forest 6 The prisoner tried to steal a mans car but when he saw the mans large dog he 7 The police had a meeting to try to a way to capture the prisoner 8 They finally the idea of using a helicopter 9 The helicopter plan because the weather was so bad 10 The police thought the prisoner would probably at his familys house 11 The prisoner has a twin brother and the police couldnt them 12 That was one problem the police didnt 13 One police officer walked behind the house and some garbage cans 14 He heard a noise from the garbage can so he the top and saw the prisoner 15 The prisoner a fight but the police were able to capture him 16 Both prisoners were charged with escaping from prison but the judge them with a warning 148
20 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs followed by the -ing form Some phrasal verbs can be followed by the -ing form of verbs He ended up staying home She lies around doing nothing The -ing form can be negative He ended up not going anywhere She lies around not doing anything Nouns and pronouns can come between the phrasal verb and the -ing form The doctor went around the hospital visiting his patients Jim hangs around Janice hoping shell fall in love with him Prepositional phrases can come between the phrasal verb and the -ing form My luggage ended up on the wrong flight going to the wrong city I started out at the bottom working in the mailroom Other adverbs and adverbial expressions can come between the phrasal verb and the - ing form Bill goes around constantly looking for bargains She stayed up late watching TV I went around all day not knowing I had spinach in my teeth He ended up here asking for money Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle end up end up amp ends up ending up ended up ended up 1 end up pv When people end up doing something or end up a certain way it is the result of a series of decisions actions or unplanned and unexpected occurrences End up is similar to wind up A hurricane was approaching Florida so we ended up coming home from our vacation early Judy has never gone skydiving before so shell probably end up in the hospital with two broken legs 2 end up pv When people or things end up in a place this place is where their journey ends even though the outcome may have been unplanned or unexpected How did London Bridge end up in Arizona The taxi driver didnt understand me and we ended up in Newark instead of New York 149 Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go around go around amp goes around going around gone around gone around
1 go around pv When people or things follow a circular path and return to the same place they go around The horse has gone around the track three times It took seven days to go around the island 2 go around pv When people or things follow an indirect or curved path in order to avoid an obstacle or to change direction they go around or go around the obstacle Heather went around the curve too fast and she ended up in the ditch There was some broken glass in the street but I went around it 3 go around pv When an object spins or turns it goes around The disk drives in computers go around very fast The children have to stay on the merry-go-round until it stops going around 4 go around pv When you go around a place you visit various parts of it The president went around the state giving the same speech at every stop The exterminator is going around the house looking for rats 5 go around pv When you go around in a certain condition or go around doing something you go to various places and allow other people see you was so embarrassed I went around all day with my zipper open Are you going to go around all day wearing that stupid hat 6 go around pv When you go around doing something you go to various places and deliberately do something that may bother or upset other people The new manager goes around telling everyone how to do their jobs Dont go around sticking your nose in other peoples business 7 go around pv When something goes around it spreads to various parts of a larger place A rumor went around that the plant was going to close He probably has the flu its been going around 8 go around pv When something is being distributed to a group of people and there is enough for everyone there is enough to go around There wasnt enough food to go around and some of the famine victims got nothing Dont make the pieces of wedding cake too big otherwise there wont be enough to go around 150
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle Go off go off amp goes off going off went off gone off 1 go off pv When a gun goes off it fires When a bomb goes off it explodes When an alarm or alarm clock goes off it makes a loud noise The terrorists were killed when the bomb went off accidentally I was late for work because my alarm clock didnt go off 2 go off pv When an electrical device or system goes off it stops operating Come on is the opposite of go off The electricity went off at 830 last night A thermostat makes the air conditioner go off if it gets below a certain temperature 3 go off with pv When you go off you leave a place or the people you are with and go to a different place When you go off with someone you leave a place or the people you are with and go to a different place with them Mark went off not realizing he had left his wallet at home At the museum Sally went off with her friends to see some things we werent interested in 4 go off pv When an event or plan goes off well smoothly without a problem or without a hitch a hitch is a problem it happens as planned The drug bust went off without a hitch The invasion didnt go off the way the general planned it 5 go off pv When a road trail path and so on goes off it leaves the main road trail or path and goes in a different direction This trail that goes off to the left will take you to the campground We didnt know which way to go one path went off to the left the other to the right go on go on amp goes on going on went on gone on 1 go on pv When an electrical device or system goes on it begins to operate A thermostat makes the air conditioner go on if it gets above a certain temperature The lights goes on automatically if someone walks near the door 2 go on pv When something goes on it happens quotWhats going onquot is a common informal greeting Tell me what went on at the party last night If you see anything illegal going on call the police immediately 3 goon pv When people go on they continue doing something Sometimes on is repeated for emphasis 151
asked her to be quiet but she went right on singing Just go on with what youre doing Ill wait until youre finished I told him to stop talking but he went on and on and on and on 4 go on pv When an event or activity goes on it continues The party went on until dawn I hate long meetings that go on for hours 5 go on pv When you go on information you are able to continue an investigation or other project because you have this information The detective said he needs more to go on and asked the public for information The auto company wont recall 75000 cars because of one accident Thats just not enough to go on 6 go on pv When you go on a diet you start a plan to lose weight I go on a diet every January I have to go on a diet my high school reunion is in two months 7 go on pv When you say quotGo onquotto people you are encouraging them to do something Yes caviar is fish eggs but its good go on try it Oh go on dont be afraid Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hang around hang around amp hangs around hanging around hung around hung around 1 hang around pv informal When you hang around or hang around doing something you stay in a place without a purpose for being there or because you are waiting for someone or something I had to hang around for three hours waiting for the bus Bobs been hanging around the house all day Doesnt he have anything to do 2 hang around pv informal When people stay in a place instead of leaving they hang around Whats the hurry Hang around for a while and when I finish my homework we can watch TV Do you have to go or can you hang around for a while 3 hang around pv informal When you hang around people you spend a lot of time with them When you hang around a place you spend a lot of time there Eriks mother is worried She doesnt like the guys hes hanging around with Jim and Bill were good friends They always hung around when they were kids 152
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle lie around lie around amp lies around lying around lay around lain around 1 lie around pv When you lie around or lie around doing something you recline and relax and do not do anything important Today is my day off so dont ask me to do any work Im just going to lie around All my sister ever does is lie around watching soap operas 2 lie around pv always continuous When something is lying around it is disorganized and no one is using it or paying attention to it Jake is a slob There are empty beer cans and old newspapers lying around all over his house We need to do something about all that junk lying around in the backyard start out start out amp starts out starting out started out started out 1 start out pv When you begin something you start out Start out is used to discuss how the end of something was different from its beginning The stock market started out in positive territory but closed 200 points lower Nancy started out as a secretary thinking she might have a future with this company but she doesnt feel that way anymore stay up stay up amp stays up staying up stayed up stayed up 1 stay up pv When something stays up it remains in a place that is higher than ground level That shelf wont stay up if you put all those books on it The astronauts stayed up for 241 days 2 stay up pv When you stay up you go to bed later than you normally do Judys tired because she stayed up until dawn studying for a chemistry test Dont stay up late tomorrows a school day EXERCISE 20a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 This is a dangerous neighborhood so stay with me and dont by yourself 2 Yesterday at work Leticia showing everyone her engagement ring 3 Wedding ceremonies in some countries can for days 4 The bomb will at exactly 600 153
5 Where are you going Why dont you until Jim comes home and then we can order a pizza 6 The driver took a wrong turn and we in the middle of nowhere 7 On Sundays my husband usually on the couch watching football games 8 My lazy son the house all day not lifting a finger to help with anything 9 Shes going to at her new job working only part-time but later shell switch to full-time 10 Buy lots of champagne for the party you want to be sure theres enough to 11 Bill likes to go to bed early he cant past 800 PM 12 Rosa wanted to study medicine in college but she studying law instead 13 The paleontologist was amazed to find dinosaur eggs just in the desert 14 I cant believe you town wearing those dirty clothes all day 15 Im sorry I missed the party Did anything exciting 16 Im nervous about the wedding I hope it the way we planned it 17 A rumor is the school about two of the teachers 18 Its normal for the power to during a thunderstorm 19 If that poster doesnt with tape well have to use thumb tacks instead 20 In the morning Dr Smith usuallythe hospital visiting his patients 21 Jim is usually a good boy but when he with Jake he gets in trouble 22 He was trying to a slow truck when he had the accident 154
23 I a diet two weeks ago and so far I havent lost an ounce 24 In the past no one believed that the earth the sun 25 If youre leaving what are you waiting for leave 26 How can I make such an important decision with so little information I need more to 27 Im surprised that the heat last night its only September 28 Miguels new race car is really fast Yesterday he the track in record time 29 After you cross the bridge youll see a gravel road that a lake and heads toward the mountains 30 I dont want to retire Im going to working as long as I can EXERCISE 20b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Youre going to spend the day on the sofa watching TV What are you going to do all day 2 Lydia walked to various places in her new house making decorating plans What did Lydia do in her new house 3 The letter was supposed to go to Austria but it finally arrived in Australia What happened to the letter 4 The electricity stops working everyday at 200 What does the electricity do 5 Joe called and asked what was happening What did Joe ask 6 Bob goes to every office at work telling awful jokes What does Bob do at work 7 Janice didnt go to bed all night What did Janice do 8 Dan stays in his house all day He doesnt go anywhere or do anything What does Dan do all day 9 You were late to work because your alarm clock didnt ring this morning What didnt your alarm clock do this morning 10 Jerry went to many places wearing a Hawaiian shirt What did Jerry do 11 When it gets dark the street lights begin to operate automatically What do the lights do 12 I bought only twenty-five hot dogs for the party but thirty people showed up so some people didnt get a hot dog Why didnt some people get a hot dog 13 There are a lot of potholes in the street and I have to avoid them while Im driving What do I have to do while Im driving 14 I couldnt decide between the red car and the blue car but I finally decided on the red car What did I finally do 15 Mr Watson is the brains of this company If he left we couldnt continue What couldnt we do without Mr Watson 16 Jane began the project thinking it would take only a few weeks What did Jane do EXERCISE 20c Write original sentences using these phrasal verbs from this section
and previous sections followed by the -ing form The first number after the verb is the section the second number is the meaning It is only that meaning that can be followed by the -ing form Try to make some of the sentences similar to those in the FOCUS section break down 53 go on 203 start out 201 come over 17123 hang around 201 stay up 202 end up 201 lie around 201 take off 17 go around 20456 show up 11 wind up 142 go off 203 stand around 1811 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 156
10 11 12 13 14 EXERCISE 20d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one aim at 19 call off 13 go about 17 rip up 17 blow away 15 cool off 19 go back 19 screw out of 3 break out 9 dry out 15 hear of 8 see a bout 7 bring over 19 give up 9 pay for 4 work up 9 1 My teacher made a mistake when he corrected my test and me ten points 2 Youd better wear a jacket it has outside 3 Her letter made me so mad that I it 4 You dont need to rake the leaves the wind will them 5 We knew we didnt have any hope of winning the battle so we 6 You cant run ten miles on the first day of your exercise program You have to to it 7 Michael didnt see the red light and hit a gasoline truck He his mistake with his life 8 Sam asked me if I knew someone named Francisco and I said I had never him 9 My family has been in Massachusetts since the seventeenth century They on the Mayflower 10 Our trip to Miami was because of the hurricane 11 Im going to the dentist getting my teeth whitened 12 Do you know how to getting a passport 157
13 This rug is wet lets take it outside to in the sun 14 The new restrictions on cigarette advertising are reducing the level of teenage smoking 15 They of prison by tunneling under the prison wall 16 We dont have enough plates for the party so I called Maria and asked her to some 21 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and should and ought to Should and ought to have two important meanings in English One is familiar to most students but the other is not A good idea should and ought to Should and ought to can be used to say that doing something is a good idea because it will benefit the person you are speaking about You should zip up your coat You ought to zip up your coat or because the person you are speaking about is expected though not required to do something You should bring in the groceries for your mother You ought to bring in the groceries for your mother Although should and ought are modal auxiliary verbs ought must be used with to In other words ought does not equal should ought to equals should Never say should to Very probable should and ought to Both should and ought to are used to say that something is very probable very likely or 90 percent sure to happen that if everything is normal as expected or as planned a condition will very probably exist or something will very probably happen The rebel territory should settle down once winter comes The rebel territory ought to settle down once winter comes In the examples above either should or ought to can be used they have the same meaning however only should is used in questions 158
Should Tom zip up his jacket Ought Tom to zip up his jacket and only should not or shouldnt is used in negative sentences Tom should not zip up his jacket Tom ought not to zip up his jacket Should not or shouldnt is used to say that something is not probable It means that something is very improbable very unlikely or 90 percent sure not to happen that if everything is normal as expected or as planned a condition will very probably not exist or something will very probably not happen I set the thermostat at sixty-five degrees and Im sure it wont get below seventy tonight so the heat shouldnt go on Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle look around look around amp looks around looking around looked around looked around 1 look around pv When you turn your head to see what is behind you or around you you look around I heard a sound and I looked around to see who it was Sally looked around the room and didnt recognize anyone 2 look around pv When you look around or look around a place you go to various parts of the place in order to see what it is like or what is there You should look around before you decide whether you want to buy the house Linda looked around the bookstore but didnt find anything interesting look over look over amp looks over looking over looked over looked over 1 look over pv usually separated When you look something over you look at it or read it carefully and thoroughly He ought to look the car over before he buys it Heres the first chapter of my new book look it over and tell me what you think pick on pick on amp picks on picking on picked on picked on 1 pick on pv When you pick on people you continually tease and criticize them Susie you shouldnt pick on your little brother The teacher never criticizes anyone else she picks only on me 159
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle settle down settle down amp settles down settling down settled down settled down 1 settle down pv When you settle down you become less active nervous or upset When you settle other people down you do something to make them less active nervous or upset Calm down is similar to settle down Why are you so nervous about the test Just settle down youll do just fine Cant you settle the children down All that noise is driving me crazy 2 settle down pv When a confused or violent situation becomes less confused or violent it settles down When you settle a confused or violent situation down you make it less confused or violent and more calm Calm down is similar to settle down Rioting and arson continued for three days before the area settled down The head of the union spoke to the angry strikers to try to settle them down 3 settle down pv When people settle down they start to live a less active life and perhaps get married buy a house and start a family Mike led a pretty wild life when he was in his early twenties but he got married when he was 29 and settled down My son is forty-one I wish hed settle down and raise a family step on step on amp steps on stepping on stepped on stepped on 1 step on pv When you step on something you place your foot on it If the carpenter steps on a nail shell have to go to the hospital for a tetanus shot Sam stepped on a cockroach 2 step on pv informal When you say quotStep on itquot to someone who is driving a car you are telling the driver to drive faster Hank needed to get to the airport in fifteen minutes so he told the taxi driver to step on it Step on it We have to be at work in ten minutes take out on take out on amp takes out on taking out on took out on taken out on 1 take out on pv When you take something out on people you unfairly criticize or punish them because you are angry about something that has occurred or about something that someone else has done If youre mad at your boss you shouldnt take it out on your wife Hey Its not my fault you got a speeding ticket Why are you taking it out on me 160
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle think ahead think ahead S thinks ahead thinking ahead thought ahead thought ahead 1 think ahead pv When you think ahead you plan fora future situation or activity so that you will not have a problem When were out camping there wont be any stores around if you forget something so think ahead We thought ahead before we drove through the desert we took forty liters of water zip up zip up amp zips up zipping up zipped up zipped up 1 zip up pv When you zip up a coat or other item of clothing you close it with a zipper Its freezing outside zip your coat up I cant zip my dress up Can you zipped up partadj After you zip up a coat or other item of clothing it is zipped up Look at Timmy out there in the snow without his coat zipped up Before you go to the airport make sure your suitcases are zipped up EXERCISE 21 a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Its not your brothers fault you failed the math test You shouldnt it him 2 Timmy left some of his toys on the floor Be careful not to them 3 Theres a guy in my class whos really mean and makes jokes about me I told the teacher that hes always me 4 Someone called my name and I to see who it was 5 Jane is already thirty-four but shes not interested in and having children 6 Ive your resume and I think youre the right person for this job 7 Timmy and Susie were running around the house like crazy so I played their favorite videotape to try to them 8 You should your backpack otherwise all your books are going to fall out 161
9 The two countries have a history of border clashes but things have in the last few years 10 Ive never been in your house before Id like to and see how youve decorated it 11 You dont want to arrive in Tokyo and realize you forgot something important back in Vancouver so 12 Were late it EXERCISE 21 b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Dan ought to look at the car very carefully before he decides whether to buy it What should Dan do 2 You went to a big bookstore and walked around so that you could see what books they have What did you do in the bookstore 3 Our neighbors were arguing all evening but they stopped arguing and got quieter at around 100 AM What did our neighbors do around 100 AM 4 Its freezing outside so you ought to close the zipper on your jacket What should you do to your jacket 5 In Question 4 how would you describe the jacket after it is closed 6 At the meeting the boss asked Betty some difficult questions and Betty wasnt ready with the answers What didnt Betty do 7 Frank unfairly criticizes his son What does Frank do to his son 8 Mark had a bad day at work and when he came home he yelled at his wife What did Mark do to his wife 9 When Mike was dancing with Heather he put his foot on her foot What did Mike do to Heathers foot 162
EXERCISE 21 c Review Rewrite the underlined words in the sentences using these phrasal verbs from previous sections and should or ought to Remember that ought to is not usually used in negative sentences break through 18 cool off 19 hold up 7 burn out 8 fall off 10 pull through 2 come over 17 get off 18 warm up 19 come through 15 get through 16 wind up 14 come up 12 go for 16 Example If they go to that restaurant they will very probably expect to pay 200 If they go to that restaurant they should figure on paying 200 or If they go to that restaurant they ought to figure on paying 200 1 Business in this restaurant will very probably decrease in January 2 They are very probably finishing the investigation 3 These cheap shoes will very probably not stay in good condition more than three months 4 Jim flies from Florida to Boston every year in April and its April now Jim will very probably travel to Boston soon 5 It almost always gets cooler in October and its October 1st today so it will very probably get cooler soon 6 Pauls disease is not serious so he will very probably be well again 7 Francisco almost never works past 500 and its 450 now He will very probably stop working in a few minutes 8 Lydia likes skiing a lot so if you suggest that we go skiing next weekend she will very probably like the idea 9 The enemy soldiers have been trying to smash a hole in the wall of the fort for two hours and they will very probably smash a hole in the wall soon 163
10 Sally said she would come to my house at 530 and its 540 now She will very probably come to my house soon 11 This work normally takes four hours to finish so if you start at 900 you will very probably finish around 100 12 The train almost always passes through town at 325 and its 320 now so the train will very probably pass through town in five minutes 13 I put a lot of wood on the fire so it very probably will not stop burning before morning 14 The car heater is on maximum so it will very probably get warm soon EXERCISE 21 d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one bring back 19 go around 20 hand over 19 pull over 19 end up 20 go back 19 hang around20 ring up 8 fall apart 17 go off 20 lie around 20 start out 20 get back at 17 go on 20 line up 18 stay up 20 1 After Marks father died Tom the office collecting money to buy some flowers for the funeral 2 Who said you could use my camera it right now 3 The smoke alarm in our kitchen every time I fry chicken 4 Weve been driving for five hours straight Lets and rest for a few minutes 5 Our travel agent is trying to a hot air balloon to take us to the top of Mt Everest 6 Last night I late watching Casablanca on TV 7 My old bicycle is in very bad condition I ought to buy a new one before it completely 8 Im mad at Sarah for telling my husband what happened at the office party Ill her someday 164
9 I thinking it wouldnt cost more than 300 to fix my car but Ive already spent more than 700 10 Jimmy didnt used to get in trouble until he started to with Jake 11 If you dont quit smoking and lose some weight youre going to dying before youre fifty 12 Visiting my old high school last weeka lot of great memories 13 Are you going to do anything today or just watching TV 14 Im sorry I interrupted your story Please 15 The cashier my stuff and said quotThat comes to 4721quot 16 Alfonso left his credit card at the restaurant so he had to to get it 22 FOCUS ON the particle up and the adverbs right and all The particle up is used in many phrasal verbs and one of its uses is to say that something has been done thoroughly or completely The building burned The building was damaged but not destroyed The building burned UP The building was completely destroyed Right discussed in Section 19 is often used in phrasal verbs with up to indicate that the action of the verb not only happened thoroughly and completely but also quickly They ate it up They ate all the food They ate it right up They ate all the food and they ate it quickly Remember that right can be used in this way only after an object that is separating the verb and particle They ate the pizza right up They ate right up the pizza Even though up indicates that the action of the verb is thorough and complete all is sometimes used for further emphasis with participle adjectives derived from phrasal verbs with up My taxes are all paid up The drain is all plugged up 165
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle burn up burn up amp burns up burning up burned up burned up 1 burn up pv When something is completely destroyed by heat or fire it burns up The meteor burned up in the atmosphere The rockets fuel will burn up after only forty seconds 2 burn up pv When people or things destroy something with heat or fire they burn it up Theres no more coal We burned it all up Jet engines burn up fuel at a tremendous rate burned up partadj After something is completely destroyed by heat or fire it is burned up There isnt anymore firewood its all burned up The house is all burned up Theres no way it can be saved 3 burned up pv informal When something makes you very angry it burns you up It really burns me up when other people take credit for my work I have to say something to Sally about what she did Its burning me up burned up partadj informal When you are very angry you are burned up Jim was burned up when his boss criticized him during the meeting Relax its nothing to get all burned up about clear up clear up amp clears up clearing up cleared up cleared up 1 clear up pv When a problem misunderstanding or disease goes away it clears up The misunderstanding cleared up right away after we talked about it My rash is clearing up by itself I dont need to go to the doctor cleared up partadj After a problem misunderstanding or disease goes away it is cleared up feel great My sinus infection is all cleared up Everythings okay It was a big misunderstanding but its cleared up now 2 clear up pv When you do something to solve a problem or misunderstanding or do something to cure a disease you clear it up Everyone was confused about the new policy so a memo was issued that cleared everything up The medicine Dr Smith gave me cleared the infection up 166
3 clear up pv When clouds in the sky go away the weather clears up Unless it clears up well have to cancel the picnic It was a beautiful day after the sky cleared up Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle count up count up amp counts up counting up counted up counted up 1 count up pv When you count all of something to see how many of them there are you count them up Count the money up and tell me what the total is Counting up the yes and no votes is going to take a long time eat up eat up amp eats up eating up ate up eaten up 1 eat up pv When you eat food up you eat all of it Theres no more pizza David ate it all up Dont eat up the cake before your father gets a piece 2 eat up pv When something eats up something else such as money or time it uses all of it Im broke Fixing my car last week ate up my entire paycheck I dont want to go shopping with you Itll eat up the whole day heat up heat up amp heats up heating up heated up heated up 1 heat up pv When something or someone makes something hotter they heat it up Waiter this soup is cold Would you heat it up for me Sometimes the sun heats up the desert to 120 degrees heated up partadj After something or someone makes something hotter it is heated up Dont give the baby that cold bottle give her this heated up one The spaghetti has been in the microwave for five minutes so Im sure its heated up by now pay up pay up amp pays up paying up paid up paid up 1 pay up pv When you pay up you pay all the money you owe to a person bank and so on usually as a result of pressure to pay the money A guy from the collection agency called and told me Id better pay up I wasnt surprised when the insurance company refused to pay up 167
paid up partadj After you are paid up you have paid all the money you owe to a person bank and so on told the bill collector that he had made a mistake Im alt paid up Bettys VISA card is paid up so there wont be any finance charge next month plug up plug up amp plugs up plugging up plugged up plugged up 1 plug up pv When people or things block a narrow passage such as a pipe drain or hole so that nothing can flow through it they plug it up Dont pour bacon grease in the sink itll plug up the drain I need to plug up the hole in the roof where the rain is leaking in plugged up partadj When a narrow passage such as a pipe drain or hole is completely blocked so that nothing can flow through it it is plugged up Call the plumber the sinks plugged up My nose is all plugged up and I cant smell anything wipe up wipe up amp wipes up wiping up wiped up wiped up 1 wipe up pv When you completely remove a liquid from a surface by moving a towel or sponge across it with a sweeping motion you wipe the liquid up Wipe up is similar to wipe off however you wipe up a liquid but you wipe off the surface the liquid is on Susie spilled her milk and her mother told her to wipe it all up Youd better wipe up the water on the bathroom floor before someone falls EXERCISE 22a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Dont the potato chips Leave some for me 2 We have to the hole in this boat fast before it sinks 3 It me when people smoke in a nonsmoking section 4 There was a lot of confusion about the new plan so we asked Tom to it for us 5 The bill collector threatened to repossess my car if I didnt 6 The pain I had in my shoulder right after I tried the new therapy 7 Okay lets the points to see who won the game 8 It was cloudy in the morning but around 1100 it right 9 It hasnt rained in months so this dry forest will really if theres a fire 168
10 Would you get a towel and the coffee you spilled 11 Ill put your dinner in the refrigerator and you can itwhen you come home 12 Im going to all these old papers in the fireplace 13 I didnt have any insurance so paying for those hospital bills really all my savings EXERCISE 22b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 They burned up the wood it 2 He ought to clear up the misunderstanding it 3 Would you count up the votes them 4 Have they eaten up all the candy it 5 I cant plug up the hole it 169
6 Wipe up right now that water it EXERCISE 22c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 You completely blocked the drain so that water couldnt go through it What did you do to the drain 2 In Question 1 how would you describe the drain 3 Im putting my coffee in the microwave to make it hotter What am I doing to my coffee 4 In Question 3 how would you describe my coffee after I take it out of the microwave 5 Erik hasnt counted all the money What hasnt Erik done 6 Youll pay all your late mortgage payments What will you do to your mortgage 7 In Question 6 how will you be regarding your mortgage 8 The police used fire to destroy all the drugs What did the police do 9 In Question 8 how would you describe the drugs now 10 My disease went away immediately What did my disease do 11 Sarah is cleaning up all the orange juice that she spilled on the floor What is Sarah doing 12 Carlos always eats all his baby food and he eats it quickly What does Carlos do 170
EXERCISE 22d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one carry on 16 go with 15 look around 21 step on 21 count on16 hand in 13 put away 14 take out on 21 dress up 14 head back 15 sign in 12 think ahead 21 dry up 14 head for 15 sign out 12 zip up 21 1 Ill be there when you need me You can me 2 Do you think these shoes my dress 3 so that you have everything you need when you get there 4 Linda is here in the office somewhere she at 852 5 Linda always leaves at 500 and its almost 600 now so Im sure she has already 6 That guy is crazy He ought to be 7 When you finish with the job application you can it to the secretary 8 I dont think we should make any changes now Lets our original plan 9 The party will be casual so you dont have to 10 Maria told me she would be in the library between 700 and 800 but I and couldnt find her 11 Theres some broken glass there dont it 12 I hope it rains soon The lake is starting to 13 your coat its fifteen degrees below zero outside 14 Janice hates her job and she it her husband 15 Im San Diego and I should get there by late afternoon 16 Ill stay in San Diego for a week and then to Los Angeles 171
23 FOCUS ON two-word phrasal verbs that require an additional particle when used with an object 2 As we saw in Section 9 many phrasal verbs that can be used both intransitively and they are variations of the same verb He filled in He filled in for Mike There are however three-word phrasal verbs that share the same verb and first particle as another two-word phrasal verb but have an entirely different meaning These are two different phrasal verbs and are classified separately He put up a poster He put up with her rudeness Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle crack down crack down amp cracks down cracking down cracked down cracked down 1 crack down on pv When you crack down or crack down on someone or something you enforce rules and laws more than you enforced them before or you make new stronger rules and laws The chief of police said he was going to crack down on car theft The students have been coming to class later and later everyday Its time to start cracking down crackdown n When you enforce rules and laws more than you enforced them before this is a crackdown The FBI is planning a major crackdown on organized crime After the crackdown the crime rate plunged cut down cut down amp cuts down cutting down cut down cut down 1 cut down pv When you cut down a tree you use a saw or an axe to cut it and make it fall to the ground You should cut that dead tree down before it falls on your house The builder was criticized for cutting down so many trees when he built the house 2 cut down pv informal always separated When you cut people down to size you do or say something to make them feel less important or less powerful
Im tired of that jerk Im going to cut him down to size Hank thinks hes such a tough guy Someone ought to cut him down to size 3 cut down on pv When you cut down or cut down on something that you consume you use it less When you cut down or cut down on something you do you do it less Cut back is similar to cut down If you cant quit smoking you should at least cut down My doctor said cutting down on fat in my diet would lower my cholesterol Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle drop out drop out amp drops out dropping out dropped out dropped out 1 drop out of pv When you drop out or drop out of a school a training course or other program you leave before completing it The program is very difficult and about 70 percent of the students drop out Lindas father was very disappointed when she dropped out of college dropout n A dropout is someone who has left school usually high school or college before graduating Many successful people are college dropouts get away get away amp gets away getting away got away gottengot away 1 get away from pv When you escape from people who are chasing you because they want to hurt you or because you have committed a crime you get away or get away from them When he took the knife out of his pocket I got away from him fast By the time the police arrived the robbers had already gotten away getaway n When you escape from people who want to capture or hurt you you make a getaway The robbers made their getaway in a blue Ford The car used for the getaway was found abandoned in the next town 2 get away with pv When you do something that is sneaky or wrong and you are not punished or criticized for it because no one knows or cares about it you get away with it Jake has been cheating on his taxes for years and he always gets away with it He got away with kilting his ex-wife even though everyone knew he was guilty 3 get away from pv When you get away from people or places you leave them even though it may be difficult Im tired of this town I need to get away Frank was talking and talking and I couldnt get away from him 173
4 get away pv When you get away you go on vacation have a lot of work to do but Ill try to get away for a week or two We always try to get away in January and go skiing Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hold out hold out amp holds out holding out held out held out 1 hold out pv When you hold out your hand you extend it in front of your body so that someone can shake hands with you or put something in your hand Hold out is similar to put out Maybe Mr Young is mad at me I held out my hand but he didnt shake it The street was filled with beggars holding their hands out 2 hold out pv When a supply of something is enough for your needs the supply holds out The beer held out until the end of the party but we didnt have enough wine This is all the money I have so it has to hold out until I get paid again 3 hold out pv When you hold out you resist an attack pressure or temptation or you continue to survive in a dangerous situation More than 1000 enemy soldiers attacked the fort There were only 98 of us inside but we held out for two weeks I havent had a cigarette in three days and I dont know how much longer I can hold out holdout n Someone who resists an attack pressure or temptation is a holdout The enemy soldiers are in control of the country but there are some holdouts hiding in the mountains There are still a few holdouts who dont have credit cards 4 hold out for pv When you hold out or hold out for something you refuse to compromise in a negotiation and accept anything less than your original demands The basketball player is holding out for a million dollars a game The union spokesman said the union members would hold out until their demands were met holdout n When you refuse to compromise in a negotiation and accept anything less than your original demands you are a holdout All the players have signed contracts except for two holdouts make up make up amp makes up making up made up made up 1 make up pv When you invent a story to entertain or fool people you make the story up When you invent a lie to deceive people you make the lie up 174
My son asked me to make up a story about monsters Hank told his boss he was late for work because he had to go to the doctor but he just made that excuse up made-up partadj When a story is invented or fictional it is made-up Theres no truth to any of this its just a made-up story 2 make up of pv often passive When people or things make up a larger thing they together form that larger thing When a larger thing is made up of people or things they together form that larger thing Children under fifteen make up 50 percent of the population An airplane is made up of thousands of parts 3 make up pv When you make up your mind make up your mind about something or make up your mind about doing something you decide which choice to make or which action to take like both the blue dress and the red dress I cant make up my mind My daughter still hasnt made up her mind about which college to attend Marsha made her mind up about quitting her job and joining the Navy made up partadj After you make up your mind or make up your mind to do something your mind is made up Dont waste your time talking to Tom about it his mind is made up 4 make up pv When you have an amount of money that is not enough for a certain requirement and you add more money so that it will be enough you make up the difference between the amount you have and the amount you need The cashier was supposed to have 755 at the end of her shift but she had only 735 so she had to make the shortage up with her own money I didnt have enough saved to pay for college but my Uncle Fred made up the difference 5 make up pv When you do something that you were required to do earlier but did not such as attend a class take a test or complete a homework assignment you make it up Karen asked the teacher about making up the test that she missed The teacher told her she could make it up tomorrow after school 6 make up pv the noun and adjectives derived from this verb are much more commonly used than the verb itself When you make yourself up you put lipstick eye shadow and so on on your face She made herself up and went to the party make-up n Make-up is cosmetics lipstick mascara and soon Heathers father thinks she wears too much make-up 175
made-up partadj After people have put on make-up they are made-up Did you see Lydia Shes really beautiful when shes all made-up 7 make up with pv When two people make up or make up with each other they end an argument and resume friendly relations Sally and Jim had a big fight but they made up the next day Mr Baker said he wont make up with his wife until she apologizes Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle stay out stay out amp stays out staying out stayed out stayed out 1 stay out pv When you stay out you do not return to your house Do you let your kids stay out past 700 I stayed out late last night and Im really exhausted 2 stay out of pv When you stay out of a place you do not go inside it Your fathers busy cooking dinner so stay out of the kitchen You cant come in here Stay out 3 stay out of pv When you stay out of a situation such as an argument fight battle or war you do not get involved in it This fight doesnt involve you so stay out Jake has stayed out of trouble since he left prison watch out watch out amp watches out watching out watched out watched out 1 watch out for pv When you watch out or watch out for something you remain alert for someone or something that is dangerous or important When you tell people to watch out or watch out for something you are warning them of possible danger Watch out is the same as look out Watch out when youre crossing a busy street Karen said she would meet us here at 1200 so watch out for her Watch out Theres a snake in the grass I dropped a glass in the kitchen so watch out for broken glass EXERCISE 23a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Are you telling me the truth or did you that 2 Youre going to a dangerous area for muggers 3 I have to on salt in my diet because of my high blood pressure 4 We had to two trees to make room for the new swimming pool 176
5 of the water someone saw a shark 6 The soldiers in the fort couldnt against such a huge and powerful army 7 The United States is of people from many different races and cultures 8 It was too hard to work and go to school at the same time so Todd had to of college 9 Carmen can pay only half of the money she owes me but Luis promised to the difference 10 A group of concerned citizens is demanding that the police on prostitution in their neighborhood 11 The bank robbers in a white sedan with Florida license plates 12 When the President walks past you your hand and maybe hell shake it 13 I really need a vacation I havent in three years 14 I told my son that if he cant of trouble Im going to send him to military school 15 The airline pilots are for a 15 percent raise and they will not accept anything less 16 The stores closing in five minutes so you need to your mind about which pair of shoes you want 17 After fourteen years he thought he had with the murder but he was wrong 18 All Joe does is complain and criticize I need to from him 19 Mike didnt come home until 430 in the morning and his father was furious that he so late 20 He thinks hes so smart I hope someone him to size someday 21 Be careful about how much you spend this money has to until payday 177
22 Bob and Marsha had a big argument but they with each other and now everything is okay 23 The professor warned the students that if they missed the final examination they could not it EXERCISE 23b Complete the sentences with the correct second particles 1 The principal is going to crack down smoking in the bathroom 2 If you want to lose weight cut down cake and cookies 3 He dropped out college before graduation 4 After Jake robbed the liquor store he was arrested and sent to jail He didnt get away robbing the liquor store 5 The French workers are holding out a 100 percent raise and a two-day workweek 6 There are a lot of rattlesnakes around here so watch out them 7 Timmys mother told him to stay out the cookie jar EXERCISE 23c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The union members are on strike and some will not go back to work unless they get the 10 percent raise they demanded in the beginning What are the union members doing 2 Some union members accepted a 7 percent raise and went back to work but not the union members in Question 1 What would you call the union members in Question 1 3 Jim and his sister had a big fight but they apologized to each other and now everything is okay What did Jim and his sister do 4 Jake stopped going to high school before he graduated What did Jake do 5 In Question 4 what is Jake 6 You considered buying either a Toyota or a Nissan and then you made your decision What did you do 7 My elbow is very sore so my doctor told me to play less tennis What did my doctor tell me 178
8 Most of the Democrats will vote in favor of the new law but a few are resisting pressure to vote yes What are the Democrats who dont want to vote yes doing 9 In Question 8 what are the Democrats who dont want to vote yes 10 Mr and Mrs Ortega went to a party and didnt come home until 300 AM What did they do 11 The explorers supply of food and water has to last for three months What does the explorers supply of food and water have to do for three months 12 Erik invented a funny story for his daughter What did Erik do 13 In Question 12 Eriks funny story wasnt true How would you describe it 14 Mr Flores cheats on his taxes but so far he hasnt been caught What has Mr Flores done so far 15 There are a log of big trucks on the road so when you drive you have to be careful What do you have to do when you drive 16 The police are going to start working harder to prevent crime What are the police going to do 17 In Question 16 what can you call the plan to work harder to prevent crime EXERCISE 23d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one aim at 19 fall apart 17 stand around 18 believe in 16 get through 16 tell apart 18 break through 18 go for 16 think about 16 burn up 22 grow out of 17 wipe up 22 come over 17 hold off 16 count up 22 put past 16 1 Do you want these baby clothes My daughter has them 2 Its always a good idea to installing a new software version until they get all the bugs out 179
3 Get a paper towel and the grape juice you spilled 4 Im not sure what I will do I have to it 5 I have a lot of work to do so I probably wont until 400 6 The twins look exactly like each other How do you them 7 The walls of this fort are ten feet thick No one could 8 We finished our card game and Sean the points 9 The new law is reducing air pollution 10 I need to fix this table Its 11 Ractiel suggested moving to the suburbs and her husband the idea 12 That guys a lunatic Theres nothing I wouldnt him 13 Wethe old wood in the fireplace 14 My niece is thirteen years old but she still Santa Claus 15 The sign in the store window said they open at 1000 but we had to until 1020 before they opened the doors 16 Would you like to to my house tonight and have dinner 24 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used as nouns 2 As we saw in Section 5 two-word phrasal verbs are sometimes accented on the verb and sometimes on the particle Two-word nouns however are always accented on the verb even if it is the particle of the two-word verb that is accented verb SHOW off noun SHOW-off verb slow DOWN noun SLOWdown Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come down come down amp comes down coming down came down come down 1 come down to pv When someone moves toward you to a lower level position or from north to south that person comes down or comes down to where you are Come up is the opposite of come down 180
Its been raining for an hour Its really coming down My friend from Canada comes down to visit us in New Mexico once in a while 2 come down pv When you move to a lower level socially or financially and receive less respect from other people because of this change you come down in life Hank certainly has come down in life he lost his job house and family because of his gambling problem Mark used to be so successful but now he has so many problems He has really come down in life comedown n A comedown is a move to a lower level socially or financially that causes you to receive less respect from other people A few years ago he was the manager of this restaurant but now hes only a waiter what a comedown 3 come down to pv When you lower the price you are asking for something you come down or come down to a lower price wont buy her car unless she comes down to 12000 The union wont come down a nickel in its salary demands Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle Let up let up amp lets up letting up let up let up 1 let up on pv When something becomes less strong less intense or less severe it lets up The rain finally let up yesterday Mikes parents are very strict with him Hes only a boy They should let up on him letup n A letup is a reduction in how strong severe or intense something is There was no letup in terrorist bombings after the peace treaty was signed print out print out amp prints out printing out printed out printed out 1 print out pv When you make a computer write something on paper you print it out After I finished writing my letter I printed it out and signed it I cant print this out my printer is broken printout n When you make a computer write something on paper the paper is a printout put the printout of the October sales report on the sales managers desk shake up shake up amp shakes up shaking up shook up shaken up 1 shake up pv When something upsets shocks or frightens you badly it shakes you up 181
Seeing all those dead bodies sure shook me up I was really shaken up when I learned that my uncle had been killed shaken up partadj When something upsets shocks or frightens you badly you are shaken up Leave Frank atone He just got some bad news and hes a bit shaken up about it 2 shake up pv When you mix something by shaking it you shake it up You have to shake up Italian dressing before you open the bottle Did you shake this can of paint up 3 shake up pv When you make major changes in an organization or business you shake it up The new CEO shook up management at my company and a lot of people lost their jobs or were transferred People are getting a little lazy around here Its time to shake things up shake-up n A major change in an organization or business is a shake-up There was a big shake-up at my company and a lot of people lost their jobs or were transferred Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle show off show off amp shows off showing off showed off shown off 1 show off pv When you show off you let people see something you have or something you can do in a very obvious and excessive way Sallys boyfriend gave her a huge diamond engagement ring and she showed it off to all her friends The boy was showing off by riding his bicycle with no hands when he fell and hurt himself show-off n Someone who shows off is a show-off Did you hear Alfonso speaking French at the party so everyone could hear What a show-off slow down slow down amp slows down slowing down slowed down slowed down 1 slow down pv When something causes people or things to do something more slowly it slows them down I was driving pretty fast but I slowed down after I saw the police car Production at the factory slowed down when half the workers got sick slowdown n When people or things do something more slowly a slowdown occurs The snow caused a big slowdown on the highway this morning 182
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle stop over stop over amp stops over stopping over stopped over stopped over 1 stop over pv When you interrupt a journey usually an airplane journey for a short stay somewhere you stop over David stopped over in London on his flight from New York to Moscow Stopping over in Dubai on the way to Bangkok wasnt any fun we couldnt even leave the airport stopover n When you interrupt a journey for a short stay somewhere usually an airplane journey you make a stopover flew from Istanbul to Philadelphia with a four-day stopover in Amsterdam 2 stop over pv When you visit someone for a short time you stop over Would you like to stop over after dinner and see our vacation pictures Can you vacuum the living room please The Youngs are stopping over tonight and I want the place to look nice trade in trade in amp trades in trading in traded in traded in 1 trade in pv When you give an old car or other piece of expensive equipment to someone you are buying a new car or piece of equipment from in order to get a lower price you trade the old car or piece of equipment in After the twins were born Raul traded his pickup truck in for a station wagon Well get a good price on our new photocopier if we trade in our old one Most of the used cars sold by dealers are trade-ins EXERCISE 24a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Youre driving too fast Please 2 that bottle of salad dressing before you open it 3 The real estate agent says he thinks the sellers will a little in their asking price 4 My new car cost 24000 but I my old car for 15000 5 Jim is upstairs Ask him to here for a minute okay 6 in London for a few days on your way to India is a good way to get over jet lag 183
7 I was pretty by the news but now Im okay 8 Luis his new car to his friends yesterday 9 The bombing continued for four days before it finally 10 Leticia used to be rich but she lost all her money gambling and now she cant even pay her bills Shes really in life 11 When you finish writing that story it and give it to me I want to read it 12 This company was losing money until the new owners came in and things 13 I have to clean the house because Pat and Mike might tonight EXERCISE 24b Complete the sentences with nouns from this section 1 I worked for my company for thirty-one years before I got fired in the big 2 I had a four-hour in Los Angeles on my way to Hawaii 3 Nicole used to have her own company and now shes driving a taxi Thats quite a 4 The wind blew all night without any 5 New car dealers usually have a lot of for sale at low prices 6 The snow caused a big on the interstate this morning 7 After the computer finished with the data I took the upstairs to the sales department 8 Hes lost a lot of weight and now he wears really tight pants everyday What a he is EXERCISE 24c Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The rain slowed down trafficit 2 He printed out his letter it 3 The bad news has shaken up Jim and Nancy them 4 I got 5000 for trading in my old car it 5 Chelseas parents showed off her perfect report card it
EXERCISE 24d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 After the computer finished the calculations printed the answers on a piece of paper What did I do 2 In Question 1what would you call the paper with the answers 3 Todds friend in Minnesota is going to visit Todd in New Orleans What is Todds friend going to do 4 Ned walks around without a shirt so the girls can see his muscles What does Ned do 5 In Question 4 what is Ned 185
6 When I buy my new car Ill give the dealer my old car so that I can get a lower price on the new car What will I do with my old car 7 In Question 6 what would you call my old car 8 The new boss fired a lot of employees hired new employees and made a lot of changes What did the new boss do 9 In Question 8 what would you call what the new boss did 0 Sandra used to be married to a prince but now shes divorced and broke What has Sandra done 1 In Question 10 what would you call what happened to Sandra 12 It rained for two weeks straight before it stopped What did the rain do 13 In Question 12 what would you call what the rain did 4 There was a big accident on the highway yesterday morning and traffic was awful What did the accident do to the traffic 5 In Question 14 what would you call the traffic situation 16 You flew from Denver to Miami but you had to spend a few hours in Atlanta on the way What did you do in Atlanta 17 In Question 16 what would you call my visit to Atlanta 18 Mike saw a terrible accident this morning while he was driving and it upset him a lot What did the accident do to Mike 19 In Question 18 how would you describe Mike after he saw the accident EXERCISE 24e Review Complete the sentences with these nouns from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one backup 11 drop-off 11 follow-up 11 tryout 11 crackdown 23 dropout 23 lineup 18 workout 11 1 The doctor said I was cured but he wants me to see him in a year for a 186
2 Drugs are getting to be a big problem in my sons school I think its time for a 3 When I was nineteen I was a with no future but then I got smart and finished school 4 After the accident the human cannonball was dropped from the circus 5 The for the basketball team will be next Saturday at 1000 AM 6 Janice just got back from the gym and shes really exhausted from her 7 I use the program on the hard disk but I have a on a floppy 8 Business at the restaurant used to be good but there was a big after that case of food poisoning EXERCISE 24f Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one bring over 19 go beyond 18 look around 21 tell on 15 cool off 19 hang up 9 settle down 21 watch out 23 count up 22 hold out 23 stay out 23 wipe up 22 figure on 18 lift up 19 step on 21 1 Young man if you dont of trouble at school Im going to send you to military school 2 These suitcases are so heavy I can barely them 3 A good history book doesnt simply tell you what happened it that and tells you why 4 Todd got in trouble with his mother after he broke a window and his sister him 5 If youre going to that bad neighborhood late at night please be careful and for muggers 6 That museum is huge If you want to see everything you should spending the entire day there 7 This coffees way too hot Can you get me an ice cube so I can it 187
8 That company wants to hire me but Im for more money 9 My brother is going to visit tonight and hes his fiancee 10 Ive never been to this store before I want to and see what they have 11 My husband was very angry when our thirteen-year-old daughter came home at 400 in the morning so I told him to and let me talk to her 12 We had only twenty minutes to get to the airport so we told the taxi driver to it 13 After the votes were Senator Dolittle was declared the winner 14 Timmy get a paper towel and this juice you spilled on the floor 15 Leticia said good-bye and the telephone 25 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and have to have got to and must Have to have got to and must have two important uses in English One is familiar to most students the other is not But before discussing that lets pay special attention to have got to Have to and have got to mean exactly the same thing Both are commonly used and both are acceptable standard English Have to derives from have and have got to derives from have got So why the got in have got to A good question Got in have got to means nothing and serves no purpose whatever Have got to is a unique idiomatic variation of have to There is no point in trying to understand the grammar of have got to because there isnt any Like other idioms it must simply be memorized Though have to and have got to mean the same thing their forms are different especially in questions and negative sentences In the examples below the contracted forms are the most common in everyday spoken English statemen You have to come down You have got to come down You have to come down Youve got to come down question Do you have to come down Have you got to come down negative You do not have to come down You have not got to come down You dont have to come down You havent got to come down Requirement Have to have got to and must are both used to say that something is required necessary mandatory there is no choice in the matter 188
You have to make up the test Youve got to make up the test You must make up the test Although most students learn this use of must early in their studies it is actually the least common way to use must Both have to and have got to are much more commonly used for this purpose Near certainty The other important use of have to have got to and must is to say that something is 99 percent certain that based on the facts and based on what we see and know no other conclusion is possible about something We are 99 percent certain and all we need is confirmation to be 100 percent certain Janice you have been working for 12 hours without a break You have to be tired A logical assumption but until Janice confirms that she is tired the speaker cannot be 100 percent certain would never take that book out of this room Its got to be here somewhere A logical assumption but until the speaker finds the book he cannot be 100 percent certain that it is in the room That man is from Japan Ive never spoken with him but he must speak Japanese A logical assumption but until the speaker hears the man speaking Japanese he cannot be 100 percent certain When have to have got to and must are used in this way it is must that is more common than the others Have to and have got to when used for this purpose have greater emphasis and are used for dramatic effect Mark has to be the biggest idiot in the entire world Where is Lydia Shes got to be here somewhere Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle do with 1 do with pv used only in the infinitive form When you say that one thing has something to do with another you mean there is a connection between the two Dont blame me for what happened I had nothing to do with it Im not sure what this part does but I think it must have something to do with the transmission have on have on amp has on having on had on had on 1 have on pv When you wear something such as an item of clothing perfume or cosmetics you have it on Sally had red pants and a blue shirt on I didnt have a raincoat on and I got all wet 189
2 have on pv When you have an electrical device on you are using it Last summer was so cool that we had the air conditioner on only two or three times Whats that sound Dan must have the radio on Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hurry up hurry up amp hurries up hurrying up hurried up hurried up 1 hurry up pv When you hurry up you do something quickly Nicole has to hurry up if shes going to finish her work before 500 If we dont hurry up were going to miss the beginning of the movie 2 hurry up pv When you hurry something up you do it more quickly When you hurry people up you urge them to do something more quickly When you say quotHurry upquot to people you are telling them to do something more quickly Everyone was really hungry so I asked our cook to hurry dinner up There were only five minutes left to finish the test so the teacher hurried the students up Hurry up Im not going to wait for you all day knock over knock over amp knocks over knocking over knocked over knocked over 1 knock over pv When you knock people or things over you use force to make them fall to a horizontal position The force of the explosion knocked me over The children were playing and they knocked the lamp over lighten up lighten up amp lightens up lightening up lightened up lightened up 1 lighten up on pv informal When you lighten up or lighten up on people you become less harsh or less strict in your treatment of them Youre awfully hard on your daughter Maybe you ought to lighten up on her Youve been criticizing me all day Will you please lighten up 2 lighten up pv When you lighten up you change the subject of conversation from something serious to something more cheerful and pleasant Enough talk about business Lets lighten things up around here Lighten it up youve been talking about death and taxes all night plan ahead plan ahead amp plans ahead planning ahead planned ahead planned ahead 1 plan ahead pv When you plan ahead you plan for a future situation or activity so that you will not have a problem then Plan ahead is similar to think ahead Janice is a good manager She always plans ahead in case theres a problem 190
Plan ahead you dont want any problems when youre 200 miles from the nearest town Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle settle for settle for amp settles for settling for settled for settled for 1 settle for pv When you settle for something you accept it even though it may not be exactly what you want or need The strikers wanted an 8 percent pay increase but they settled for 5 percent Dr Smith has very high standards He wont settle for second best think up think up amp thinks up thinking up thought up thought up 1 think up pv When you think up something such as an idea solution or plan you use your imagination to create it have to think up a way to solve this problem Maria thought up a great way to make some extra money Stop worrying Ill think something up EXERCISE 25a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Were going to be late if you dont 21 told the store manager that I wanted a full refund and that I wouldnt anything else 3 Mr Wolfe a white suit last night 4 Joes been angry all day I wish hed 5 The truck hit the light pole and it 6 You have to talk to someone in the shipping department about your missing order I have nothing toshipping 7 If youre going on an important business trip you should so I that you dont forget something youll need later 8 Jake is trying to a way to make money without working 9 Go upstairs and your sister Im afraid shes going to be late for school 10 Weve been talking politics all night Lets things okay 11 I like to the radio when I go to bed 191
EXERCISE 25b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Charles wore a red shirt yesterday What did Charles do 2 Sean wants a 15 percent raise and he wont accept less What wont Sean do 3 Dr Wood is thinking about the important meeting she will go to next week so that she will be ready What is Dr Wood doing 4 Jake hit Jerry so hard that Jerry fell to the floor What did Jake do to Jerry 5 Ned told Todd to work more quickly What did Ned tell Todd to do 6 I got a letter about my income taxes What was the letter about 7 Sergeant Jones has been yelling at the soldiers all day What should Sergeant Jones do 8 Betty needs a Halloween costume and shes using her imagination to create one What is Betty doing EXERCISE 25c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EXERCISE 25d Review Complete the sentences with these participle adjectives from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one burned up 22 lined up 18 ripped up 17 zipped up 21 cleared up 22 made-up 23 shaken up 24 dried out 15 paid up 22 warmed up 19 heated up 22 plugged up 22 worn down 17 192
1 Its freezing outside make sure your coat is 2 Dont start driving yet the cars not 3 We talked about the problem and now everything is 41 need lotion my skin is really 5 Hank is such a liar Dont believe any of his excuses 6 After I give Bill ten bucks I wont owe him another penny Ill be totally 7 Pat was pretty after the accident 8 Bill was furious at his ex-wife and now all his photos of her are and in the garbage 9 People are for three blocks to buy World Series tickets 10 Dont drink that coffee its not 111 cant smell or taste anything my nose is all 12 I was really after he took my calculator without asking me and then lost it 13 The heels of my old cowboy boots are I need to get them fixed EXERCISE 25e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure to use the correct tense To check their meanings review the lesson number given after each one call in5 hand out 10 screw on 12 stop over 24 clear up 22 hook up 9 show off 24 trade in 24 come down 24 let up 24 slow down 24 warm up 19 go back 19 print out 24 stick up 14 1 The car dealer is asking 27000 for the car I want but I think he might to 24000 2 While you go to the library Ill go to the grocery store and well at the corner in one hour 3 Be sure you the top of that mustard jar tightly 4 Erik checks the time every five minutes so that he can his new Rolex watch 193
5 Mike wasnt at work today Hesick 6 When Bill flies to Los Angeles he always in Bangkok 7 The car dealer said hell give me a good deal if I my old car 8 We the notices all over town 9 The memo from the personnel office a lot of confusion about the new vacation policy 10 This weather is terrible I wonder if this storm is ever going to 11 Turn the heater on and the room will right 12Nancy was driving too fast so I told her to 13 The teacher wont the tests until the students are quiet 14 After you finish writing your report it and give it to me 15 Pauls from Colombia but he hasnt there for seven years 26 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and the adverb back The adverb back is sometimes used with phrasal verbs to mean again The following sentences have the same meaning We got together again We got back together Back is always placed directly before the particle When back is used with separable phrasal verbs the object must separate the verb and particle and back must be placed between the object and the particle put the engine back together I put back together the engine Do not confuse the adverb back which modifies phrasal verbs with the particle back that is part of some phrasal verbs and has the same meaning of again Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get together get together amp gets together getting together got together gottengot together get together with pv When two people get together they meet and spend time together When you get together with someone you meet and spend time with 194
that person When a man and woman resume a relationship after separating they get back together If youre not busy tomorrow night would you like to get together Were going to get together with Bill and Nancy tomorrow Judy and Sam had separated but now theyve gotten back together get-together n An informal gathering is a get-together Im having a little get-together tonight Would you like to come 2 get together pv When you get things together you collect them so they are in the same place You should get all your tools together so you will have them when you need them Linda got all her tax records together to show to her accountant 3 get together pv informal When you get yourself together or get it together you gain control of your emotions after you have become upset or emotional Bob was very upset before the party but he got it together before the guests came Hey get yourself together Everyone is watching you Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go over go over amp goes over going over went over gone over 1 go over to pv When people move from where you are to a place thing or person that is farther away from you they go over or go over to that place thing or person Im busy Go over there and stop bothering me I was hot so Maria went over to the window and opened it 2 go over to pv When you go to someones house for a visit you go over or go over to that persons house Have you gone over to Nicoles house to see her new baby yet I went over to Eriks for dinner last night 3 go over pv When you carefully read or review important written material you go over it Heres a magazine article I just finished writing Go over it and tell me what you think The actor went over his lines before the audition I gave his report a good going-over and found a lot of mistakes 4 go over pv When you carefully explain something usually something that is complicated but important you go over it 195
Before the trial Hank and his lawyer went over what Hank was going to say No one understood the managers plan after he explained it so he went back over it 5 go over pv When an idea suggestion or performance is accepted and liked by other people it goes over Senator Dolittles plan to raise taxes didnt go over with the voters The sinaers performance went over well with the critics Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go up go up amp goes up going up went up gone up 1 go up to pv When you move to a higher level or position or from south to north you go up or go up to that place Go down is the opposite of go up Suzie came down from her tree house to eat lunch but she went back up after she finished I spend the winters in Mexico and go up to my home in Ohio in the summer 2 go up to pv When the cost rate quality quantity or level of something increases it goes up Go down is the opposite of go up The price of gas hasnt gone up in two years In the summer the temperature in Saudi Arabia can go up to 125 degrees 3 go up to pv When a schedule or plan ends at a certain time or date the schedule or plan goes up to that time or date Do you have the new schedule This one goes up only to the end of April The teacher gave the students a syllabus that went up to the midterm 4 go up to pv When something extends to a certain point that is farther north or at a higher elevation it goes up to that point Go down is the opposite of go up This trail went up to the base camp at the foot of the mountain Interstate 5 goes up to Seattle 5 go up to pv When you approach a person you go up to that person Theres Sarah Go up and introduce yourself Janice isnt shy she went right up to the president of the company and asked for a raise let in on let in on amp lets in on letting In on let in on let in on 1 let in on pv When you tell people information that is secret or not widely known you let that person in on the information General Chambers let me in on the top secret information Im going to let you In on something not many people know about me 196
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle open up open up amp opens up opening up opened up opened up 1 open up pv When you open something up you reveal what is inside so that people can see it Sofia opened the box up and looked inside Mikes going to open up his computer to try to find the problem 2 open up pv When you open a room or building up you unlock or open the doors so that people can enter The office closes at 1200 for lunch and opens back up at 100 The manager was late and didnt open up the store until 1030 3 open up pv When a new business starts it opens up or is opened up by someone was driving through town and I noticed that a new book store has opened up on Maple Street Jimmy wants to open up a restaurant near the new office building put together put together amp puts together putting together put together put together 1 put together pv When you assemble the parts of something you put it together Put together is the opposite of take apart Sally got a bicycle for her birthday and her father put it together after dinner It was easy taking my cars engine apart but putting it back together was a lot harder 2 put together pv When you organize some ideas plans or suggestions in order to show them to someone or discuss them with someone you put them together Mr and Mrs Flores want to redecorate their house so they asked an interior designer to put some ideas together I have an interesting idea for a new business and Im putting together a proposal 3 put together pv When you position people or things so that they are close to each other or touching you put them together The teacher told Timmy and Mike to put their desks together so they could work on their project When you plan your dinner party seating arrangement put Heather and Jimmy together shut off shut off amp shuts off shutting off shut off shut off 1 shut off pv When you shut off an electrical or mechanical device you cut the power going to it so that it stops operating Turn off and switch off are similar to shut off 197
Timmys mother told him to shut off the TV and go to bed Im freezing Would you mind shutting the air conditioner off shut off partadj After you shut off an electrical or mechanical device it is shut off Turned off and switched off are similar to shut off Well no wonder its so cold in here the heats shut off shutoff n When you shut off something or when something shuts off this action is a shutoff When you shut off something you use the shutoff switch button valve and so on The electricity shutoff lasted twenty minutes In case of emergency turn this shutoff valve here start up start up amp starts up starting up started up started up 1 start up pv When an electrical or mechanical device starts up or someone starts it up it begins to operate My cars engine died at a red light and it wouldnt start up again You push this button here to start the computer up start-up n When you start up something or something starts up this action is a start-up When you start up something you use the start-up switch button and soon To start the computer up push this start-up button If your computers hard disk crashes you can use a floppy as the start-up disk 2 start up pv When you start up a new business or company you take the steps necessary to begin a new business or company You should have a detailed business plan before starting a business up Jane borrowed the money she needed to start up her business from her uncle start-up n A start-up or start-up business or company is a new business or company Most start-up businesses arent successful EXERCISE 26a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Your important papers are all over the house You should them and keep them in a safe place 2 It was so cold this morning that it took half an hour to my car 3 This is awfully complicated Could you it one more time 4 The police ordered the people in the house to the door 198
5 The sergeant the hill to look for the enemy soldiers 6 The account executive was asked to some ideas for a new advertising campaign 7 Im trying to sleep Would you please the lights 8 Linda saw her favorite movie star but she was too shy to to him and ask for his autograph 9 Ill you a little secret 10 Im going toto Todds house to help him with his math homework 11 This calendar is uselessitonly to August 12 Thank you for your application I willit carefully and call you in a few days 13 This jigsaw puzzle has 1000 pieces Itll take forever to it 14 If that big discount store outside of town all these little shops will go out of business 15 The level of water in the river always falls during the summer but back the next spring 16 Sams idea of giving all the workers a 10 percent pay raise didnt well with management 17 I know youre upset but you have to yourself 18 On Saturday nights Mike usually with some friends and plays poker 19 As soon as we arrived at the party David to the buffet table and grabbed a plate 20 Without the combination theres no way to this safe 21 all your Spanish books on the same shelf 22 This road to the next town but thats where it ends 23 Ill need around 25000 to my new business 199
EXERCISE 26b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 I wish they would open up near me a branch office one 2 Lydia put together the food processor it 3 Do you know how to shut off the photocopier it 4 Push this button to start up the generator it EXERCISE 26c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Frank read my report carefully What did Frank do to my report 2 In Question 1 what did Frank give my report 3 Judy walked toward the king stopped next to him and gave him the petition What did Judy do to the king 4 Mike told me a secret What did Mike do 5 Bill and some friends are going to meet and spend some time together What are Bill and his friends going to do 200
6 In Question 5 what is this activity called 7 My computer begins to operate from the hard disk What does my computer do from the hard disk 8 In Question 7 what would you call the hard disk 9 The mayors plan to fight crime in the streets was very successful with the voters What impression did the mayors plan have on the voters 10 The heater stops operating automatically when the temperature reaches a certain point What does the heater do automatically 11 In Question 10 what is the temperature that makes the heater stop operating called 12 You quit your job so that you could begin your own company Why did you quit your job 13 In Question 12 what would you call your new company 14 You assembled all the parts of your model airplane What did you do to your model airplane 15 This airplane schedule gives flight times until December 31 What does the airplane schedule do 16 The supermarket unlocks its doors and lets people in at 700 AM every day What does the supermarket do at 700 AM every day EXERCISE 26d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from- previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one do with 25 have on 25 look over 21 settle for 25 end up 20 hurry up 25 pick on 21 show off 24 go off 20 knock over 25 plan ahead 25 take out on 21 go on 20 lighten up 25 put on 1 think up 25 1 Im asking 10000 for my car but Ill 8500 2 That new manager is really hard on the employees He ought to 3 At the supermarket Tom hit the stack of boxes with his shopping cart and them 201
4 We had planned to go to France on our vacation but we going to Spain instead 5 Will you If we dont leave soon were going to be late 6 Mark hates his job and he comes home every night and it his family 7 My doctor got the test results from the lab and she them very carefully 8 your coat Its cold outside 9 Dont wait until the last minute to make your vacation airline reservations You have to 10 The detective didnt believe that the gun had accidentally 11 I hated my older brother when I was a kid He always me 12 How are we going to get 500 in two days We need to a good plan 13 I didnt understand everything the computer shop guy said but it had something to memory 14 Jim tries to answer every question the teacher asks Hes always 15 That meeting was so boring It seemed like it was going to forever 16 The police officer must be off duty he doesnt his uniform 27 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the particle off and the adverb right The particle off is used in many phrasal verbs to say that something is separated or removed The cup handle broke The handle is broken but it is still attached to the cup The cup handle broke off The handle is no longer attached to the cup Right discussed in Section 19 is often used with these phrasal verbs to indicate that the action of the verb happened quickly 202
He washed the dirt off The dirt was removed He washed the dirt right off The dirt was removed quickly Remember that right can be used in this way only after an object that separates the verb and the particle He washed the dirt right off Ho washed right off the dirt Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle bite off bite off amp bites off biting off bit off bitten off 1 bite off pv When you bite off something you use your teeth to remove a piece When you bite off more than you can chew you agree to do something that you do not have the time or the ability to do The lion bit off a huge piece of the zebras flesh You cant finish that huge project by tomorrow I think youve bitten off more than you can chew break off break off amp breaks off breaking off broke off broken off 1 break off pv When something breaks off or someone breaks something off a part or smaller piece is separated from something larger by force Jim broke off a piece of chocolate and gave it to his girlfriend One of the arms broke off the statue when it fell off the pedestal broken off partadj After something breaks off it is broken off The handle of the coffee cup is broken off 1 break off pv When you break off relations or contact with someone you decide to end relations or contact with that person The two countries broke off relations with each other I was so angry at my in-laws that I broke off alt contact with them dry off dry off amp dries off drying off dried off dried off 1 dry off pv When something dries off or you dry something off water or other liquids that are on it evaporate It rained for only a few minutes so the streets dried off quickly Leave your wet clothes outside and let the sun dry them off dried off partadj After something has dried off it is dried off They cant play baseball because the field isnt dried off - 203
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle knock off knock off amp knocks off knocking off knocked off knocked off 1 knock off pv When you knock something off you either accidentally or deliberately use force to make it fall from a place above the ground to the ground below Susie knocked a glass off the table and broke it The cat knocked the clock off the shelf 2 knock off pv informal When you knock off you finish working I quit working at 500 last night but Sean didnt knock off until 830 Youve been working all day Why dont you knock off 3 knock off pv informal When you say quotKnock it offquot to people you want them to stop doing something that is bothering you If you dont knock it off youll be sorry Im tired of listening to you criticize me Knock it off 4 knock off pv When you knock something off you make something quickly and not very carefully The artist knocked off a quick sketch and gave it to the waiter Dan prefers writing novels but he sometimes knocks off a magazine article to make a few bucks 5 knock off pv informal When you knock people off you kill them Jake was sent to prison for knocking off his brother-in-law Mario was the head of a gang of criminals until he was knocked off by a rival tear off tear off amp tears off tearing off tore off torn off 1 tear off pv When you use force to remove a piece of something that is flexible paper cloth and so on you tear it off tore off a coupon for frozen pizza at the supermarket Alex always tears the tags off his shirt collars torn off partadj After something has been torn off it is torn off There arent any more coupons Theyre alt torn off wash off wash off amp washes off washing off washed off washed off 1 wash off pv When you wash something off or wash the dirt off something you use water and soap to remove dirt or unwanted items from a surface Mike washed off his car Mike washed the dirt off his car 204
washed off partadj After you wash something off or wash the dirt off something it is washed off The maid said she had washed the grease off the wall but the wall didnt look washed off to me Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle wear off wear off amp wears off wearing off wore off worn off 1 wear off pv When the surface of something is gradually removed by friction or exposure to the elements so that what is beneath the surface is exposed the surface wears off You could see the wood where the paint had worn off The gold wears off this cheap jewelry right away worn off partadj After something has worn off it is worn off These ancient temples used to be very colorful but now all the paint is worn off 2 wear off pv When the effects of drugs or alcohol gradually go away they wear off The wounded soldier was in great pain after the morphine wore off Hes going to have a big headache after the vodka wears off 3 wear off pv When an emotional feeling gradually goes away it wears off After the shock of getting fired wore off I started to get angry When I met Jim I fell in love immediately but that wore off quickly as I got to know him better wipe off wipe off amp wipes off wiping off wiped off wiped off 1 wipe off pv When you completely remove a liquid from a surface by moving a towel or sponge across it with a sweeping motion you wipe the surface off You can either wipe off something that is wet or wipe off the liquid Wipe up is similar to wipe off however you wipe up a liquid but you wipe off the surface the liquid is on Wipe off your face Wipe the food off your face wiped off partadj After something has been wiped off it is wiped off That table doesnt looked wiped off to me Wipe it off again EXERCISE 27a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Raquel a piece of paper and wrote her phone number on it 2 After I washed the windows I them with some old newspapers 205
3 Jerry has to finish a lot of work before he goes home so he probably wont until late 4 It rained last night so dont play outside until the grass 5 Be careful when you feed horses They can your finger right 6 The doctor said the sedative would after four or five hours 7 The shop owner was afraid to the gang graffiti his wall 8 After Jake Hank he was charged with murder 9 During the storm a tree branch and fell on the roof 10 Youstwo kids have been arguing all day it right now 11 I cant use this old typewriter anymore The painted letters have the keys 12 The two sides couldnt agree on a solution and the negotiations 13 Ill try to a few more pages of my book before I go to bed 14 It was a long time before the shock of his brothers death 15 Dont put your glass of wine so close to the edge of the table Someone might it EXERCISE 27b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place Use right with questions 2 and 6 1 Alex has bitten off the head of the gingerbread man it 2 The movers broke off the cup handle it 206
3 Please dry off the dishes them 4 Dont knock off the ash tray it 5 Can I tear off these mattress tags them 6 The janitor washed off the blood it 7 She didnt wipe off the milk it EXERCISE 27c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Try to use right with some of the answers Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I used water to remove the mud from my car What did I do to my car 2 Timmy forcibly removed the propellers of my model airplane What did Timmy do to my model airplanes propellers 3 In Question 2 how would you describe the model airplanes propellers 207
4 You put your arm in the water and the shark removed it with its teeth immediately What did the shark do to your arm 5 You could see that the ring wasnt solid gold because the brass under the gold was visible What happened to the gold 6 In Question 5 how would you describe the gold 7 I accidentally hit the lamp with my arm and it fell to the floor What did I do to the lamp 8 You used a paper towel to remove the glass cleaner from the mirror What did you do to the mirror 9 In Question 8 how would you describe the mirror after you removed the glass cleaner 10 You have to remove the water from the table before you paint it What do you have to do to the table before you paint it 11 In Question 10 how would you describe the table after the water is removed 12 You removed the gift wrapping paper from the gift What did you do to the gift wrapping paper 13 In Question 12 after using force to remove the gift wrapping paper how would you describe the wrapping paper EXERCISE 27d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one clear up 22 go up 26 open up 26 shut off 26 come down 24 heat up 22 pay up 22 start up 26 eat up 22 let in on 26 plug up 22 think ahead 21 go over 26 let up 24 put together 26 trade in 24 1 If I dont come up with 230 by Friday theyre going to my electricity 2 The guy from the collection agency demanded that Miguel immediately 208
3 It rained for forty days and forty nights before it 4 If you had you would have everything you need now 5 We had a lot of questions about our school project but the teacher them 6 Mark said his audition didnt well and he doesnt think hell get the part 7 Soldiers are trained to take their rifles apart and them back 8 I think 15000 is a little high for that car If you a little I might be interested 9 The police closed the illegal casino but it right back a few days later 10 No one at the party ate the carrot sticks but they the shrimp right 11 I hate using the stove on really hot summer days itthe whole house 12 The minimum wage hasnt in more than three years 13 The senator her aides her plan to run for the presidency 14 I doubt if Ill get much if I this old car 15 The engine right when I turned the key 16 My daughter put one of her stuffed animals in the toilet and it 209
28 FOCUS ON passive phrasal verbs 2 When separable phrasal verbs are in the passive they cannot be separated by the object of the verb because the object of the active verb is the subject of the passive sentence there is no object active Jim called back Mike passive Mike was called back subject object subject active Jim called Mike back subject object Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle beef up beef up amp beefs up beefing up beefed up beefed up 1 beef up pv When you beef up security or some other arrangement to prevent or deal with a problem you make this arrangement stronger After the terrorist attack security was beefed up at the embassy The hospital decided to beef up its emergency facilities The coach is planning to beef the defense up beefed-up partadj After security or some other arrangement to prevent or deal with a problem has been made stronger it is beefed-up The ambassador is confident that the beefed-up security will prevent any further terrorist attacks break up break up amp breaks up breaking up broke up broken up 1 break up pv When you break up a fight you stop the fight Two students were fighting and the teacher broke them up There was no way I could break up the fight between the two dogs 2 break up pv When a gathering of people separates it breaks up When the police tell people who are gathered together in a crowd to separate and leave the area the police break the gathering up The meeting should break up around 300 The police ordered the gang members to break it up The demonstration was broken up by riot police 3 break up with pv When two people end a romantic relationship they break up When you end a romantic relationship with another person you break up with that person When other people cause a couple to break up they break the couple up I was sad to hear that Jim and Nancy had broken up It was Jims secretary who broke them up 210
breakup n When two people end a romantic relationships breakup occurs Nancy is very upset about the breakup 4 break up pv When something breaks into smaller pieces it breaks up When you break something into smaller pieces you break it up The meteor broke up when it entered Earths atmosphere Sally broke the cookie up before giving it to her baby breakup n When something breaks into smaller pieces a breakup takes place The breakup of ATampT created several smaller telephone companies 5 break up pv When something breaks up the day or some other period of time it interrupts that time and makes it less boring The bank guard likes to chat with the tellers once in a while to break up the day My day was broken up by a going-away party for one of my coworkers Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle call back call back amp calls back calling back called backed called back 1 call back pv When you call someone back you call a person on the telephone who has called you earlier Janice left a message asking me to call her back Bob was called back by the salesman 2 call back pv When you leave a place or walk away from a person and are then asked to return you are called back remembered something after she walked away and I called her back Mike handed his letter of resignation to his boss but he was called back after he left the office call up call up amp calls up calling up called up called up 1 call up pv When you call people up you call them on the telephone Nicole called me up and asked me to come to her party Every evening Im called up by charities asking for money carry out carry out amp carries out carrying out carried out carried out 1 carry out pv When you carry out a duty task assignment or order you do it Sean will carry your duties out while youre on vacation The boss was furious because his orders hadnt been carried out 2 carry out of pv When you carry something out of a place you hold it in your hands and take it from that place 211
It took four guys to carry the pool table out David was so drunk that we had to carry him out of the bar carryout n Food that you take from a restaurant and eat in another place is carryout or carryout food Takeout and takeout food are the same as carryout and carryout food We usually take carryout food when we go to visit Aunt Kathy Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle give away give away amp gives away giving away gave away given away 1 give away pv When you give something away you give it to someone without asking for anything in return because you do not want it or because you want to help the person you are giving it to This old furniture isnt worth very much so I think Ill just give it away He made nearly a billion dollars but after he retired he gave most of his money away 2 give away pv When you give a secret away you accidentally reveal that secret havent seen that movie yet so dont give away the ending You can trust me with the secret I havent given it away 3 give away pv When you give yourself away you accidentally reveal something secret about yourself When something gives you away it accidentally reveals something secret about you Mark tried to keep his affair a secret but he was given away by his credit card bills Toad claimed he didnt care about Sally anymore but he gave himself away when he asked who she had gone to the party with giveaway n A giveaway is a statement or action that reveals secret information knew I was going to be fired from my job when everyone stopped talking to me that was the giveaway mess up mess up amp messes up messing up messed up messed up 1 mess up pv informal When you mess up a place you make it dirty or disorganized Jim made spaghetti sauce and he really messed up the kitchen You kids can play in the living room but dont mess it up messed up partadj After you mess up a place it is messed up It looks like Timmy was the last one in the bathroom its really messed up 2 mess up pv informal When you mess up a situation you create problems When you mess up a plan or arrangement you interfere with it and prevent it from happening as planned Mess up is similar to screw up 212
Everything was perfect until you messed it up Our honeymoon was messed up by the airline strike messed up partadj When you interfere with a plan or arrangement and prevent it from happening as planned it is messed up Messed up is similar to screwed up Bob changed my plan and now its totally messed up Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle stand up stand up amp stands up standing up stood up stood up 1 stand up pv When you stand up you change from a sitting position to a standing position Get up is similar to stand up Everyone stands up when the judge enters the courtroom When the students are sleepy the teacher makes them stand up 2 stand up pv informal When you stand people up you do not arrive at their house as you have promised or at a social event or meeting where you are expected Heather had a date with Jim last Saturday night but she was stood up The senator was scheduled to speak at our meeting but he stood us up EXERCISE 28a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 If you a long airplane flight into two or three shorter flights it isnt as boring 2 My workroom was clean and neat but my brother did some work and he it 3 Its going to be a surprise party so dont it 4 The neighborhood council asked the police to their patrols in high crime neighborhoods 5 I havent talked to Sam in a long time I think Ill him tonight 6 The general expects his orders to be immediately 7 In some countries students always when they speak in class 8 The huge iceberg when it drifted into warmer water 9 Breaking my leg sure my ski trip 10 Janice didnt come to my house last night as she promised She me 213
11 Timmy and his friend were fighting and Timmys mother the fight 12 These boxes are really heavy Can you help me them of the house 13 After the rally ended the crowd quickly and went home 14 Im too busy to talk on the phone now Can you me later 15 Bob claimed to have an excellent education but he was by his poor grammar 16 Mark is very upset His girlfriend justwith him 17 Jim told the Girl Scouts that he didnt want to buy any cookies but as they walked away he changed his mind and them 18 Instead of charging for the software program the company decided to it free EXERCISE 28b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The White House beefed up security it 2 The police are breaking up the protest it 3 A trained technician ought to carry our the experiment it 4 The foundation gave away the money it 214
5 Susie always messes up the bathroom it 6 Todd stood up Heather her EXERCISE 28c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Make all the phrasal verbs passive 1 Dr Wood will do the test of the new drug What will happen to the test 2 The statue was smashed by thieves What happened to the gold statue 3 The children made the house dirty and disorganized What happened to the house 4 In Question 3 how would you describe the house 5 Mikes friend promised to come to his house but he didnt What happened to Mike 6 Karen called Sarah but Sarah was at school Sarah didnt call Karen later What didnt happen to Karen 7 A supermarket chain gave the food to charity and didnt receive any money for it What happened to the food 8 The palace is making security stronger What is happening to security at the palace 9 In Question 8 how would you describe the security now 10 The personnel manager will call all the candidates for the job What will happen to all the candidates for the job 215
EXERCISE 28d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one back up 11 fix up 15 rip up 17 tear down 8 blow away 15 hand out 10 stick up 14 track down 13 cut off 11 hold up 7 take in 7 use up 14 drop off 11 lay off 10 take out 11 wake up 11 1 The hard disk is by the computer operator every day 2 The old buildings are being to make room for a new office building 3 The isnt any paper in the copier Someone it 4 Last night I was by a loud noise 5 I cant believe I was naive enough to be by him 6 The library book I wanted had already been 7 Something amazing happened yesterday You are going to be when I tell you about it 8 After the old house had been it looked a lot better 9 Many employees are really worried that theyre going to be 10 I was talking to my brother on the phone when I was suddenly 11 My shirt was when I fell off my bicycle 12 The entire building is by these four steel beams 13 The pamphlets will be in train stations and airports 14 The liquor store wasagain last night 15 The film wasat the photo lab 16 The escaped prisoner was easily by the FBI agents 216
29 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and might may and can Possibility may and might Both may and might are used to express a medium level of possibility When may and might are used to express possibility in the present or future their meaning is the same but may has a slightly more formal sound Might is slightly more common in everyday American English Nancy might drop in tonight Nancy may drop in tonight The speaker believes that the possibility that Nancy will drop in and the possibility that she will not drop in are approximately equal Requests may and might Both may and might are used to make requests May has a formal sound and is less common than might Can is the most common in American English most common Can I drop in tonight formal May I drop in tonight very rare Might I drop in tonight Permission may and can May and can are also used to give permission In this case may is much more formal and is much less common than can Might is not used for this purpose You can drop in after dinner You may drop in after dinner Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense pasttidple ask for ask for amp asks for asking for asked for asked for 1 ask for pv When you ask for something you tell someone that you want it We asked the waiter for some more coffee My wife might ask for more vacation time instead of a raise 2 ask for pv When you say that people are asking for something or asking for it you mean that they are doing or saying something that is likely to result in punishment or a negative consequence Im warning you if you keep doing that youre asking for trouble Youre asking for it Dont say that again 217
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come apart come apart amp comes apart coming apart came apart come apart 1 come apart pv When something comes apart the parts separate because it is old or in bad condition or because the parts were not strongly connected to each other This toy airplane is such a piece of junk that it came apart in my hand Be careful with this old book Its coming apart drop in drop in amp drops in dropping in dropped in dropped In ldrop in on pv When you drop in on people you visit them unexpectedly If youre ever in my neighborhood drop in Sally dropped in on Marsha last night flip out flip out amp flips out flipping out flipped out flipped out 1 flip out pv informal When you flip out you become very upset or very angry Bob flipped out when the city doubled his property taxes Keep your hands off Jims computer hell flip out if you screw it up look out look out amp looks out looking out looked out looked out 1 look out for pv When you look out or look out for something you remain alert for someone or something that is dangerous or important When you tell people to look out you are warning them of possible danger Look out is the same as watch out Look out for bears when you camp in the mountains Theres a lot of ice on the road so look out lockout n A lockout is someone who looks out for someone or something that is dangerous or important The burglars had lockouts on every corner to warn them if the police came luck out luck out amp lucks out lucking out lucked out lucked out 1 luck out pv informal When you luck out something good happens to you or you avoid something bad happening to you Todd lucked out when he found that lottery ticket on the ground it was a 1 million winner I missed my flight and the plane crashed I guess I lucked out 218
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle make out make out amp makes out making out made out made out 1 make out pv When you can make something out you can see it or hear it even though it is difficult to do so The audio system is so bad in the bus station that I can never make out what the speakers are saying I think that might be a mountain goat up there near the top of the mountain I can just barely make it out with these binoculars 2 make out pv always used with quotto bequot When you make people or things out to be a certain way or a certain thing you describe or consider them to be this way or to be this thing Stop complaining my food isnt as bad as you make it out to be The critics made the film out to be a real bore but I liked it 3 make out to pv When you write the necessary information on the front of a check you make the check out When you write the name of a person company or other organization on the check you make the check out to that person company or organization How should I make this check out There must be a mistake this check is made out to my brother not to me Nancy made a check out to the IPS for 17000 made out partadj After the necessary information has been written on the front of a check the check is made out Is the check made out or is it blank 4 make out on pv When you make out or make out on something you do something successfully or survive a situation even though it may be difficult Karen had a job interview yesterday I wonder how she made out Even though Jerry has lost his job well make out somehow How did you make out on the test yesterday run across run across amp runs across running across ran across run across 1 run across pv When people or things run across a place room or building they move from one side to the other very quickly The receiver ran across the field and caught the ball Its crazy to run across the street through the traffic instead of waiting for the light 2 run across pv When you run across people or things you see or find them without planning or expecting to Come across is similar to run across 219
dont go to that supermarket anymore because I may run across my ex-husband Bob ran across one of his army buddies at the baseball game EXERCISE 29a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Can you tell me what this says I cant it without my glasses 2 The store were going to is on the right side of the street so for it 3 You didnt fix this very well its already again 4 Okay Ill give you the money Who should I the check to 5 Im going to be in Dans neighborhood tomorrow so I might on him fora quick visit 6 Anns going to when she sees this cigarette burn on her antique table 7 Sally thinks she okay on her driving test 8 I wasnt surprised when I Sam at the beach he goes there a lot 9 Thats enough If you dont stop bothering me youre it 10 A police officer stopped me for going forty miles over the limit and all he did was give me a warning I reallydidnt I 11 Every night people call and money for one charity or another 12 Leticia was right about that restaurant It was just as good as she it to be EXERCISE 29b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 You got very upset when I wrecked your car What did you do 2 Timmy might tell Santa Claus that he wants a new bicycle What might Timmy do 3 I unexpectedly met my college roommate at the airport this morning What did I do at the airport this morning 4 Tom wrote all the necessary information on the check What did Tom do 220
5 In Question 4 how would you describe the check after Tom wrote all the necessary information on it 6 Betty isnt expecting me but I might go to her house this evening to visit her What might I do to Betty 7 The pieces of this chair are becoming separated What is the chair doing 8 You didnt have your homework ready but the teacher didnt find out because she forgot to ask you for it What did you do 9 I cant read what that sign says because its so far away What cant I do 10 Susies father told her to be careful about cars when she rides her bicycle in the street What did Susies father tell her to do EXERCISE 29c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 crackdown 23 handover 19 start-up 26 warm-up 19 cutoff 11 holdout 23 stickup14 fixer-upper 15 shutoff 26 takeout 11 1 The company is accepting applications for the position until the date March 6th 221
2 A before exercise is a good idea 3 We bought a fixed a few things added a bathroom and sold it a year later for a nice profit 4 Mom doesnt feel like cooking tonight so were getting food 5 Except for a few hiding in the hills all the rebels surrendered after the peace treaty 6 The angry citizens demanded a on crime in their neighborhood 7 Most business fail in less than three years 8 If tides a problem with the machine the switch is right here 9 The prime minister demanded the immediate of the hostages 10 The convenience store was recorded on videotape EXERCISE 29e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one break up 28 do with 25 go up 26 settle for 25 call back 28 dry off 27 knock off 27 stand up 28 call up 28 give away 28 lighten up 25 think up 25 carry out 28 go over 26 mess up 28 zip up 21 1 The teacher was too strict with her students and the principal suggested that she 2 Tom was expecting Nancy to come to his house for dinner but she him 3 Letting Timi-ny use my computer was a mistake He it and now it doesnt work 4 Theyre asking 340000 for their house but they might 300000 5 I told the school principal that Hank might have something to the fish in the swimming pool 222
6 Andrew Carnegie was a very rich man but he most of his money before he died 7 I gave Erik my telephone number and he said he might me tonight 8 Erik called while I was in the shower so now I need to him 9 After the Soviet Union in 1991 several new nations came into existence 10 The coach is worried that the rain-soaked football field might not in time for the game 11 The company is planning toa major reorganization 12 Dont put the candle there the cat might it and start a fire 13 The students didnt understand the lesson so the teacher it again 14 Its really cold out there you might want to your coat 15 The Wilsons arent sure where they will spend their vacation They may to Alaska to visit their son 16 Neds a dreamer Hes always trying to a way to make money without working 30 FOCUS ON participle adjectives formed from phrasal verbs 2 As we saw in Section 14 the past participles of many phrasal verbs can be used as participle adjectives The adverb all is sometimes used to emphasize participle adjectives with the meaning of very or completely But the sentence must be logical all is used only to emphasize a participle adjective that describes a condition that can be partial less than complete and so on Look at this example with very and two ordinary adjectives makes sense Hes very sick does not make sense Hes very dead The first sentence above makes sense because it is possible to be very sick but the second does not make sense because it is not possible to be very dead 223
makes sense The man is all spaced-out does not make sense The man is all locked in The first sentence makes sense because it is possible to be slightly spaced-out but it is not possible to be slightly locked in a door is either locked or it isnt When all is used with the meaning of very or completely in a sentence with a plural subject it is identical in appearance to alls more common meaning of all the people all the things and so on The men are a spaced-out This sentence is ambiguous it could be understood to mean that every man is spaced-out or that the men are completely spaced-out Infinitivte present tense -ing form past tense past participle lock in lock in amp locks in locking in locked in locked in 1 lock in pv When you lock people in you lock a door or gate so that they cannot leave a room building or other place Seven people died because they were locked in the burning building Its dangerous to lock children in a car locked in partadj When people cannot leave a room building or other place because the door or gate is locked they are locked in Were locked in well have to break a window 2 lock in pv When you lock in an interest rate price time slot and so on you make it definite so that it will not change in the future met with the loan officer at the bank and locked in a mortgage rate If you want to use the condo at the beach this weekend you need to pay a deposit to lock it in locked in partadj After you make an interest rate price time slot and so on definite so that it will not change in the future it is locked in The farmer isnt worried about what happens to the price of soybeans because the price of his crop is locked in Lock out lock out amp locks out locking out locked out locked out 1 lock out of pv When you lock people out or lock people out of a place you lock a door or gate so that they cannot enter a room building or other place The Youngs got home and found that their son had locked them out of their house I hide an extra key under the bumper of my car so that I wont get locked out 224
locked out partadj When people cannot enter a room building or other place because the door or gate is locked they are locked out Were locked out well just have to wait outside until someone comes home 2 lock out pv When a business locks out workers the workers are prohibited from working by the business management Management locked the workers out after they refused to sign the new contract When the owners heard talk of a strike they locked the employees out locked out partadj After a business locks out workers in order to prohibit them from working the workers are locked out Were locked out How can we earn a living lockout n When a business locks out workers in order to prohibit them from working it is a lockout The lockout lasted for three months Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle punch in punch in amp punches in punching in punched in punched in 1 punch in pv When you come to your workplace and put your time card in the time clock to record the time you have arrived you punch in Dont forget to punch in as soon as you get to work Mark was late so I punched him in punched in partadj When you are punched in you are at your workplace on duty and being paid If youre punched in you shouldnt be sitting down smoking a cigarette punch out punch out amp punches out punching out punched out punched out 1 punch out pv When you leave your workplace and put your time card in the time clock to record the time you have left you punch out Sallys not at work she punched out at 508 Jim usually forgets so his boss punches him out punched out partadj When you are punched out you are not at your workplace or if you are there you are off duty and not being paid The manager asked why I wasnt working and I told him I was punched out put out put out amp puts out putting out put out put out 1 put out pv When you extinguish a fire or something that is burning you put it out 225
Put that cigarette out immediately It was two hours before the fire was put out 2 put out pv When you take something from inside a building or storage place and leave it outside for someone to take use or deal with you put it out The garbage truck comes early tomorrow morning so put the trash bags out tonight Judy put some clothes out for her daughter to wear the next day 3 put out pv When you put out your hand arm foot or leg you extend it front of your body Mike put out his leg and tripped me I put my hand out but she refused to shake it 4ut out pv When you put yourself out you try very hard to help someone Sofia really put herself out to make her new daughter-in-law feel welcome Dont put yourself out I can make my own dinner 5 put out pv When you put people out you inconvenience them Erik really put Bill out when he asked him for a ride to the airport at 300 in the morning Youve done so much to help me Im sorry to have put you out 6 put out pv When you are put out by people you are annoyed by something they have said or done was really put out by having to take a taxi to work because Mike hadnt returned my car Dan was put out by Sams ungrateful attitude put out partadj When you are annoyed by something that someone has said or done you are put out Marias put out the manager thanked everyone who worked on the project except her 7 put out pv When a book magazine newspaper or musical recording is published or issued it is put out The publisher is planning to put a new magazine out that will appeal to teenage girls Frank Sinatra put out several classic recordings in the 1950s Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle sort out sort out amp sorts out sorting out sorted out sorted out 1 sort out pv When you sort a group of things out you separate them into smaller groups according to one or more characteristics 226
After you take the laundry out of the dryer you have to sort it out The mail arrives at the post office alt mixed together and it has to be sorted out before it can be delivered sorted out partadj After you separate things into smaller groups according to one or more characteristics they are sorted out The mail is sorted out and ready to be delivered 2 sort out pv When you do something to solve a problem or to correct a misunderstanding you sort it out Janice was angry with me about what happened last night but I called her and we sorted everything out Everyone is confused about the new plan We ought to talk to Mrs Taytor and sort everything out sorted out partadj After you do something to solve a problem or to correct a misunderstanding it is sorted out Mike and Tom had a big fight but everything is sorted out now Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle space out space out amp spaces out spacing out spaced out spaced out 1 space out pv informalused mostly by young people When you space out or when something spaces you out something or someone confuses you and causes you to forget what you were saying or doing at that moment This place is really weird its spacing me out Sorry what did you say I wasnt listening I spaced out spaced-out partadj When something or someone confuses you and causes you to forget what you were saying or doing at that moment you are spaced-out Half of what Jerry says doesnt make any sense hes all spaced-out wash up wash up amp washes up washing up washed up washed up 1 wash up pv When you wash up you wash your hands thoroughly Go and wash up its time for dinner The surgeon washed up before the operation 2 wash up pv When something in a lake a river or the sea washes up it is carried by the water to the land and left there The police were called when a dead body washed up on the beach Pieces of the sunken boat continued to wash up for weeks 227
EXERCISE 30a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I had to break a window when I myselfof my car 2 Judy was by her brothers criticism of the way shes raising her children 3 The guard the prisoner her jail cell 4 The Bakers organized a nice party for their daughters birthday They really themselves 5 My brown socks are mixed with my black socks I have to them 6 Joe was late to work so the manager him 7 The forest fire was by the rain 8 The restaurant manager told the cook to before handling food 9 The factory workers finished their shifts and 10 Thanks for helping me move my piano Im sorry to you 11 We got a fixed-rate mortgage so we could a low rate 12 The workers were by management during a labor dispute 13 I totally and forgot about the cake in the oven 14 Sally and her brothers had a big argument but they got everything 15 As I was falling I my arm to protect my head 16 Wreckage from the crashed airplane on the coast 17 Jim bowls of peanuts for his guests 18 The band hasnt a CD in three years EXERCISE 30b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 He locked in the crazy guy him 228
2 Jim Iocked out his wife her 3 Did you punch in Rosa her 4 Would you punch out7 Linda and Erikthem 5 They couldnt put out the fire it 6 The bright lights spaced out Janice her EXERCISE 30c Complete the sentences with participle adjectives from this section 1 Mark isnt working hes taking a break He must be 2 You cant leave the building because youre 3 The clothes were all mixed together but now theyre 4 I forgot my key and I cant get in my office Im 5 We had a big misunderstanding but its all now 229
6 Joe went to the store but when he got there he couldnt remember what he wanted He was 7 Nancy invited her father-in-law for dinner and after dinner he told Nancy that his other daughter-in-law was a better cook Nancy was really 8 The manager asked quotIf youre why arent you workingquot EXERCISE 30d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 There was a fire in the wastebasket so I got some water to extinguish it What did I do 2 I dont want the children in here while Im working so Im going to push the button on the doorknob to lock the door What am I going to do to the children 3 In Question 2 how would you describe the children after I lock the door 4 David forgot what he was going to say What did David do 5 In Question 4 how would you describe David when he forgot what he was going to say 6 Sally told me to use soap and water to get my hands clean before I handle food What did Sally tell me to do 7 The newspaper is published only once a week What is done to the newspaper only once a week 8 Lydia put Jims time card in the time clock when Jim was late for work What did Lydia do for Jim 9 In Question 8 how would you describe Jim after Lydia put his time card in the time clock 10 Your books are all mixed together and you ought to separate them into different groups What should you do to your books 11 In Question 10 how would you describe your books after you separate them into different groups 12 I made the thief stay until the police came by putting him in the closet and using a key to prevent him from leaving the closet What did I do to the thief 230
13 In Question 12 how would you describe the thief after I used the key to prevent him from leaving the closet 14 It really annoyed Erik when Jane told him that he needed to lose weight How was Erik affected by Janes remark 15 In Question 14 how would you describe Erik after Jane told him he needed to lose weight 16 The employees cant put their time cards in the time clock and go home before 430 What cant the employees do 17 In Question 16 after the employees put their time cards in the time clock how would you describe them 18 Jane didnt try very hard to make her brother and his family comfortable when they stayed with her What didnt Jane do EXERCISE 30e Review Complete the sentences with these participle adjectives from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one beefed up 28 lit up 13 shut off 26 worn off 27 broken off 27 made out 29 torn off 27 closed off 13 made-up 23 washed off 27 dried off 27 messed up 28 wiped off 27 1 The children baked cookies this morning and they left the kitchen all 2 The security force can handle any terrorist attack 3 Charles didnt pay his bill and now his electricity is 4 I cant read the sign because the paint is all 5 There arent any tags on this mattress Theyre all 6 Those apples arent so dont eat them 7 You cant drive down that street its 8 This check isnt blank its 9 The Christmas tree isnt now but when it is itll be beautiful 10 I put the coffee cup with the handle downstairs Im going to fix it later 231
11 The kitchen counter isnt so dont put those papers on it they might get grease on them 12 That was quite a rain we just had I dont think Ill drive to work until the roads have 13 I didnt believe a word he said It was just a lot of nonsense EXERCISE 30f Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one ask for 29 fill out 14 make out 29 wipe off 27 butt in14 have on 25 open up 26 work out 11 carry out 28 head into 17 stand up 28 drop in 29 hurry up 25 trade in 24 drop out 23 knock over 25 wash off 27 1 of school was the dumbest thing I ever did 2 The loan application was rejected because it hadnt been properly 3 Im going to ask the car dealer how much I can my car for 4 My feet are killing me Ive been all day 5 Did you see what Sally was wearing yesterday She a green dress and purple shoes 6 Mike the bartender a gin martini but she made a vodka martini instead 7 Well have to if were going to get to the theater before the movie starts 8 Dont leave that glass there the baby might it 9 Dads hardware store went out of business after a huge discount store across the street 232
10 You wont be able to that paint with water youll have to use turpentine 11 It was raining so I had to the water my glasses after I came inside 12 Sergeant Jones has always his orders without fail 13 If youre ever in my neighborhood youre always welcome 14 Things arent at my new job and I think Im going to quit soon 15 Judy left her home in the suburbs and the city 16 When I met Jim I was surprised at how nice he was Everyone always him to be a real jerk 17 I would have been next but then some jerk line 31 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and gerund subjects As we saw in Section 16 gerunds verbs in the -ing form that function as nouns can serve as the objects of many phrasal verbs But gerunds can also serve as the subject of a sentence Eating meat everyday was something we did without gerund Voting was immediately done away with by the dictatorship gerund Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle care for care for amp cares for caring for cared for cared for 1 care for pv When you care for children or people who are old or sick you provide them with the food or medicine they need or you do things to help them When you care for machines or buildings you keep them in good condition The nurses have to care for several very sick patients John has been caring for his eighty-three-year-old mother since her stroke 2 care for pv When you care for people or things you like them 233
Jane doesnt care for coffee she prefers tea I asked Sally to go to the dance but she said that dancing is not something she cares for Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle cut out cut out amp cuts out cutting out cut out cutout 1 cut out of pv When you cut something out or cut something out of a piece of paper cloth or other material you use scissors or a knife to remove part of it The bank robber had a pillowIcase over his head with two holes cut out I cut an interesting story out of the newspaper to show to my father cutout n Something that has been cut out of a piece of paper cloth or other material is a cutout Timmy made some cardboard cutouts shaped like animals 2 cut out pv When you cut out part of a film television program book magazine and so on you remove that part The movie was too long so the director cut a couple of scenes out Before the book was published the parts that were critical of the king had to be cut out of Chapter 4 3 cut out pv When you cut out something that you consume you stop using it When you cut out doing something you stop doing it When you say quotCut it outquot to people you want them to stop doing or saying something Smoking is the first thing youve got to cut out if you want to improve your health If you want to lose weight youll have to cut cookies and ice cream out It bothers me when you do that so cut it out 4 cut out pv When a motor suddenly stops working it cuts out I was driving when the motor suddenly cut out This plane has only one engine so if it cuts out were in big trouble do away with do away with amp does away with doing away with did away with done away with 1 do away with pv When you do away with something you eliminate it or prohibit it Doing away with smoking is not something that will happen soon Some people think the electoral college is obsolete and should be done away with 2 do away with pv When you do away with people you kill them Marvin inherited a fortune after he did away with his older brother The woman was accused of doing away with her husband with arsenic 234
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle do without do without amp does without doing without did without done without 1 do without pv When you do without something you continue living or working without something that you want or need because it is not possible or available Washing your hair everyday is something you have to do without when you go camping Doing without is something you get used to when youre poor look into look into amp looks into looking into looked into looked into 1 look into pv When you look into something or look into doing something you investigate it or get more information about it After receiving many complaints about the company the attorney general decided to look into the matter Maybe leasing a car is something I should look into plan on plan on amp plans on planning on planned on planned on 1 plan on pv When you plan on something you expect it They wanted a large family but having thirteen children sure wasnt what they planned on You should plan on at least two years to finish the masters degree program 2 plan on pv When you plan on doing something you intend to do it What are you planning on doing tonight I plan on fishing and taking a lot of pictures on my vacation put off put off amp puts off putting off put off put off 1 put off pv When you put off something or put off doing something you delay or postpone it When you put people off you delay doing something they want you to do Buying a new house will have to be put off until we can afford it The students begged the teacher to put the test off until the next week He pressured me for a decision but I kept putting him off 2 put off pv When people put you off they do or say something that offends you Everyone was put off by his racist jokes Todd went out to dinner with Nancy last night and the way she treated the waiter really put him off 235
put off partadj After people do or say something that offends you you are put off Whats wrong You seem a little put off Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle rule out rule out amp rules out ruling out ruled out ruled out 1 rule out pv When you rule out people or things you eliminate them from a list When you rule out doing something you decide that it is something you will not do because you do not want to because it is impossible and so on The detective interviewed all the suspects and ruled everyone out except the victims ex-wife Ater the hurricane they ruled out moving to Florida With all these medical bills to pay maybe we should consider ruling out buying a new car EXERCISE 31 a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I suggested moving to Minnesota but my wife moving anywhere cold 2 My doctor says I should scuba diving until my ear gets better 3 The health department wants to smoking within twenty years 4 I saw a funny cartoon in the paper so I it and sent it to my brother 5 Some countries have an excellent health care system No one has to medical treatment 6 I was a little by his unfriendliness 7 Lets go to a different restaurant I dont Chinese food 8 Im going to this situation to see what the problem is 9 After the revolution all members of the royal family were 10 Several scenes of the film had to be before the censors would approve it 11 Jim had to quit his job to his sick wife 236
12 I had to take a taxi to work yesterday My cars motor right in the middle of an intersection 13 What a surprise Being transferred to Hawaii is something I never 14 Getting that tooth fixed is not something you should 15 What are you doing with your time after you retire EXERCISE 31 b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 You changed your vacation plans Youre not going next week youre going to go later What did you do to your vacation 2 Everyone likes Jim more now that he has stopped acting like such a big shot What did Jim do 3 The President said that nothing has been eliminated from the list of things that might be done about the crisis What did the President say about what might be done about the crisis 4 Mikes parents dont like his new friend How do Mikes parents feel about his new friend 5 A law was passed that prohibits child labor What does the law do to child labor 6 There arent any stores out here in the woods so if you forgot something youll just have to continue without it What will you have to do if you forgot something 7 Im so tired of this cars ugly color Im going to investigate having it painted What am I going to do 8 If you go to Chicago in January you can expect to freeze to death What can you do if you go to Chicago in January 9 Betty was a little offended by Sams behavior How did Betty react to Sams behavior 10 In Question 9 how did Sams behavior make Betty feel 11 The police suspected that Mr Mayfield had been killed by a coworker What did the police suspect about Mr Mayfield 12 Dr Smith removed the entire tumor with a knife What did he do 13 My father kept his car in good condition and it lasted for forty years What did my father do to his car 237
EXERCISE 31 c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section Try to use gerunds as the subjects of some of the sentences 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EXERCISE 31 d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one ask for 29 cut down 23 get away 23 luck out 29 beef up 28 drop in 29 get back at 17 make out 29 come apart 29 flip out 29 get off 18 make up 23 crack down 23 go about 17 look out 29 run across 29 1 Im thinking about investing in the stock market but Im not sure how to it 2 The sound on the language lab tapes is so bad that I cant what theyre saying 3 The world is of many different countries 4 Well need to buy a new suitcase soon This old one is 5 That was a terrible thing he did to me Ill him someday 6 Hank fell from a fifth-floor window but he landed in a swimming pool and wasnt hurt at all He sure didnt he 7 The hockey coach said that the teams offense is good but the defense needs to be 238
8 My dentist said I should on sweets 9 Frank really when he found that big snake under his bed 10 Look at this interesting old book I at a used bookstore 11 The police department is going to on crime 12 You know what a bad temper Joe has If you keep teasing him youre trouble 13 The accountant tried to embezzle 100000 but he didntwith it 14 Isnt that where Jane lives Letsand say hello 15 Jake was arrested and charged with bank robbery but he because none of the witnesses could identify him 16 There are a lot of big trucks on this road Youve really got to for them when youre driving 32 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the particle out The particle out is used in many phrasal verbs and has many meanings Among the most frequent meanings of out are to say that something or someone literally moves from the inside to the outside of a place He fell out of a tree Melanie came out of the house We always go out through the back door Would you take the garbage out please that something is done completely or thoroughly I cleaned out the closet The people quickly cleared out She emptied her purse out on the table Please fill this form out that an action or activity has ended The fire went out The light bulb burned out Hank dropped out of school Jane chickened out of asking her boss for a raise 239
that something or someone is chosen organized shared or distributed The manager handed out our paychecks Tom picked a new shirt out The mayIroom clerk sorted out the mail that something is produced by or released from a source His last book came out two years ago Dont let the dog out That group hasnt put out a new CD in a long time that something is removed eliminated or excluded A page was accidentally left out of the book when it was printed She cut a cartoon out of the paper The negative test result ruled out cancer His editor took several paragraphs out of the article that something is perceived sensed found or acquired I figured out the answer Did you find out when the movie starts That sign is too far away to make out Mike screwed me out of a hundred bucks that something increases in size capacity length or area Paul started to fill out after he got married After I gained twenty-five pounds I had to let my pants out Its dangerous to stick your head out a car window that something important or dangerous should be watched for Mike is supposed to meet us here so watch out for him Look out this is a very busy intersection or that something is done for a length of time The criminals held out for three hours before surrendering College is hard work but youve got to stick it out Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle clean out clean out amp cleans out cleaning out cleaned out cleaned out 1 clean out pv When you clean something out you clean the inside completely so that no dirt dust trash and so on remains inside Mark was fired and told to clean his desk out and leave We clean out our garage every spring 240
cleaned out partadj After you clean the inside of something completely so that no dirt dust or trash and so on remains inside it is cleaned out Now that the garage is cleaned out theres room for my car 2 clean out of pv informal When people clean you out or clean you out of your money they deceive you or pressure you into giving them all your money or spending all your money for their benefit When an expense cleans you out it requires you to spend all your money A con artist cleaned my grandmother out of 50000 Having three kids in college at the same time really cleaned me out 3 clean out of pv informal If thieves clean a place out or clean a place out of something they take everything that is valuable I got home and found that my place had been cleaned out The thieves cleaned the jewelry store out of all its diamonds and emeralds Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle clear out clear out amp clears out clearing out cleared out cleared out 1 clear out pv When people clear out or clear out of a place or they are cleared out of a place they leave it After the police threw tear gas the crowd cleared right out Clear out This is private property 2 clear out pv When you clear out a place you remove things that are unwanted or in the way in order to make more room or to make the place cleaner Look how much more room we have in the attic now that weve cleared all that junk out The car dealer had a sale so that he could clear out some space for the new cars come out come out amp comes out coming out came out come out 1 come out of pv When people or things leave a place room or house that you are not in they come out of it Susies friend came to the door and asked her to come out and play The police held their fire when they saw the gunman coming out of the house with his hands in the air 2 come out of pv When something comes out of a certain place or area it starts there This speaker must not be connected no sound is coming out The most wonderful aroma came out of the kitchen 3 come out to pv When people leave a city and come out to a place outside the city where you are they travel to that place 241
Would you like to come out and visit our farm Ned loves it in the city he hasnt come out to the suburbs in a long time 4 come out of pv When things or people go through an experience or treatment the condition they are left in by that experience or treatment or the result of that experience or treatment is how they come out It was a tough game but our team came out on top How did the investigation come out I came out of that awful experience a wiser person 5 come out with pv When a book magazine musical recording movie or television show is finished and made available to the public it comes out When a book magazine musical recording movie or television show is finished and made available to the public the company publishing it or the person who created it comes out with it The bands new CD came out last month and its already number one on the charts Barrens is coming out with a new book on TOEFL soon 6 come out pv When information becomes known to the public it comes out Everyone was shocked when it came out that the butler had murdered the duke What really happened when President Kennedy was assassinated may never come out 7 come out of pv When dirt or a stain is removed by cleaning it comes out or comes out of what it is in Dont get grape juice on that white blouse itll never come out That paint might come out of the carpet if you try turpentine 8 come out pv When flowers or leaves start to grow they come out We had a very warm winter and the flowers started coming out in February Oak tree leaves always come out later than the leaves of other trees 9 come out pv When clouds move and the sun becomes visible it comes out The rain stopped the sun came out and there was a beautiful rainbow Wait till the sun comes out youll get a better picture 10 come out forIin favor ofIagainst pv When people with authority and influence come out for or come out in favor of people or things they publicly announce support for them When people with authority and influence come out against people or things they publicly announce opposition to them We were surprised when the mayor came out for legalizing gambling The senator from North Carolina came out against the tobacco legislation 242
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle empty out empty out amp empties out emptying out emptied out emptied out 1 empty out pv When you completely remove the contents of a space or container you empty it out The police officer told me to empty out my pockets After we empty this room out we can start painting emptied out partadj After the contents of a container have been completely removed the container is emptied out Now that the room is emptied out we can start laying the carpet 1 empty out pv When all the people in a place leave it the place empties out After the concert is over itll be twenty minutes before the auditorium empties out There was trash everywhere after the stadium emptied out fall out fall out amp falls out falling out fell out fallen out 1 fall out of pv When you fall from or through something that is above ground level to the ground below you fall out or fall out of it Did he fall out or was he pushed I found a baby bird that had fallen out of its nest 2 fall out withIover pv When you fall out with people you become upset or angry with them When two people fall out over something they become upset or angry with each other because of a disagreement about that thing Alfonso fell out with his sister when he criticized her husband Melanie and Sarah started a company but they fell out over who would be president and who would be vice-president falling-out n When people have a falling-out they become upset or angry with each other and no longer have friendly relations The manager of the baseball team quit after he had a falling-out with the owner go out go out amp goes out going out went out gone out 1 go out of pv When people or things leave a place room or house that you are in they go out or go out of it Come in is the opposite of go out Im trying to study go out and play in the backyard Nancy was so sick that she didnt go out of the house for a week 2 go out to pv When people leave a city where you are and go out to a place outside the city they travel to that place 243
Last weekend we went out to Jims cabin on the lake This Thanksgiving Im going to go out to my brothers house 3 go out pv When something that is burning goes out it stops burning because it has no more fuel or because something such as water or lack of oxygen has caused it to stop burning The campfire went out during the night The forest fire didnt go out until it started to rain 4 go out pv When an electrical light goes out it stops producing light because it is no longer receiving power The lights in the barracks go out every night at 1000 When the old tree fell on the power lines every light in town went out 5 go out with pv When two people with a romantic interest in each other go out they go together to a place of entertainment in order to have fun and spend time together Mikes nervous hes going out with Heather tonight Sally and Jim went out for three years before they qot married Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle leave out leave out amp leaves out leaving out left out left out 1 leave out pv When you leave people or things out you accidentally or deliberately do not include them in a group The director left out several parts of the book when she made the film Tell me the entire story from beginning to end Dont leave anything out left out partadj When you feel left out you feel ignored and unappreciated by others in a group No one talked to Jerry at the party He just sat in the corner feeling left out stick out stick out amp sticks out sticking out stuck out stuck out 1 stick out pv When something sticks out it extends from what it is attached to Be careful walking in the woods there are a lot of branches sticking out I cut myself on a nail that was sticking out of the wall 2 stick out pv When you stick something out you extend it outward Timmy stuck his tongue out when his mother gave him spinach We all stuck our heads out the window to get a better look 3 stick out pv When you stick out an unpleasant or difficult experience you continue with it until it is over rather than quit 244
I hate this job but I need the money so Ill just have to stick it out until I find a better one College isnt easy but if you stick it out youll be glad you did 4 stick out pv When a characteristic or feature of something sticks out that feature is very noticeable Alans nearly seven feet tall and has red hair so he really sticks out in a crowd One thing that really stuck out about him was the strange way he laughed EXERCISE 32a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Susie of her tree house and broke her arm 2 The sun finally in the afternoon 3 I heard some strange voices of the next room 4 A sharp piece of wood was and I got a splinter from it 5 When the truth finally youll all be very surprised 6 It was a good thing we had those candles when the lights 7 This temporary job will last only two weeks so even though Im bored I guess I can it 8 That crook me of everything I owned 9 Davids story didnt make any sense because he the part about the missionaries and the cannibals 10 Mike its starting to rain and close the car windows please 11 Take these wastebaskets out to the Dumpster and them 12 Its a sure sign of spring when the tulips start to 13 This wood is green Even if you can get it to burn itll right away 14 The Bakers said they would love to to visit us here at our ranch some weekend 15 The soldiers were ordered to the protesters of the plaza 16 Mike and Bob over who would pay for the window they broke playing baseball 245
17 The reporter said that he expected the governor to against the proposed legislation 18 Jims going to be storing some of his stuff in the attic so lets go up and some space for it 19 Scott of the trial with his reputation badly damaged 20 After the bomb threat was announced the theater in about two minutes 21 Betty has been with Erik since high school 22 Its not very smart to your arm the window of a moving car 23 I like it here in the city When I to Davids house in the country I get bored 24 The talk show host asked the author about his new book which is soon 25 The burglars the coin shop of its most valuable coins 26 Its been an hour Are you ever going to of the bathroom 27 Dont even bother washing this blouse the ink will never 28 Mike wants to sell his car so hes going to it and wash it before anyone looks at it 29 I dont remember much about Ned but one thing he always wore black EXERCISE 32b Complete the sentences with the correct second particles 1 The crooked lawyer cleaned them out a small fortune 2 Jake came out the bank and surrendered 3 Would you like to come out my place in the country 4 Several publishers are coming out books on the subject 5 The prime minister liked the idea so we werent surprised when he came out the plan 246
6 As expected the leader of the opposition came out the plan 7 Mike fell out his brother who would pay their fathers medical bills 8 Timmys father told him not to go out the house 9 Were going out the suburbs next weekend 10 Heathers going out Tom tonight 11 Hank fell outa hot air balloon EXERCISE 32c Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 My son cleaned out the basement it 2 I need to clear out the storeroom it 3 Sarah emptied out the boxes them 4 The factory left out an important part it 247
5 Dont stick out your neck it EXERCISE 32d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Some important information is being revealed to the public What is happening to the information 2 All the people in the plaza left What did the people do 3 All the people in the plaza left What happened to the plaza 4 Im going to take my girlfriend to a nightclub What am I going to do with her 5 The soldier was killed in the battle What didnt the soldier do 6 We didnt ask Mark to join our club What did we do to Mark 7 In Question 6 how does Mark feel because we didnt ask him to join our club 8 The IRS took all your money What did they do to you 9 The music company released a new CD last week What did the music company do 10 Everyone notices Harry because he has very long hair and a long beard What does Harry do 11 The Chicago Tribune announced in an editorial that they were for the Republican candidate What did the Chicago Tribune do 12 Bills angry with Jim and theyre not speaking to each other What did Bill do with Jim 13 In Question 12 what did Bill and Jim have 248
EXERCISE 32e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one care for 31 hold out 23 punch out 30 sort out 30 cut out 31 lock in 30 put off 31 space out 30 do away with 31 look into 31 put out 30 wash up 30 do without 31 punch in 30 rule out 31 watch out 23 1 Susie I told you to stop hitting your sister so it 2 After I lost my job I learned to a lot of things I used to think were necessities 3 Watson made a real mess out of the project so the boss asked me to it 4 I totally and drove twenty miles past where I was going 5 Hey thats really dangerous youd better 6 Im going to get to work late tomorrow Can you me 7 Im really sick of this city Im going to fly to San Francisco and the job situation there 8 Most of the players have signed their contracts but a few are 9 Water wont an electrical fire 10 The manager reminded me to before going home 11 During Prohibition the government tried to drinking alcohol 12 The chances that his horse will win the race are very small but I wouldnt it completely 13 Look how dirty your hands are Go before you eat dinner 14 I want to a low interest rate before rates go up again 15 Thanks for inviting me to the concert but I dont rap music 16 Millions of people doing their taxes until the last minute 249
33 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs and midsentence adverbs As we saw in Section 17 adverbs are words that modify verbs Some adverbs are called midsentence adverbs because they are commonly placed in the middle of a sentence Midsentence adverbs are usually placed before main verbs He X goofs around She X helped him out after any form of be He is X goofing around She wasnt X helping him out and between an auxiliary helping verb and the main verb He will X goof around She cant X help him out In questions a midsentence adverb is usually placed between the subject and the main verb Does he X goof around Is he X goof ing around Has she X helped him out The following are common midsentence adverbs Adverbs of frequency ever typically normally hardly ever always ordinarily occasionally almost never constantly often sometimes never almost always frequently seldom not ever usually generally rarely Other midsentence adverbs already merely ultimately probably just finally eventually most likely 250
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle blow up blow up amp blows up blowing up blew up blown up 1 blow up pv When something blows up or when someone blows something up it explodes Seven people were killed when the building blew up The hijackers ultimately blew the plane up 2 blow up pv When something blows up or when someone blows something up it becomes much larger because air or something else is being forced into it It always takes me an hour or more to blow up the balloons for a party Hank blew up a beach ball and threw it in the pool 3 blow up pv When you make a picture or photograph larger you blow it up I blew the photograph up and framed it When you blow this photo of the car up you can make out the license plate number blowup n A blowup is a picture or photograph that has been made largerI made a blowup of the photo and framed it 4 blow up atIover pv informal When you blow up or blow up at someone you suddenly become very angry When you blow up over something you suddenly become very angry because of it Heather blew up when she saw her boyfriend dancing with Linda Heather blew up at her boyfriend when she saw him dancing with Linda Dad blew up over the increase in our property taxes catch on catch on amp catches on catching on caught on caught on 1 catch on pv When a fashion or habit becomes popular and is adopted by many people it catches on When a product or service becomes popular and is used or bought by many people it catches on Beta VCRs never caught on If his striped business suits catch on the designer will become famous 2 catch on pv When you eventually begin to understand something or begin to learn a skill after practicing and studying you catch on When Sally studies something she usually catches on right away Learning to dance the cumbia wasnt easy but I eventually caught on 3 catch on to pv When you catch on or catch on to people you realize that they are trying to trick or cheat you 251
If you keep lying to everyone theyll eventually catch on It took me a while but I finally caught on to him Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come about come about amp coming about come about came about come about 1 come about pv When something comes about it happens usually as a result of a series of events and actions He was the richest man in town and now hes bankrupt How did that come about Several major medical advances have come about in the last fifty years fall behind fall behind amp falls behind falling behind fell behind fallen behind 1 fall behind pv When you are in a group that is walking running driving and so on and they move ahead of you because you are moving more slowly than the others you fall behind Keep up is the opposite of fall behind Alfonso and Tom are walking so fast that Ive fallen behind I was supposed to be following Linda to the party but I fell behind and got lost 1 fall behind in pv When you are in a group that is studying working and so on and they learn faster or get more work done because you are learning or working more slowly than the others you fall behind or fall behind in your work studies and so on When you do not complete work as fast as it was originally planned and expected you fall behind schedule Get behind is similar to fall behind Keep up is the opposite of fall behind Timmy was sick last semester and he fell behind in his studies The sales manager wanted to know why I had fallen behind the rest of the department The building project will fall behind schedule if the construction workers go on strike 3 fall behind in pv When you do not make the regular payments you are required to make you fall behind or fall behind in your payments When I lost my job I fell behind in my mortgage payments Dont fall behind in your payments or your car will be repossessed goof around goof around amp goofs around goofing around goofed around goofed around 1 goof around pv informal When you waste time playing or doing silly or unimportant things you goof around Fool around is the same as goof around My brother drives his teachers crazy He constantly goofs around and creates problems Stop goofing around and get to work 252
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle help out help out amp helps out helping out helped out helped out 1 help out with pv When you help out or help people out you assist them in doing some work or you lend or give them money or something else that they need Can you help me out I need a hundred bucks until payday We had a lot of work to do so Maria helped out know about know about amp knows about knowing about knew about known about 1 know about pv When you know about a situation plan or other information you are aware of it Jim isnt here Maybe he doesnt know about the schedule change Thanks for telling me but I already know all about it 2 know about pv When you have studied something and learned it you know about it I dont know much about history I was a business major Knowing about art and being an artist are two different things pull off pull off amp pulls off pulling off pulled off pulled off 1 pull off pv When you pull something off you succeed in doing something difficult and possibly sneaky or illegal even though the chances of success are not high Mike tried to juggle three butcher knives and two bowling balls at the same time but he couldnt pull it off When Jake said he was going to try to rob a Las Vegas casino no one believed he could pull it off 2 pull off pv When you are driving and you pull off the road you drive to the side of the road and stop If I get sleepy while Im driving I always pull off the road and take a nap When I heard that strange noise I pulled off to the side and checked the engine EXERCISE 33a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I need to move some furniture and its too heavy for me Could you me tonight 253
2 Television was invented in the 1920s but it didnt start to until the 1950s 3 Math is very difficult for Mike If he takes the advanced class hell most likely 4 I didnt think Todd could manage going to school and working at the same time but he it 5 When Jim shows his terrible report card to his mother shell 6 Nancys a hard worker She never 7 The terrorists tried to the embassy 8 A lot of changes have in the last few years 9 The truck driver was lost so he to the side of the road and checked his map 10 Sam and Dave are so much faster on their bikes than I am that I always 11 Dont ask Ann she doesnt anything it 12 I used to be able to trick my rich uncle into giving me money but hes starting to to me 13 the balloons now the partys going to start soon 14 Bob started taking dance lessons and he right away 15 If you in your credit card payments youll damage your credit rating 16 I usually ask Bill what he thinks before I buy a stock He a lot investing 17 I asked the photo lab to the photo 300 percent EXERCISE 33b Complete the sentences with the correct second particles 1 Todd was fired after he blew up his boss 2 Todd is usually so easygoing What did he blow up 3 Karen thinks shes so clever but Im starting to catch on her 254
4 If you dont start working harder youre going to fall behind math 5 Thanks for helping me out my algebra homework EXERCISE 33c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The company started to sell chocolate toothpaste but it never became popular What didnt chocolate toothpaste do 2 Sam has a lot of work to do before 500 so Lydia is doing some of it for him so that he wont have to work late What is Lydia doing for Sam 3 Nobody in the criminal gang thought they could steal an airplane but they did What did the gang do 4 Ali doesnt usually do any work He usually watches TV and listens to music What does Ali usually do 5 They sometimes destroy old buildings by making them explode What do they sometimes do to old buildings 6 The teacher frequently gets very angry at his students What does the teacher frequently do 7 Janice is aware of the problem because someone told her about it What can you say about Janice and the problem 8 The company was supposed to finish the project by September 1 but they didnt finish until November 14 What happened 9 The professor asked you to explain how this situation happened What did the professor ask you EXERCISE 33d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one come out 32 fall out 32 look into 31 rule out 31 cut out 31 give away 28 plan on 31 sort out 30 do without 31 go around 20 put off 31 space out 30 empty out 32 go out 32 put out 30 stick out 32 255
1 Jake was in jail when the crime was committed so the police were able to him as a suspect 2 My fiancees father got sick suddenly so we had to the wedding until later 3 I was a little when Melanie disagreed with me 4 Lindas going to getting her teeth bleached 5 No one was surprised when the news 6 The family business had to be sold after the family members with each other 7 I and forgot to put socks on this morning 8 I felt like an idiot I had to all day without socks on 9 You can still eat this apple just the bad part 10 When we decided on the Bahamas for our honeymoon we didnt a hurricane 111 was angry with my sister but we talked and everything 12 Timmy told his mother that he hadnt eaten any cake but the chocolate frosting on his face him 13 If youre studying a language you cant a dictionary 14 Jims job is very dangerous but if he it for another year he can retire with a pension 15 These trash cans are getting full Could you them please 16 Put some more wood on the fire its starting to 256
As we saw in Sections 5 and 6 phrasal verbs are sometimes accented on the verb and sometimes accented on the particle It might seem difficult to know whether to accent the verb or the particle since it depends on whether the phrasal verb is separable or nonseparable transitive or intransitive or a two- or three-word phrasal verb however it boils down to this always accent the particle after the verb unless the phrasal verb is a nonseparable transitive two-word phrasal verb then accent the verb Remember that some verbs can be both transitive and intransitive Nonseparable two-word intransitive stick ROUND float ROUND Nonseparable two-word transitive STICK to STAND for STICK around FLOAT round Nonseparable three-word transitive lead UP to Separable two-word transitive take BACK do OVER Separable three-word transitive put UP to Initive present tense -ing form past tense past participle do over do over amp does over doing over did over done over 1 do over pv When you do something over you do it again in order to improve it or to correct mistakes This is all wrong itll have to be done over I got a bad grade on my paper but the teacher said I could do it over 257
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle float around float around amp floats around floating around floated around floated around 1 float around pv usually continuous When something is floating around a place it is there somewhere though you are not sure exactly where dont know where the stapler is but its floating around here somewhere The new schedule was floating around the office yesterday 2 float around pv When a rumor or some information is floating around it is being repeated and discussed among a group of people or within a place Theres a rumor floating around that the factorys going to be closed Something about a change of management has been floating around lately Have you heard anything lead up to lead up to amp leads up to leading up to led up to led up to 1 lead up to pv When one or more actions events or situations lead up to a final action event or situation they precede and cause or partially cause it Several minor battles led up to a full-scale war The detective said quotJake didnt shoot Hank for no reason something led up to itquot 2 lead up to pv When you lead up to something when you are speaking or writing you gradually move toward an important point by saying or writing information that will support that point In his speech the President didnt immediately announce that he would run for a second term he led up to it by recalling the accomplishments of his first term Ive been listening to you talk for thirty minutes Whats your point What are you leading up to put up to put up to amp puts up to putting up to put up to put up to 1 put up to pv When you persuade or pressure people to do something that is illegal dangerous foolish or unwise you put them up to it didnt think it was a good idea to demand a raise but my wife put me up to it When Jake was arrested for shooting Hank he said Raquel had put him up to it by threatening to tell the police about his other crimes stand for stand for amp stands for standing for stood for stood for 1 stand for pv When abbreviations acronyms or symbols represent longer words or groups of words they stand for them The quotDCquot in Washington DC stands for quotDistrict of Columbiaquot quotScubaquot stands for quotself-contained underwater breathing apparatusquot 258
2 stand for pv When people or objects support represent or are identified with ideas values or beliefs they stand for them This flag stands for freedom He was a great man who stood for equal rights and opportunity for all people 3 stand for pv When you will not stand for something that you think is illegal improper or unjust you will not tolerate it or allow it to happen Cruelty to animals is one thing I will never stand for I told my son I wouldnt stand for that kind of language in this house Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle stick around stick around amp sticks around sticking around stuck around stuck around 1 stick around pv informal When you stick around you stay where you are Can you stick around Were going to have lunch in an hour Dont go yet stick around until Sarah gets here shed love to see you stick to stick to amp sticks to sticking to stuck to stuck to 1 stick to pv When one thing sticks to another it remains attached to it The magnet sticks to the chalkboard because theres metal underneath I used the wrong glue and the tiles didnt stick to the floor 2 stick to pv When you are speaking or writing and you stick to a certain subject you talk or write about that subject only The teacher said quotDo this paper over and stick to the point dont talk about 100 other things that arent importantquot In his news conference the President stuck to the new tax legislation but the reporters kept asking about the latest scandal 3 stick to pv When you stick to a certain belief claim policy habit plan type of work and so on you continue as before without change Stick with is similar to stick to Jake claimed he was innocent of Hanks murder He stuck to his alibi that he had been at the racetrack when the murder occurred After the audition the director told me I was a terrible actor and that I should stick to singing 4 stick to pv informal When you stick it to people you deliberately try to tease annoy or embarrass them with an accusation provocative statement or difficult question Sam thinks the new manager is an idiot and he likes to stick it to him One woman at the shareholders meeting really stuck it to the president of the company She asked why he deserved a 19 million bonus even though the company had lost money that year and 4000 workers had been laid off 259
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle take back take back amp takes back taking back took back taken back 1 take back to pv When you take something back or take something back to a place you take it to where it was before If youre finished working on the car dont leave your tools here take them back to the garage Do you usually take the shopping carts back after youve put your groceries in your car 2 take back to pv When you take something that you have bought to the place where you bought it and ask to have it repaired to exchange it for something else or for the money you paid for it you take it back or take it back to the place where you bought it have to take back these pants that I bought yesterday because the zippers already broken That new TV that Nancy bought was a piece of junk she took it back to the store and demanded her money back 3 take back from pv When you take something back or take something back from someone else you accept it from the person you gave sold or lent it to The guy at the store said he wouldnt take my answering machine back because I had bought it on sale The lady I bought this Persian rug from said she would be happy to take it back from me if I changed my mind 4 take back to pv When you take back something that you have borrowed or take back something that you have borrowed to the person or place that you borrowed it from you return it Lydia borrowed this book from the library six months ago and she still hasnt taken it back I need to take Jims lawn mower back to him 5 take back to pv When you take people back or take people back to a place where they were before you go with them to that place Our son was home from college for the summer and were taking him back tomorrow Mike got sick again so we took him back to the hospital 6 take back pv When you take back something that you have said you admit that what you said was untrue unfair or rude Thats not true You take that back right now Im sorry that was very rude of me I take it back 260
7 take back to pv When something reminds you of a place where you were in the past or of something you experienced in the past it takes you back or takes you back to a time in the past Looking through my high school year book sure takes me back My grandfather found his old uniform in the attic and he said it took him back to when he was stationed in England during the war EXERCISE 34a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 After being embarrassed last night Im going to a policy of minding my own business 2 Have you seen the manual for this program Its the office somewhere but I cant find it 3 Its too bad you cant I was just about to barbecue some chicken 4 Look at these old pictures They sure me 5 In my history class we studied the events that World War II 6 Rosa tried to return her engagement ring to her fiance but he wouldnt it 7 The lawyer told his client to the facts when she testifies 8 The escaped prisoner was to prison 9 Its not like Erik to do such a terrible thing I think someone him it 10 I hate it when its so humid that your clothes your skin 11 quotUAEquot for United Arab Emirates 12 I felt terrible about what I said and I it immediately 13 One of the guys at work is a real baseball nut from Chicago so we love to it him about how bad the Cubs are 14 I dont have Lindas electric drill anymore I it yesterday 15 When people see our companys logo they know itquality at a fair price
16 The tailor didnt do what I wanted him to do with this dress Im going to it to him 17 The restaurant manager told the bartender that she would not drinking on the job 18 Mark did such a bad job painting his house that he had to get a professional house painter to it 19 As soon as the company president mentioned the decrease in sales and the need to reduce labor costs we knew what he was 20 Dont leave these dirty dishes here them to the kitchen 21 Dont pay any attention to that rumor its been for three years EXERCISE 34b Review the explanation at the beginning of this section of how two- and three-word phrasal verbs are pronounced Then say each sentence in Exercise 34a aloud and circle the verb or particle that is accented EXERCISE 34c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Janice said I was a cheapskate but she later admitted that it wasnt true What did Janice do 2 A number of situations and events helped to cause the Civil War What did those situations an events do 3 Youve rewritten this story four times and youre still not happy with it What have you done to the story four times 4 When I opened the box of cereal it was full of bugs so I returned it to the store What did I do to the box of cereal 5 Bill has a system for picking good stocks and he always uses it What does Bill do with his system 6 Mr Tuckers fifteen-year-old daughter wants to get a tattoo but he absolutely will not allow it What wont Mr Tucker do 7 Visiting his old high school brought back a lot of memories What did visiting his old high school do to him 262
8 Carlos came to my house and stayed for a while What did Carlos do after he came to my house 9 People in my office have been reading the latest issue of Time magazine and then giving it to someone else What has the magazine been doing 10 She asked me what quotPhDquot represents What did she ask me 111 felt ridiculous dressing as a pink dinosaur for my nephews birthday party but my brother persuaded me to do it What did my brother do EXERCISE 34d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one bite off 27 fall behind 33 plan ahead 25 shake up 24 catch on 33 get together 26 print out 24 stay out 23 come about 33 goof around 33 pull off 33 stop over 24 come out 32 let in on 26 put together 26 wear off 27 11 asked Sam how his job interview and he said it went great 21 asked my history teacher what led up to the American Revolution and he said the war as a result of several factors 3 After the tranquilizer the elephant will wake up 4 The new owners of the company said they planned to things 5 When youre an adult you cant just think about today you have to 6 Tonight Im going to with some friends and watch the game 7 Mark has a rich father so Mark doesnt work he just most of time 8 The finance minister a plan to revive the nations economy 9 Thats a pretty big project Are you sure you havent more than you can chew 10 The new system at the warehouse was a disaster and we in filling orders 11 I didnt sleep at all last night I dancing until dawn and Im really beat 263
12 People have been talking about picture phones for years but theyve never 13 The boss me the new strategy 14 If youre not busy would you like to for a while We could watch TV or play cards 15 The crooks tried to steal a 747 by pretending to be pilots but they couldnt it 16 I finished my letter but I cant it because Im out of toner 35 FOCUS ON gerund phrasal verbs In Section 10 we looked at gerunds as the objects of phrasal verbs Now we will look at phrasal verbs as gerunds themselves Like ordinary verbs gerund phrasal verbs can be the subject of a sentence Narrowing down the list will be difficult subject the object of a sentence We discussed narrowing down the list object or the object of a preposition We talked about narrowing down the list object of preposition How and when phrasal verbs can be separated is unaffected by their use as gerunds Narrowing it down will be difficult We discussed narrowing it down We talked about narrowing it down 264
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle fool around fool around amp fools around fooling around fooled around fooled around 1 fool around pv When you waste time playing or doing silly or unimportant things you fool around Goof around is the same as fool around My son is lazy He spends his time fooling around instead of looking for a job My boss said quotIm not paying you to fool around get to workquot 1 fool around with pv When you fool around with something you do something that may be dangerous or foolish Fooling around with drugs is pretty stupid You shouldnt fool around with the insides of your computer unless you know what youre doing 3 foot around with pv informal When two people fool around or fool around with each other they have sexual relations even though one or both of them may be married to someone else or even though their families or society may not approve Sallys father caught her and Jim fooling around in the basement Her husbands been fooling around with his secretary and everyone in town knows it go by go by amp goes by going by went by gone by 1 go by pv When people go by a place or thing they pass near that place or thing When a thing goes by or goes by you it passes near you We watched the parade go by I went by Jims house to see if his car was in the driveway 2 go by pv When you go by a place you go there so that you can do something or get something Lets go by Pauls house to get his tools before we work on your car You can forget about going by the dry cleaner to pick up your stuff its closed 3 go by pv When a period of time goes by it passes cant believe that thirty years have gone by since I got out of high school As time went by Betty moved up in the company until she was the head of the finance department 4 go by pv When you go by a policy or standard you use it as a reference or a guide in making decisions and determining your behavior When you go by the book you follow rules policies or laws exactly Going by the book has always been my policy Jim told me to do one thing and Tom told me to do another but since Tom is the boss Im going to go by what he says
5 go by pv When you go by a clock you use it to tell the time Dont go by the clock on the wall its fast Go by the clock on the desk No wonder Im always late for work the clock Ive been going by is ten minutes slow Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hold against hold against amp holds against holding against held against held against 1 hold against pv When you hold things against people you continue to blame them for something and continue to be upset about it Ten years ago I got a promotion that Ned thought he deserved and hes held it against me ever since Jane tost her job because of a mistake Bob made but she doesnt hold it against him leave behind leave behind amp leaves behind leaving behind left behind left behind 1 leave behind pv When you leave someone or something behind you go to a different place The explorers left the mountains behind and entered the jungle The enemy soldiers retreated and left behind a city in ruins 2 leave behind pv When you leave something or someone behind you do not take them with you because you forgot or because you cannot or do not want to take them We packed too much luggage for our trip so we had to leave some things behind Leaving our children behind at a gas station was pretty dumb 3 leave behind pv When you move learn or work faster than others in your group you leave them behind My husband walks so fast that he always leaves me behind If you dont start working harder youre going to be left behind Mark was so good at calculus that he soon left the rest of the class behind live with live with amp lives with living with lived with lived with 1 live with pv When you live with someone you live at the same address When you say that one person lives with a person of the opposite sex you mean that they live in the same place but are not married Living with my in-laws is driving me crazy Mikes been living with his girlfriend for five years Are they ever going to get married 2 live with pv When you live with a disease or other problem you endure or put up with it 266
Living with this disease is not easy t cant change the situation so Ill just have to learn to live with it 3 live with pv When you live with shame guilt or a painful memory you continue with your life in spite of the shame guilt or painful memory Jake committed suicide rather than live with the shame of what he had done He said he couldnt go on living with the knowledge that he had caused the death of 14 innocent people Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle make of make of amp makes of making of made of made of 1 make of pv What you make of something is your understanding or opinion of it So what did you make of the prime ministers speech What he said was so strange that I didnt know what to make of it narrow down narrow down amp narrows down narrowing down narrowed down narrowed down 1 narrow down pv When you narrow down things or people in a list or group you remove some of them so that the number of things or people is reduced All the candidates for the job have excellent qualifications Narrowing the list down wont be easy The detective narrowed the suspects down to the butler the cook and the maid trick into trick into amp tricks into tricking into tricked into tricked into 1 trick into pv When you trick people into doing something you persuade them to do something by fooling or deceiving them Con into is similar to trick into The con artist tricked them into giving him their life savings I was an idiot to let Hank trick me into selling him my car for so little money EXERCISE 35a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The man who was killed in the accident a wife and three children 2 The prosecutor Jake admitting his guilt 3 I took a job in Japan and six years before I returned to the United States 4 Pauls been his parents since his house burned down 267
5 There were fifty contestants at the beginning of the contest but the judges it to five finalists 6 Look at this strange letter I received Read it and tell me what you it 7 I was my parentsfavorite and my brother stillitme 8 Franks wife filed for divorce after she learned that he was with her best friend 9 The train always blows its whistle when it 10 diabetes means carefully monitoring your blood sugar 11 your friends and family when you emigrate to a new country is very difficult 12 Todd failed the test because he all evening instead of studying 13 Sergeant Jones was very strict when he was in the Army He always the book 14 Dont let your kids with cigarette lighters they might start a fire 15 How can you yourself after the terrible thing you did 16 Melanie has my biology book so on the way to school I need to her house to get it 17 Mike wasnt ready for the advanced algebra class and he was quickly by the rest of the class 18 I my wristwatch not the wall clock because its more accurate EXERCISE 35b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Her disease is incurable so unfortunately shell just have to learn to endure it What will she have to do 2 Jim and I worked on a project together but Jim told everyone that he did all the work and Im still angry about it How do I feel about what Jim did 268
3 Sally and her sisters husband go to a motel sometimes during their lunch hour What are they doing 4 My father has a lot of horrible memories from the war What does he have to do with them 5 Bill made a list of cities that he might move to and then he eliminated those that are too cold or have high crime rates What did Bill do to his list of cities 6 When the boss isnt in the office you just play computer games and make personal phone calls What do you do when the boss isnt in the office 7 Hank told his sister that he needed money for his wifes doctor bills but he really wanted money to buy drugs What did Hank do to his sister 8 The scientist asked her colleague his opinion of the test results What did the scientist ask her colleague about the test results 9 A police car passed me while I was driving What did the police car do 10 Susies parents are going to take a vacation without her What are Susies parents going to do to her 11 The last year passed quickly What did the last year do EXERCISE 35c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section Try to make all the phrasal verbs gerunds and to use them as subjects objects or objects of prepositions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 269
EXERCISE 35d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one break up 28 flip out 29 lie around 20 stand for 34 come apart 29 float around 34 luck out 29 stay up 20 do over 34 hang around 20 mess up 28 stick around 34 end up 20 lead up to 34 run across 29 take back 34 1 The robber was only three feet away when he fired the gun at me but the gun jammed and didnt fire I really 2 Nancy said being sick wasnt so bad She in bed all day watching TV and eating ice cream 3 Ill if you drop my new camera in the swimming pool 4 Dans daughter was very sick last night so Dan all night with her 5 This is outrageous I will not dishonesty in my company 6 I told Mark that I would never speak to him again if he didnt the nasty things he said 7 If youre looking for Hank go to the bar on the corner Thats where he 8 A number of minor events will the main event 9 I had a very busy day planned but I got a flat tire and that everything 10 My boss is a jerk I worked for three days on this and just because he found one mistake he made me it 11 Sam has been very depressed since he with his girlfriend 12 Have you seen the dictionary Its the office somewhere but I cant find it 13 Dont stand on that chair its 14 Do you really have to leave now Why dont you for a while 270
15 Bill was talking about moving to Florida or Hawaii but Im not sure where he finally 16 Someone told me that Sarah is in town but I havent her yet 36 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the particle down The particle down is used in many phrasal verbs and has many meanings Down can be used to say that something literally moves from a higher position to a lower position or from north to south Bob went down the ladder His friends came down from Canada Sit down dinner is ready that something decreases in size intensity quantity or quality Her fever has gone down to 100 degrees The doctor gave her a sedative to calm her down Weve narrowed the list down to three choices that something or someone is fought defeated or overpowered Hank backed down when he saw my shotgun The police cracked down on street crime that something falls to the ground The boy was running and fell down The warehouse burned down Open the door or Ill break it down or that a process or activity is ending or has ended My car broke down on the highway The FBI tracked down the spy The campaign is winding down Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle back down back down amp backs down backing down backed down backed down 1 backdown pv When one side in a disagreement stops making threats and lets the other have what it wants or do what it wants the side that stops making threats backs down
The dictator didnt back down after the United Nations Security Council voted in favor of sending in troops The police officer tried to force me to pay him a bribe but when I said I would report him to the chief of police he backed down Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle calm down calm down amp calms down calming down calmed down calmed down 1 calm down pv When you calm down you become less active nervous or upset When you calm other people down you do something to make them less active nervous or upset Settle down is similar to calm down I was very nervous about the test but I calmed down when I saw how easy it was Mike tried to calm his sister down after she had a fight with her husband 2 calm down pv When a confused or violent situation becomes less confused or violent it calms down When you calm a confused or violent situation down you make it less confused or violent and more calm Settle down is similar to calm down The neighborhood where the riot occurred calmed down after the army started patrolling the streets A conference between the two sides was organized to try to calm the situation down fall down fall down amp falls down falling down fell down fallen down 1 fall down pv When people or things fall to the ground from a higher position they fall down I slipped on some ice on the sidewalk and fell down All the dishes on that shelf will fall down if theres another earthquake go down go down amp goes down going down went down gone down 1 go down to pv When you move to a lower level or position or from north to south you go down or go down to that place Go up is the opposite of go down Toronto is too cold so we usually go down to Mexico in the winter Going down the mountain was a lot easier than going up 2 go down to pv When the cost rate quality quantity or level of something decreases it goes down Go up is the opposite of go down The temperature went down to zero last night The crime rate in New York City has gone down 3 go down to pv When something extends to a certain point that is farther south or at a lower elevation it goes down to that point Go up is the opposite of go down How far south does this road go down Does this road go down to the south side of town After dinner we went down to the basement and played ping pong 272
4 go down pv When something goes down in a certain way people react to or perceive it in this way The new no smoking policy didnt go down very well with the smokers in the office The judges decision went down well with the prosecutor 5 go down pv When a computer or computer network stops working because of a problem or because it has been disconnected it goes down I couldnt withdraw any money at the bank because its computers had gone down If your computer terminal goes down you can use the one in the next office 6 go down pv When the sun goes below the horizon it goes down After the sun goes down itll get a little cooler The sun went down at 834 last night Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle lay down lay down amp lays down laying down laid down laid down 1 lay down on pv When you lay something down you put it on a horizontal surface Put down is similar to lay down Marsha laid the tray down The police ordered Jake to lay down his gun and surrender 2 lay down pv When you lay down a new law policy rule and so on you create and announce it The IRS laid down several new tax regulations Congress decided against laying down any new campaign financing laws put down put down amp puts down putting down put down put down 1 put down pv When you put something down you put something in your hand or something that you are carrying on a horizontal surface The suitcase was so heavy that I had to put it down and rest for a minute Susie put that knife down Its dangerous 2 put down pv When you put people down you criticize them Jim hates his stepfather and puts him down constantly Im not inviting Sam to any more parties I hate the way he puts everyone down put-down n A put-down is an insult or critical remark At the party Sam asked Nancy if she had made her dress from an old curtain What a put-down 3 put down on pv When you put money down or put money down on something you pay a portion of the cost of something you want to buy to be sure that it will still be available to you when you are able to pay the rest of the cost 273
The real estate agent asked me how much money I want to put down on the house I told her that I could put as much as 15000 down 4 put down onfor pv When you add something to a list or other written material you put it down or put it down on the list When you add people to a list in order to assign something to them you put them down or put them down for that assignment Melanies collecting money for charity so I told her to put me down for 50 Im making a list of volunteers to help reelect Senator Dolittle Can I put your name down on the list 5 put down on pv When an airplane puts down or a pilot puts an airplane down the airplane lands After the engine quit the pilot looked for a place to put down Fortunately the pilot was able to put the plane down on a frozen lake Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle run down run down amp runs down running down ran down run down 1 run down to pv When you move quickly to a lower level or place you run down or run down to that place Mike was running down the stairs when he fell and broke his leg I saw someone trying to steal my car and I ran down to the street to try to stop him 2 run down pv When vehicles or people driving vehicles hit and injure or kill someone they run that person down The man was run down and killed by a speeding taxi Ali was arrested after he ran three people down 3 run down pv When you discuss or review items on a list from the first to the last you run down the list Lets run down the Christmas list and decide what to give everyone The teacher ran down the list of students and marked the ones who are failing rundown n A rundown is a discussion or review of items on a list The consultant gave the manager a rundown of the problems she had found 4 run down pv When batteries or machines run down or are run down by someone they gradually lose power or energy Dont leave the car lights on for too long when the car isnt running or the battery will run down What time is it My watch ran down last night rundown partadj A person or thing that is rundown is exhausted without power or energy 274
Maybe I need to go to the doctor I feel so rundown all the time rundown partadj A rundown building or neighborhood is in poor condition because it has not been maintained I went back to my old neighborhood and I was shocked to see how rundown it had become Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle sit down sit down amp sits down sitting down sat down sat down 1 sit down pv When you sit down you change from a standing position to a sitting position The teacher told his students to sit down and open their books Im exhausted I havent sat down all day 2 sit down pv When you sit people down you order them to sit usually so that you can have a serious discussion When I found marijuana in my daughters purse I sat her down and had a serious talk with her The detective sat Hank down and began to interrogate him EXERCISE 36a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Heather thinks shes so high-class Sheother people all the time 2 The situation after the cease-fire was declared 3 The sun comes up around 600 and it around 800 4 Heres the list of candidates for the promotion Lets the list and decide 5 The old water tower during the storm 6 You must be exhausted Why dont you and take it easy 7 I saw a tow truck looking for illegally parked cars so I to my car and moved it 8 My office is on the ninetieth floor so sometimes it takes me fifteen minutes to to the lobby 9 Its hard to write sympathy notes I never know what to 275
10 The company tried to reduce benefits but they when the union threatened to go on strike 11 The Appalachian Trail starts in Maine and all the way to Georgia 12 Dont the baby there she might fall 13 I was furious about what Dan said and I him and told him exactly what I thought about it 14 If you 100000 on that house you wont need a very large mortgage 15 What are you so worried about Just everythings going to be all right 16 The unions proposal to reduce the workweek to four days didnt well with the company 17 The Food and Drug Administration is expected to a new set of regulations regarding seafood inspection 18 The price of computers has dramatically in the last few years 19 Those boxes are too heavy for you them and let me carry them for you 20 A pedestrian was by a truck on Lincoln Avenue 21 The stock exchange had to stop trading when its computers 22 a jet on an aircraft carrier at night is very difficult 23 Someone left this flashlight on all night and the batteries have EXERCISE 36b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The jockey calmed down the horse it 276
2 The mechanic laid down her tools them 3 I put down my books them 4 The taxi ran down the traffic cop him EXERCISE 36c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The car dealer reviewed the list of the cars options with me What did the car dealer do 2 In Question 1what did the car dealer give me 3 The king visited the area where the two tribes were fighting and the fighting stopped What did the king do to the area 4 The houses in this part of town are in very bad condition How can you describe this part of town 5 Managements plan got a good reaction from the workers What impression did the plan make on the workers 6 Frank told Nancy that she was low-class What did Frank do to Nancy 7 In Question 6 what was Franks comment 8 Sam sat in a chair What did Sam do 277
9 The companys management stopped threatening to fire the workers and agreed to raise their wages What did the company do 10 The dentists secretary wrote my name in her appointment book What did the secretary do 11 The soldiers stopped fighting and put their rifles on the ground What did the soldiers do with their rifles 12 You slipped and landed on the ground What did you do EXERCISE 36d Review Complete the sentences with these participle adjectives from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one burned up 22 locked in 30 punched in30 spaced-out 30 cleaned out 32 locked out 30 punched out 30 sorted out 30 emptied out 32 paid up 22 put out 30 torn off 27 left out 32 plugged up 22 shaken up 24 1 Davids totally today He has even forgotten his girlfriends name 2 I like this coat but I dont know what size it is because the tags 3 I dont know why that guy from the collection agency called me all my bills are 4 Nicole hasnt yet Either shes late for work or she forgot 5 Mark borrowed Bobs car and had an accident and Marks really about it 6 The manager wondered why I wasnt working but after I told her I was she said it was okay 7 Take this medicine Its great for noses 8 Do you have a key Im and cant get out 9 Do you have a key Im and cant get in 10 Janes really She just found out that her brother was murdered 11 Jims socks are mixed with his brothers socks Theyre not 278
12 No one wants to sit with me in the school lunchroom and it makes me feel 13 My mother was really when Aunt Kathy said our house wasnt very clean 14 Why isnt the basement yet I told you Im tired of looking at this junk 15 Theres nothing in the room Its all EXERCISE 36e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one blow up 33 come about 33 make of 35 pull off 33 care for 31 do without 31 make out 29 put off 31 catch on 33 go out 32 narrow down 35 stick to 34 clean out 32 lock out 30 plan on 31 wash up 30 1 Several bodies from the crashed plane the day after the crash 2 After mother had a stroke we had to hire nurses to her 3 My father was seventy-two years old when he got his first computer but he right away and now he uses it all the time 4 The President had a lot of big plans when he took office but few of them ever 5 Mark wasnt successful as a singer He should have songwriting thats what he does best 6 How did you on your final exam 7 I had to crawl in through the window after my daughter closed the door and me of the house 8 This situation is very strange I dont know what to it 91 have to finish my project tonight and I havent even started it I it until the last minute 10 No one thought Frank could run a mile in less than four minutes but he it 279
11 I really depend on my laptop computer when I travel on business I dont know how I ever it 12 George and Linda for three years before they got married 13 Several people were killed when the bomb 14 Bob and Marsha arent spending more than 250000 for their new house 15 My divorce settlement cost me a lot of money It almost me 16 The FBI started with a list of six suspects but they it to two 37 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs used as nouns 3 When phrasal verbs are used as nouns the verb is usually in the infinitive form however a small number use a different form of the verb For example left over and grow up use the past participle We ate leftovers the day after Thanksgiving The grown-ups sat at one table and the children sat at another talk to and go over use the -ing form Mr Young gave his son a good talking-to Before I buy this car Im going to give it a good going-over and grown-up uses the past participle Only grown-ups are allowed to drive Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle brush off brush off amp brushes off brushing off brushed off brushed off 1 brush off pv When you brush people off you ignore them or refuse to listen to them because you are not interested in or do not like what they are saying My boss just brushes me off when I try to tell her how to increase our profits The reporters tried to ask him some questions but he brushed them off brush-off n When you give people the brush-off you ignore them or refuse to listen to them because you are not interested in or do not like what they are saying The boss just gave me the brush-off when I tried to give him some advice 2 brush off pv When you brush off a critical remark or problem you ignore it
and continue as before without letting it affect you I told Dr Smith that he had made a mistake but he brushed it off My fathers cholesterol is very high but he just brushes it off Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come on come on amp comes on coming on came on come on 1 come on pv When an electrical device or machine comes on it begins to operate usually automatically Go off is the opposite of come on It was so cold that the heat came on last night When you open the refrigerator door the light comes on automatically 2 come on pv When a television or radio program comes on it begins Do you know when the news will come on The late movie comes on at 100 AM 3 come on pv When you want to encourage people to do something or when you want them to do something quickly you say quotCome onquot Believe me youre going to love this garlic ice cream Come on try it Come on I cant wait all day 4 come on pv informal When you think that people have done or said something improper or unreasonable you say quotCome onquot Tom didnt study for one minute and youre telling me he got 100 on the test Oh come on Hey come on I told you not to do that again 5 come on pv always continuous When you begin to feel a headache or an illness developing you feel the headache or illness coming on I might be sick tomorrow I feel something coming on I feel a headache coming on Do you have any aspirin 6 come on pv When you come on a certain way you speak or deal with people in that way Paul needs to learn to be more of a gentleman He comes on too strong and women dont like that Bob comes on kind of arrogant but hes actually a nice guy 7 come on to pv informal When you come on to people you approach them and try to interest them in romance or sex Toad came on to Judy at the party and she told him to get lost I cant stand that guy Ned Hes always coming on to me come-on n informal A provocative comment or action intended to interest a person in romance or sex is a come-on 281
Todd uses the same come-on with all the girls and it never works come-on n A discount or special offer designed to get people to buy something is a come-on The bank is offering a free VCR as a come-on if you open an account with them Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past partic cover up cover up amp covers up covering up covered up covered u 1 cover up pv When you cover something completely you cover it up I covered the cake up so no bugs would land on it Cover this stuff up I dont want anyone to see it covered up partadj After something has been completely covered it is covered up Is the meat covered up I dont want flies to land on it 2 cover up pv When you cover up a crime you do something to try to prevent other people from learning of it Theres no point in trying to cover up the crime Too many people already know about it The mayor was accused of covering up his ties to organized crime cover-up n Something you do in order to prevent a crime from becoming known is a cover-up The mayor denied being part of a cover-up and claimed he was innocent hang out hang out amp hangs out hanging out hung out hung out 1 hang out pv informal When you hang out at a place you spend time there without any important purpose Hang around is similar to hang out Doesnt Nancy have a job It seems as if she hangs out at the beach every day I dont have anyplace to go Do you mind if I hang out here for a while hangout n informal A hangout is a place where you spend time without any important purpose The police closed the bar saying it was a hangout for crooks and gang members leave over left over 1 leave over pv always passive When something is left over it remains after people have used or taken as much of it as they need or want I guess I made too much food look how much is left over I paid all my bills and had only 17 left over 282
leftover partadj Something that is left over remains after people have used or taken as much of it as they need or want You can have this leftover pasta for lunch tomorrow leftovers n always plural Food items that remain uneaten after people have finished eating are leftovers Leftovers again When are we going to have something different for dinner Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle Let down let down amp lets down letting down let down let down 1 let down pv When you promise people you will do something and then fail to do it you let them down My son promised to stop using drugs but he let me down I really need you to help me move tomorrow Please dont let me down let down partadj When people promise you they will do something and then fail to do it you feel let down When you are disappointed because you cannot have something you want to have because you cannot do something you want to do or because something is less exciting than you expected it to be you feel let down You broke your promise to me that you would quit smoking I feel very let down letdown n When you say that something is a letdown you are disappointed because you cannot have or cannot do something you want to or because something is less exciting than you expected it to be I had tickets for the fifth game of the World Series but my team lost in four games What a letdown After the way everyone talked about how great the movie was I thought it was something of a letdown payoff pay off amp pays off paying off paid off paid off 1 pay off pv When you pay off money that you owe or pay off the person you owe the money to you pay all the money that you owe I wasnt happy with the people we hired to paint our house I paid them off and told them not to return It took ten years but I finally paid off my school loan paid off partadj After you pay all the money that you owe to someone or to a lending institution the debt or loan is paid off I made my last payment yesterday and now my car loan is paid off 2 pay off pv When you pay people money so that they will do something illegal or allow you to do something illegal you pay them off 283
The politician tried to cover up the crime by paying off the witnesses Dont expect the police in this city to do anything about gambling theyre being paid off payoff n A payoff is money paid to someone to do something illegal or to allow you to do something illegal The chief of police was videotaped accepting a payoff 3 pay off pv When something you do pays off it is successful and is worth the effort you made Medical school is a lot of hard work but itll pay off someday The restaurant changed its menu and it really paid off Business increased by 30 percent payoff n A benefit you gain because of an effort you make is a payoff Linda doesnt get paid for the volunteer work she does The payoff is knowing that she has helped other people Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle talk to talk to amp talks to talking to talked to talked to 1 talk to pv When you talk to people you have a conversation with them Are you talking to me I dont like Bob He talks to me like Im some kind of idiot talking-to n A talking-to is a serious discussion in which you scold or lecture someone Dans behavior is outrageous Someone should give him a good talking-to EXERCISE 37a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I forgot to the chicken after we finished dinner and the cat ate it 2 A patient died after Dr Smith gave her the wrong medicine and the hospital tried to it 3 I dont care what Nancy thinks of me If she criticizes me Ill just her 4 I worked for nine years to get my PhD and now I cant find a job in my field All that work sure didnt 284
51 set the thermostat so that the air conditioner if it gets over eighty degrees 6 You can trust Erik to keep his promises He wont you 7 I didnt like that car salesman we talked to last night He too strong 8 I called Heather last night but I didnt her she was in the shower 9 in bars isnt my idea of fun 10 I tried to apologize to Jane but she just me and continued walking 11 I want to my mortgage early so Im making two payments every month 12 Look at TV Guide to see when the show 13 Karen sure isnt shy Did you see how she was to my brother at the party 14 After Thanksgiving so much turkey will bethat well be eating it for two weeks 15 I hope Im not getting sick I feel a cold 16 The contractor was accused of city officials in exchange for contracts EXERCISE 37b Complete the sentences with nouns from this section 1 You need to finish school The wont come for years but its worth it 21 didnt have time to make anything for dinner so were having tonight 3 This place isnt as beautiful as it looked in the pictures What a 4 Judy isnt interested in anything I say she always gives me the 5 The senator was convicted of taking a 6 The low interest rate the credit card company offers if you switch to their card is just a After six months they increase it to 18 percent 7 The politician was accused of being part of a 285
8 You can usually find Joe at the nightclub across the street Thats his favorite 9 Timmys not causing any problems today Maybe someone gave him a EXERCISE 37c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Ned spends a lot of time at Joes Diner relaxing and talking to his friends What does Ned do at Joes Diner 2 In Question 1 what is Joes Diner to Ned 3 Mark said something that I thought was ridiculous and I told him to be serious and reasonable What did I say to Mark 4 You had 400 but after you went shopping you had 100 remaining What did you have 5 My favorite TV show begins at 900 What does my favorite show do at 900 6 Dan promised his daughter that he would take her to the circus but he couldnt get off work that day What did Dan do to his daughter 7 Maria is going to pay her last car loan payment What is she going to do to her car loan 8 In Question 7 how would you describe Marias car loan after she makes the last payment 9 Nicole spoke with her brother about his drinking problem What did she do to her brother 10 In Question 9 what did Nicole give to her brother 11 The heat in our house starts to operate when the temperature gets below sixty degrees What does the heat in our house do 12 For lunch you ate the spaghetti that your family didnt eat the night before What did you eat for lunch 13 The restaurant owner gave the health inspector 200 to ignore the rats in the kitchen What did the restaurant owner do to the health inspector 14 In Question 13 what was the 200 that the restaurant owner gave the health inspector 286
15 The head of the health department tried to keep the payoffs in his department a secret What did the head of the health department do to the payoffs 16 In Question 15 what would you call the head of the health departments attempt to keep the payoffs in his department a secret 17 Linda complained to the city about the garbage in the streets but the woman she talked to wasnt interested and told her to write to the mayor What did the woman Linda talked to do 18 In Question 17 what did the woman that Linda talked to give her 19 Timmys friend wanted him to walk faster and he told Timmy to hurry What did Timmys friend say to Timmy 20 Joe told me again and again how good his favorite restaurant is but when I went there I didnt think it was that good What was my visit to the restaurant 21 In Question 20 how did I feel after my visit to Joes favorite restaurant EXERCISE 37d Review Complete the sentences with these nouns from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one blowup 33 get-together 26 grown-up 10 put-down 36 breakup 28 giveaway 28 lockout 30 rundown 36 cutout 31 going-over 26 lockout 29 1 The movie critic told the director that watching his new movie was worse than going to the dentist That was quite a 2 The of the huge company created several smaller companies 3 Were having a little tonight Would you like to come 4 Only are allowed to drink alcohol 5 The ended after the workers agreed to a 10 percent pay increase 6 I heard a big in Nancys office I wonder what the problem was 7 The drug dealers had a on every corner 287
8 Timmy told his mother that he hadnt eaten any cookies but he had chocolate all over his face so she knew he was lying The chocolate on his face was the 9 Before you spend 13000 on a used car I suggest that you give it a thorough 10 Carlos made paper shaped like dinosaurs 11 The police chief gave the mayor a of the previous months crime statistics EXERCISE 37e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one calm down 36 fall down 36 hold against 35 narrow down 35 catch on 33 fool around 35 leave behind 35 pull off 33 do away with 31 go by 35 live with 35 put down 36 empty out 32 go down 36 make of 35 sit down 36 1 My best friend Heather really likes Mike but Mike asked me to go to the dance with him I hope Heather doesnt it me 2 The real estate agent has shown us several houses but weve it to three that we really like 3 Mike took the wastebaskets outside and them 4 Before we go to the beach lets Toms house and see if he wants to come with us 5 Marias a fast learner She had never played chess before but she right away 6 No one thought I could get 100 on the test but I it 7 Nothing like that ever happened before I didnt know what to it 8 You can really screw up your computer with that program so dont with it unless you know what youre doing 9 Pets arent allowed where were moving so were going to have to our dog 10 Polio has been almost completely 288
11 that jerk for fifteen years was horrible 12 Joe was so upset after the accident that it was twenty minutes before he enough to tell the police officer what happened 13 Be careful on that icy sidewalk you dont want to and break your neck 14 In the summer the sun doesnt until 900 in the evening 15 Im going to 4000 on my new car and finance the rest 16 Ive been standing all day I need to 38 FOCUS ON the verb keep and adverbs and adverbials showing degrees of variability Phrasal verbs with keep Several phrasal verbs are based on the verb keep and it is important to understand that the essential meaning of keep in these phrasal verbs is no change As you study these verbs remember than in each meaning of each verb something is not changing something is continuing in the same direction or in the same manner or something is staying in the same place or in the same condition Adverbs and adverbials showing degrees of variability A variety of adverbs and adverbial groups of words that together function as adverbs are used to modify phrasal verbs that relate to something variable such as distance time cost speed temperature amount or quantity Adverbs and adverbials allow the speaker to be more precise about what is being measured to say whether it was a little or a of or to be precise about exactly how much But the verb must be something that is variable In cannot be something eitheror such as shut off for example a TV is either on or off it cannot be in between Adverbs and adverbials are used to strengthen the meaning of the verb He fell asleep on the train and went well beyond his stop She fell way behind in her work when she was sick Keep far away from the fire to weaken the meaning of the verb I went a bit over my budget Keep slightly to the right on that road He fell a little behind The meeting may run somewhat over 289
or to be exact We planned two weeks ahead Go three floors up Sometimes in informal English way is repeated for extra emphasis What Jim said went way way way beyond impolite it was outrageous Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle keep at keep at amp keeps at keeping at kept at kept at 1 keep at pv When you keep at it you continue with an activity even though it may be difficult When you say quotKeep at itquot to people you encourage them to finish with an activity that is difficult I know this work is difficult but you have to keep at it Keep at it youre almost finished keep away keep away amp keeps away keeping away kept away kept away 1 keep away from pv When you keep away or keep away from people you do not come close to them or associate with them When you keep away or keep away from things you do not touch them come close to them or use them When you keep away or keep away from places you do not come close to them or go to them Mark was very sick yesterday so everyone kept away from him Were going to eat dinner in a few minutes so keep away from those cookies Thats a bad neighborhood so keep away from it 2 keep away from pv When you keep people or things away or keep them away from something or someone else you do not allow them to come close to or associate with someone or come close to or touch something That dog is dangerous so keep it away Paul has an alcohol problem so keep him away from the bar at the party tomorrow keep down keep down amp keeps down keeping down kept down kept down 1 keep down pv When you keep the cost quantity or amount of something down you keep it a low level The company tried to keep its prices down They wanted a smalt wedding but they have such large families that it was hard to keep the number of guests down 2 keep down pv When you keep the volume of noise music or conversation down you keep it at a low level When people are being noisy and you want them to be quieter you tell them to keep it down 290
Will you please keep it down Im trying to study You kids can watch TV but keep the volume down your mother is taking a nap Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle keep from keep from amp keeps from keeping from kept from kept from 1 keep from pv When you keep from doing something you do not do it even though it is hard not to I was so angry that I dont know how I kept from punching that guy in the nose The movie was so sad that I couldnt keep from crying 2 keep from pv When you keep people from doing something you stop them from doing it Jims girlfriends parents dont like him and they try to keep him from seeing her When I was young my poor health kept me from doing a lot of things the other kids did keep off keep off amp keeps off keeping off kept off kept off 1 keep off pv When you keep off something you do not walk or stand on it When you keep other people or things off something you do not allow them to walk or stand on it The sign says quotKeep off the grassquot You should keep your kids off the streets and in school 2 keep off pv When you keep off drugs cigarettes or other addictive substances you do not use them When you keep people off drugs cigarettes or other addictive substances you prevent them from using them Since getting out of jail Hank has been able to keep off drugs Ned is a nice guy as long as you can keep him off booze keep on keep on amp keeps on keeping on kept on kept on 1 keep on pv When you keep on doing something you continue doing it I told her to be quiet but she just kept right on talking Dont stop keep on going 2 keep on pv When you keep people on at their place of employment you continue to employ them The company decided against laying all the workers off and will instead keep a few on to maintain equipment until business improves Everyone on the hotel staff was fired after the hotel went out of business except for two guys who were kept on to clean and paint the building 291
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle keep to keep to amp keeps to keeping to kept to kept to 1 keep to pv When you keep information to yourself you do not tell anyone This is a secret so keep it to yourself I wish she would keep her racist comments to herself I dont want to hear them 2 keep to pv When you keep something to a certain cost quantity or amount you do not let the cost quantity or amount go higher than that level Heres my credit card but keep your spending to a minimum dont go crazy with it The room doesnt hold a great many people so we have to keep the number of guests to 200 3 keep to pv When you keep to the right or left you continue moving to the right or left When you pass a big red barn on the highway keep to the right the exit is right after the barn Faster cars are supposed to keep to the left keep up keep up amp keeps up keeping up kept up kept up 1 keep up pv When you keep an activity up you continue doing it Leopards can run extremely fast but they cant keep it up longer than a minute or two I told you to stop doing that If you keep it up Im going to get angry 2 keep up with pv When you are in a group that is studying working and so on and you are able to learn or work at the same rate as the others you keep up or keep up with the group Fall behind is the opposite of keep up Lydia missed several days of school last month and now shes having a hard time keeping up with the rest of the class The assembly line was going so fast that no one could keep up 3 keep up with pv When you keep up or keep up with people or things that are moving you are able to move at the same rate Fall behind is the opposite of keep up Bob walks so fast that its hard to keep up with him The wounded soldiers couldnt keep up with the rest of the army 4 keep up with pv When you can understand and respond to a situation that is changing you are able to keep up with the situation Computer technology is changing so fast How can anyone keep up with it Jane always has some new idea I cant keep up with her 292
5 keep up pv When people or things keep you up they prevent you from going to bed or if you are in bed they prevent you from falling asleep Ned just would not leave last night he kept me up until 200 in the morning That noisy party across the alley kept me up all night EXERCISE 38a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The students excuse for not doing his homework was so ridiculous that his teacher couldnt laughing 2 What Im going to tell you is highly confidential so it yourself 3 The babys crying Judy half the night 4 Dont quit now youre almost finished it 5 The company increased its profits by costs 6 Ive tried to quit smoking a hundred times but I just cant cigarettes longer than a day 7 Slower traffic should the right 8 Now that I live in New York I cant with local news in my hometown 9 Sally is really angry at your brother so it would be a good idea to him from her 10 My algebra class is too difficult for me I cant 11 Youre going to have to walk faster than that if you want to with us 12 Pleaseyour dogour lawn 13 If you dontyour exercise program youre going to gain all the weight back 14 Could you the music Your mothers trying to sleep 15 Parents try to their children making mistakes but sometimes it isnt easy 16 If you eating so much butter and so many eggs youre going to have a heart attack 293
17 The new owner said the company was losing too much money to all the workers and that some would have to be laid off 18 Look at the prices on this menu Lets try to it a hundred bucks okay 19 I dont want to talk to you ever again so from me EXERCISE 38b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 My father asked me to speak more quietly What did my father ask me to do 2 I told the travel agent that we have only 4000 to spend on our vacation so she has to make sure the cost doesnt go over that What did I ask the travel agent to do 3 My geometry class is so boring that I cant stop myself from falling asleep What cant I do in my geometry class 4 My teacher told me that calculus is difficult but that I have to continue trying to understand it What did my teacher tell me 5 The political situation in Washington changes every day and its hard to understand what is happening What is it hard to do 6 Sarah and I were running I quit after three miles but she continued running What did Sarah do 7 Youve got to remain at a great distance from this area because it is radioactive What have you got to do about the radioactive area 8 Heather thinks Mike isnt telling her everything What does Heather think about Mike 9 Janice got excellent grades in her first year of college I hope she can continue to do well What do I hope Janice can do 10 I asked my husband not to let the children near my computer What did I ask my husband 11 The economist said its important not to let inflation go higher What did the economist say 12 Bill hasnt used drugs for five years What has Bill done 294
13 My son is eighteen so I cant stop him if he wants to join the Army What cant I do to my son 14 Sarahs having a little trouble in school Its hard for her to stay at the same level as the other students What is hard for Sarah EXERCISE 38c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EXERCISE 38d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one back down 36 come on 37 goof around 33 leave over 37 brush off 37 fall behind 33 hang out 37 run down 36 calm down 36 fall down 36 know about 33 sit down 36 come about 33 go down 36 lay down 36 talk to 37 1 Raul is constantly criticizing me but I usually just him 2 I can barely hear this radio The batteries must be 3 When the electricians went on strike the entire construction project schedule 4 Jakes claim that he accidentally shot Tony six times didnt well with the jury 5 The dictator after three aircraft carriers started sailing toward his country 295
6 I need to check the furnace The temperature got below sixty degrees last night but the heat didnt 7 A big old tree last night and smashed a hole in our roof 8 theres nothing to get upset about 9 Several major changes in society as a result of the industrial revolution 10 Are you going to do any work at all today or will you just 11 Dont waste your time asking Erik he doesnt anything it 12 Timmys mother him and talked to him about his bad grades 13 How much money was after you finished paying for everything 14 You can those papers over there 15 I dont have anything to do today Im just going to here and relax 16 Im so mad at her Ill never her again 39 FOCUS ON passive phrasal verbs 3 As we saw in Section 13 the passive is formed with be and the past participle of the verb A number of modal auxiliary verbs and similar constructions are commonly used with be The meat will be chopped up by the cook Mark would never be picked up at the airport by a limo This mess can be straightened out only by me Such a huge country couldnt be taken over easily Her name should be crossed off the list The gas tank ought to be filled up before you return the car The concert might be sold out Your paychecks may not be picked up until after 500 The enemy must be wiped out I have to be picked up on time The fruit has to be chopped up with a clean knife This screwup had better be straightened out soon or you will be fired This stuff was supposed to be taken over to Nancys house yesterday 296
Recall from Section 28 that phrasal verbs in the passive cannot be separated by an object because in a passive sentence there is no object Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle chop up chop up amp chops up chopping up chopped up chopped up 1 chop up pv When you chop something up you cut it into small pieces with a knife or other sharp instrument Does this meat have to be chopped up Chop it up into pieces about half an inch in size chopped up partadj After something has been cut into small pieces with a knife or other sharp instrument it is chopped up Mix the chopped-up onions and celery with the mayonnaise cross off cross off amp crosses off crossing off crossed off crossed off 1 cross off pv When you cross something off a list you draw a line through it to remove it from the list Why was my name crossed off the invitation list Crossing it off was a mistake crossed off partadj After a line has been drawn through something on a list to remove it from the list it is crossed off Heres the grocery list but dont get this crossed-off stuff I already got it fill up fill up amp fills up filling up filled up filled up 1 fill up pv When you fill something up you fill it completely My radiator must be leaking it has to be filled up with water every day We always fill the tank up when were in Indiana because gas is cheaper there filled up partadj After something has been completely filled up it is filled up These water containers dont weigh very much Are you sure theyre completely filled up 2 fill up on pv When you fill up or fill up on something you eat so much that you are no longer hungry and cannot eat any more Dont fill up on salad you wont have any room for dinner I filled up on candy and was really sick about an hour later 3 fill up pv When a room or other area fills up people enter it until it is full 297
The dance floor filled up quickly when the band began to play The hotels in Rio de Janeiro always fill up at carnival time Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle pick up pick up amp picks up picking up picked up picked up 1 pick up pv When you pick something up you lift it with your hand All this trash has to be picked up Sam picked up his briefcase and left his office 2 pick up pv When you go to a place to get something that was created prepared or left for you and is now ready you pick it up The garbage is supposed to be picked up before 900 AM The travel agent said I could pick the tickets up tomorrow pickup n Something that is to be picked up or the process of picking it up is a pickup The restaurant uses the back door for pickups and deliveries 3 pick up pv When you pick people up you stop your vehicle and give them a ride away from that place Youll be picked up at the airport by the hotel van Picking up hitchhikers is dangerous pickup n Someone who is to be picked up or the process of picking someone up is a pickup The taxi driver went to 2122 N dark Street for a pickup 4 pick up pv When you pick something up in a store you quickly go into a store to buy something you need I need to pick up some milk on the way home Could you pick a loaf of bread up on your way over 5 pick up p v When you pickup a skill you learn it easily When you pick up a habit you aquire the habit Children can pick up a new language very quickly My son is picking some bad habits up from his friends 6 pick up pv When you resume doing something at the point where you stopped doing it earlier you pick up at that point The teacher started the class by picking up where she had left off the previous week When you return to work after a long vacation its hard to know where to pick up 7 pick up pv When you pick up a radio or television station or a certain frequency on a receiver you are able to tune it to that station or frequency 298
When the weather is rightyou can pick radio stations up that are hundreds of miles away General Johnstons radio transmission was picked up by the enemy 8 pick up pv When the police or other authorities arrest people they pick them up The border patrol picks up several people every day trying to bring drugs into the country Charles was picked up for driving under the influence of alcohol 9 pick up pv When you get something by chance without looking for it you pick it up I picked up a few stock tips from a guy I met on the plane Marsha picked up some interesting books at a used bookstore 10 pick up pv When you pick up the check or the tab a tab is a list of money that someone owes in a restaurant or other place you pay it Toms a real cheapskate he never picks up the check Heathers father picked up the tab for the entire wedding 11 pick up pv When the speed level or condition of something increases or improves it picks up Business is stow this time of year but it should pick up in December The song starts out slowly but then it picks up pickup n An improvement in the speed level or condition of something is a pickup If a motor vehicle is able to accelerate quickly it has pickup The companys profits increased after a pickup in sales I need to take my truck to the mechanic It doesnt have any pickup 12 pick up pv When you pick up a place that is messy you organize or tidy it Timmys mother told him he couldnt play outside until he picked up his room Lets pick this place up its a mess 13 pick up pv informal When you pick up members of the opposite sex you approach and successfully interest them in a sexual or romantic encounter Hank tried to pick up Franks sister at the party last night but she wasnt interested Pat picked up someone and they went to a cheap motel Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle sell out sell out amp sells out selling out sold out sold out 1 sell out of often passive pv When a store sells out of something or is sold out of something it sells all of it 299
The toy store sold out of antigravity boots in two days I wanted to buy that new computer game but every store I went to was sold out of it sold out partadj After all of something for sale in a store has been sold the item is sold out I saw the most beautiful shoes at the mall but my size was all sold out sold out partadj After all the tickets to a concert play or other public performance have been sold the event is sold out Youll never get a ticket for the Superbowl its been sold out for weeks Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle straighten out straighten out amp straightens out straightening out straightened out straightened out 1 straighten out pv When something is bent crooked or curved and you make it straight you straighten it out My elbow is so swollen that I cant straighten my arm out As the city grew many of the winding streets were straightened out involved Sort out is similar to straighten out My hotel had me booked for the wrong days in the wrong room but the manager straightened everything out Save your questions for the meeting Everything will be straightened out then straightened out partadj After a confused situation or misunderstanding has been made understandable and satisfactory to everyone involved it is straightened out Sorted out is similar to straightened out Erik was upset with Dan but they had a talk and now everything is straightened out 3 straighten out pv When you straighten out people who are acting foolishly you do or say something that causes them to act more responsibly When you straighten out people who are confused you help them to understand I told my son that if he gets in trouble one more time Im going to send him to military school That really straightened him out Im totally confused about what Im supposed to do Can you straighten me out take over take over amp takes over taking over took over taken over 1 take over to pv When you take something from one place to another you take it over or take it over to a person or place Janes at home sick so Im going to take some chicken soup over After I finished my report I took it over to the finance department 300
2 take over pv When people groups or countries take control of a place by force they take it over After the government troops fled the country was taken over by the rebels The hijackers took over the plane and ordered the pilot to fly to Havana takeover n A takeover is an action to take control of a country city building or other place by force If the situation doesnt stabilize soon theres a real chance of a military takeover 3 take over fromas pv When people are elected appointed or hired to take control of a country state city business school building and so on and to replace the people in control they take over take over as something or take over from someone Cartos Ortega will be taking over as sales manager next year Ortega took over from Margaret Cummings who had been the sales manager for 14 years takeover n When people who are elected appointed or hired take control of a country state city business school building and so on and replace the people in control a takeover occurs After the takeover the new president made a lot of changes 4 take over for pv When you start to do a job or some work that other people are doing in order to allow them to take a break or because the previous shift has ended and a new shift has begun you take over When you assume an obligation or accept responsibility from someone you take it over We work from 400 PM to midnight and then the graveyard shift takes over When Linda was sick she couldnt care for her children so her sister took over for her until she was well again Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle wipe out wipe out amp wipes out wiping out wiped out wiped out 1 wipe out pv When you remove dirt or liquid from the inside of a container with a cloth sponge or paper towel you wipe it out Wipe the microwave out its got spaghetti sauce inside it I wiped out the inside of the glasses so they wouldnt dry with spots 2 wipe out pv When you are trying to kill people weeds insects and so on and you kill all of them you wipe them out An entire regiment was wiped out in the battle The general said he would wipe out the rebels wipeout n A situation in which all people weeds insects and so on are killed is a wipeout The battle was a complete wipeout Not a single soldier survived 301
EXERCISE 39a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Your pictures are ready and can be between 1000 AM and 600 PM 2 I didnt get the book I wanted because the store was of them 3 Theres a lot of confusion about the new policy We need to have a meeting to everything 4 The vice-president after the president died 5 Susie your room is very messy Come in here and it right now 6 Mr Nelson asked me to for Lydia while shes on vacation 7 Sales of air conditioners always in the spring 8 If we get a bigger antenna we might be able to a lot more stations 9 It took me an hour to everything for the beef stew 10 The soldiers were ordered to the rebels 11 Sally called and asked me to a few things on the way home 12 A country this small could be in a few days 13 I wish I hadnt on bread Now I cant finish my dinner 14 Im going to play golf with Charles next week Hes really good so maybe I can a few ways to improve my game 15 The theater ten minutes before the start of the opera 16 My cars frame was so badly damaged in the accident that there was no way it could be 17 You dont need to take any money to the restaurant Karen said she would the check 18 Dont just clean the outsides of the desks the insides too 19 Ill be arriving at 340 AM Would me that early be a problem 20 Hanks giving orders like hes the president of the company Someone needs to him 302
21 Smoking is a bad habit that I in the Navy 22 Lets these canteens before we begin our hike 23 This couch is really heavy Can you help me it 24 After you get your paycheck you can it to the cashier to cash it 25 Can you believe what Hank did He tried tothe bosss daughter at the company picnic 26 I finished page 47 yesterday so Ill on page 48 today 27 You can my name the list Ive changed my mind EXERCISE 39b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 Have you chopped up the onions them 2 You can cross off Lindas name her 3 Fill up with water the aquarium it 4 I need to pick up at the train station my parents them 303
5 Can you straighten out this mess it 6 The rebels took over the royal palace it 7 They wiped out the palace guard them EXERCISE 39c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The construction business always improves in the spring What does the construction business always do 2 Pirates might take control of the ship What might happen to the ship 3 In Question 2 if pirates took control of the ship what would this action be called 4 There was a misunderstanding at work but Nicole explained everything to the people involved and now they understand What did she do 5 In Question 4 how would you describe the misunderstanding now 6 Frank was supposed to go to the factory so he could give Ned a ride home What was supposed to happen to Ned 7 All the people in the town will be killed when the enemy captures it What will happen to all the people in the town 304
8 Someone ought to draw a line through Karens name on the list What ought to be done to Karens name 9 In Question 8 how would you describe Karens name after someone draws a line through it 10 Sarah went to the store to buy a CD but they had all been sold What did the store do 11 In Question 10 how would you describe the CDs 12 Tom tried to buy a ticket for the concert but all the tickets had been sold Why couldnt Tom buy a ticket for the concert 13 You cut some bacon into very small pieces before you put it on your salad What was done to the bacon 14 The laundry closes at 600 so Jane has to go there before 600 to get her dress What has to be done to the dress 15 The copilot flew the plane so that the pilot could eat dinner What did the copilot do 16 Todd often asks me to stop at the store and buy a newspaper What does Todd often ask me to do 17 Ill tell Susie not to make the water in the bathtub rise all the way to the top What will I tell Susie 18 I stopped writing my book at page 94 and later started writing again on page 95 What did I do EXERCISE 39d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one bite off 27 come out 32 leave out 32 pull over 19 blow up 33 cut down 23 look over 21 settle down 21 break off 27 hand over 19 make up 23 slow down 24 bring back 19 knock off 27 pick on 21 wear down 17 1 Davids mother told him shed like some grandchildren but hes having too much fun as a bachelor and isnt interested in 305
2 I didnt finish my work because I was training a new employee and explaining everything really me 3 Bobs doctor told him he was doing too much weight lifting and that he should 4 The movie wasnt the same as the novel Several characters were 5 When I caught my sixteen-year-old daughter smoking cigarettes I really 6 I didnt say you could use my car those keys right now 7 There must be something wrong with my camera none of the pictures I took 8 Can I borrow your food processor I promise Ill it tomorrow 9 Weve been working since 700 AM Letsand finish tomorrow 10 Everything on the menu looks delicious I just cant my mind 11 If you dont stop me Im going to tell Mommy 12 I told Mark not to pet the lion but he didnt listen and his hand was 13 He realized he was lost so he his car and looked at a map 14 My son asked me for a motorcycle for his birthday but I told him no so hes trying to me by asking me again and again and again 15 I gave my job application to the human resources director and he said hed it and give me a call 16 Do you have any glue One of the arms has this ceramic doll 306
40 FOCUS ON gerund phrasal verbs vs phrasal verbs followed by the -ing form We have seen in previous sections that phrasal verbs are sometimes followed by the -ing form We have also seen that transitive phrasal verbs sometimes take gerund objects At a glance there seems to be no difference between these two constructions Jim went away singing -ing form Jim stuck with singing gerund But because a gerund is a verb functioning as a noun it can be replaced with an ordinary nongerund noun However this is not true of the -ing form Jim went away it Jim stuck with it Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle blow off blow off amp blows off blowing off blew off blown off 1 blow off pv informal When you do not do something that you are supposed to do because you do not want to or because you do not think it is important you blow it off l was supposed to report for jury duty Monday morning but I blew it off Bob had a hangover so he blew off helping Marsha fix her car bring up bring up amp brings up bringing up brought up brought up 1 bring up to pv When people bring something from a higher level or position or from south to north to where you are they bring it up or bring it up to where you are Would you please go downstairs and bring up the package that was just delivered The rescue workers brought morphine up to the injured mountain climber 2 bring up pv When you introduce a new topic into a conversation you bring it up Last night during dinner Dad brought up the idea of saving money by staying home instead of taking a vacation this year You and your big mouth We were having a great time until you brought that up 3 bring up to pv When you bring up children you care for them as they grow to adulthood When you bring up children to believe something or to behave in a certain way you try to teach this belief or behavior to them 307
Tom was born in Canada but he was brought up in the United States Bringing quadruplets up is a lot of work I was brought up to believe in honesty and compassion Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle burst out burst out amp bursts out bursting out burst out burst out 1 burst out pv When you burst out laughing or crying you begin laughing or crying loudly and suddenly Heather burst out laughing when I fell into the swimming pool When Sam heard the news he burst out crying come back come back amp comes back coming back came back come back 1 come back tolfrom pv When people return to a place where you are they come back or come back to that place or come back from the place where they were before Todd went to Florida thinking it would be hot and sunny but he came back talking about how cold and rainy it was Im never coming back to this awful place again 2 comeback pv When people organizations companies or athletes overcome difficulties and become successful again they come back My home team came back from last place and won the championship Senator Dolittle lost in 1988 but he came back to win in 1994 comeback n When people organizations companies or sports teams overcome difficulties and become successful again they make a comeback The Bulls were down by 34 points but won the game with an 18-point lead what a comeback 3 come back pv When a condition problem situation or activity returns or greatly increases it comes back l need to see the doctor The pain in my shoulder has come back There isnt much chance that double-digit inflation will come back any time soon comeback n When a condition problem situation or activity returns or greatly increases it makes a comeback Health officials are concerned that tuberculosis is making a comeback 4 come back pv When a fashion or fad comes back it becomes popular again Miniskirts are coming back this year Western movies and TV shows go out of style and then come back every few years 308
comeback n When a fashion or fad becomes popular again it makes a comeback l saved all my wide neckties because I knew theyd make a comeback someday Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get off on get off on amp gets off on getting off on got off on gotten off on 1 get off on pv informal When you get off on something or get off on doing something you find it enjoyable and exciting Sally loves winter sports and she especially gets off on snowboarding Mountain climbing is what I get off on go away go away amp goes away going away went away gone away 1 go away pv When you leave a place or leave a person you go away Go away Im trying to study Mark went away not realizing he had left his briefcase behind 2 go away for pv When you travel for a period of time you go away for this time We always go away for a few weeks in the winter Lydia is going to go away for a while 3 go away to pv When you leave your home and live temporarily at another place such as a school you go away to that place Jane didnt go away to school she went to a school near her home Some young people are nervous about going away to school but others look forward to it 4 go away pv When a condition problem situation or activity disappears or greatly decreases it goes away l have a pain in my back that never goes away If the rain doesnt go away well have to call off the game run around run around amp runs around running around ran around run around 1 run around pv When you run around a place you run to various parts of it The cat ran around the room chasing the mouse The children were running around the museum and the guard told them to stop 2 run around pv When you run around doing something you go to various places trying urgently to accomplish something that is important to you The woman was running around the store looking for her lost child We ran around the house trying to rescue whatever we could from the rising floodwater 309
runaround n When people are not honest with you or helpful to you they give you the runaround Why didnt you just tell me the truth instead of giving me the runaround Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle stick with stick with amp sticks with sticking with stuck with stuck with 1 stick with pv When you stick with a habit plan or type of work you continue as before without change Stick to is similar to stick with l dont like computers Ill stick with writing letters by hand Todd thought about a career change but decided to stick with teaching 2 stick with pv When you stick with something that you use you continue to use it My wife wants me to switch to decaffeinated coffee but Im going to stick with regular My mother has stuck with Ivory soap for forty years 3 stick with pv When you stick with people you remain with them or remain loyal to them Itll be very crowded at the festival so stick with me so you dont get lost That other guy running for senator has some good ideas but Im going to stick with Senator Dolittle 4 stick with pv When you stick people with something you force them to take something or deal with something undesirable or unpleasant Im sorry to stick you with all this work but youre the only one who can do it The shoes I bought dont fit but the store where I bought them doesnt accept returns so I guess Im stuck with them EXERCISE 40a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I didnt know anyone at the party except Leticia so I her 2 All Timmys friends are for the summer so he wont have anyone to play with 3 I have a job interview at 830 Monday morning but thats too early for me so maybe Ill just it 4 Miguel was surprised how much he enjoyed watching figure skating He really it 310
5 Linda from the party talking about what a good time she had 6 Susies birthday party exhausted me The kids were yelling and screaming for hours 7 I gave my grandfather a computer but he said hed rather his old typewriter 8 My grandmother was on a farm but she moved to the city when she got married 9 Dan buying a motorboat but his wife said it was a crazy idea 10 I know running is great exercise but Im going to swimming 11 I hope high-heel shoes never theyre so uncomfortable 12 The strange noise in my engine has so Im going to take the car to a mechanic again 13 I asked the mechanic why the sound keeps and coming back 14 Bobs joke was pretty funny Everyone laughing 15 Betty smelled smoke and she the house frantically looking for the source 16 Why does the boss me making coffee every morning Why cant someone else do it 17 I saved my father a lot of money by not to school 18 After his defeat the former champion said he would 19 Frank came to my door with flowers and an apology but I told him to 20 Whenever my brother in Florida visits me here in Minnesota he some oranges EXERCISE 40b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Theyre not following the original plan What arent they doing 2 I took some aspirin and my headache was gone for a while but now I have a headache again What did my headache do 311
3 You started to cry suddenly and loudly What did you do 4 Hank was supposed to meet with his parole officer in the morning but he didnt go because he wanted to sleep late What did Hank do to his meeting with his parole officer 5 The hotel desk clerk didnt tell me he had canceled my reservation by mistake Instead he invented a lot of crazy excuses that he knew werent true What did the hotel desk clerk do 6 Todds sister was very upset and he asked what the problem was but she told him to leave her alone What did Todds sister ask him to do 7 Skiing is what Heather likes more than anything How does Heather feel about skiing 8 Everyone in the factory was busy so when the delivery truck came David was forced to unload it by himself What happened to David 9 Nancy began talking about joining the Peace Corps What did Nancy do 10 The number of people with malaria decreased but now the number is increasing every year What is malaria doing 11 Poverty is a problem that never decreases or disappears What doesnt poverty do 12 You went on a business trip three weeks ago and you havent returned yet What havent you done yet 13 Ned had to call his broker immediately so he ran to various places looking for a telephone What did Ned do 14 It would be nice to leave this city for a week or two What would be nice 15 When I was young my parents taught me to believe in the golden rule What did my parents do EXERCISE 40c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section Try to use either gerunds or the -ing form 1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 EXERCISE 40d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one back down 36 go down 36 lead up to 34 stick around 34 do over 34 go out 32 make of 35 stick to 34 fool around 35 hold against 35 put up to 34 take back 34 go by 35 lay down 36 run down 36 trick into 35 1 At school Luis got into a lot of trouble for something I did and now heit me 2 If I could it again Id do it differently 3 The price of gas is expected toto1 a gallon within a month 4 The light suddenly and I couldnt see a thing 5 Do you have to go already Cant you for a few minutes 6 We dont want to forget anything so lets the list one more time to be sure 7 The announcement was a real surprise Im not sure what to it 8 This book I bought is missing some pages Can you it to the bookstore for me tomorrow 9 Crime was getting out of control so a new sheriff was elected who promised to the law 10 That gun is loaded so I wouldnt with it if I were you 11 After I threatened to go to the police and tell them everything he and stopped making threats 12 My brother always thought I would be a failure so now that Im rich I love to it him by complaining about how hard it is to keep a thirty-room house clean
13 My son is a good boy If he was shoplifting Im sure someone him it 14 In my history class we studied the various things that the current situation 15 The month we spent in Italy was a lot of fun but it seemed to so quickly 16 My brother-in-law is so sneaky He tried to me telling him the combination to my safe 41 FOCUS ON two-word phrasal verbs with the particle in that require into when used with an object We have seen in Sections 9 and 23 that some two-word phrasal verbs require a second particle when they are transitive which makes them three-word phrasal verbs Many phrasal verbs with the particle in have a meaning that relates to entering or penetrating When what is being entered or penetrated is named these verbs become transitive however this is not done by adding a second particle but by changing in to into Another way to look at it is to consider intro two particles in and to written as one word The thief broke in The thieves broke into the jewelry store But this is true only for meanings of the phrasal verb that relate to entering or penetrating not for all meanings Some meanings with in have no into version and are included in this section and some meanings with into have no in version and are not included in this section Moreover sometimes into is optional and the verb can be used transitively with either in or into We see also in this section that there is often a phrasal verb with an opposite meaning with in and into corresponding to out and out of I sneaked in I sneaked out I sneaked into the house I sneaked out of the house 314
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle break in break in amp breaks in breaking in broke in broken in 1 break inlinto pv When you break in or break into a place you enter illegally using force or deception A thief broke in and stole my TV When I saw the smashed glass in the street I knew my car had been broken into break-in n A break-in is an illegal entry into a place using force or deception The police investigated a break-in at the liquor store 2 break in pv When you break in a new mechanical device or a car you use it slowly and carefully until you are sure it ready for heavier use When you break in a pair of shoes you wear them only occasionally and for a short time until they are comfortable When you break in people at a new job you train and supervise them and give them less than the normal amount of work until they are ready for something more difficult l dont want to wear these boots on the expedition I havent broken them in yet Were breaking in a new secretary so things have been a bit confused at our office lately broken in partadj After you break in a new mechanical device or a car a pair of shoes or people at a new job they are broken in l dont want to wear those shoes to the dance Theyre not broken in yet check in check in amp checks in checking in checked in checked in 1 check inlinto pv When you arrive at a hotel and arrange for a room you check in or check into the hotel After I arrive in Denver Ill go straight to my hotel and check in Jim checked into the hotel while I called home to check on the kids 2 check in pv When you arrive at an airport and give your ticket to an agent and receive a boarding pass you check in You should check in at least two hours be fore your flight You can wait over there in the lobby while I check you in check-in n The counter at an airport where you give your ticket to an agent and receive a Before your flight you have to go to the check-in counter 3 check in pv When you give your luggage to an airline agent so that it will be carried in the baggage compartment rather than the passenger compartment you check it in 315
That bag is too big for carry-on youll have to check it in checked in partadj Luggage that has been checked in or passengers that have checked in are checked in Now that were checked in we can wait in the boarding lounge 4 check in with pv When you visit or call people briefly and regularly because you want to get or receive important information from them or to make sure that a situation you are both interested in is satisfactory you check in or check in with them After surgery youll need to check in once in a while to make sure the bone is healing properly If Hank doesnt check in with his parole officer every week the police will arrest him Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle Check out check out amp checks out checking out checked out checked out 1 check out of pv When you pay your bill return your key and leave a hotel you check out or check out of the hotel Theres always a long line of people waiting to check out at that time of the morning Mrs Gorcia checked out of her hotel and took a taxi to the airport checked out partadj After you have paid your bill returned your key and left a hotel you are checked out Okay were checked out now lets get a taxi and go to the airport checkout n The time before which you must check out of a hotel in order to avoid paying for another day is the checkout time We can sleep late tomorrow checkout time isnt until 100 PM 1 check out pv When you check a place or thing out you inspect it carefully or learn more about it That new Mexican restaurant is great you should check it out Hey George check out that car Toad is driving When did he buy it 3 check out pv When you check people out you investigate them in order to learn more about them If you say that people check out you mean that the information they have given you about themselves such as their education and work experience has been investigated and found to be accurate Applicants for child care jobs should be thoroughly checked out Before you give that guy money to invest you should check him out Frank didnt get the job he wanted with the CIA Some things on his resume didnt check out 4 check out pv When you check out at a store you bring the items you want to buy to the cashier and pay for them 316
The stores closing in a few minutes Wed better check out Look at this line Its going to take forever to check out checkout n The checkout or the checkout counter is where you pay for items in a store You get the bathroom stuff Ill get the groceries and well meet at the checkout counter Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle go in go in amp goes in going in went in gone in 1 go inlinto pv When you go in or go into a place building room and so on you enter it Its getting too dark to play tennis Lets go in Frank went into the kitchen to get a cup of coffee 2 go in pv When something goes in or goes into a place container enclosure and so on it belongs there fits there or can be put there That dish goes in the cabinet next to the stove All those clothes will never go in this small suitcase 3 go in pv When soldiers enter combat or an area where combat is likely they go in Pull out is the opposite of go in The National Guard was ordered to go in and stop the riot The marine shouted quotWere going inquot as he jumped from the landing craft let in let in amp lets in letting in let in let in 1 let inlinto pv When you let people or things in or let people or things into a place building room and so on you allow them to enter by giving them permission to enter or by opening a door gate and so on When the guests arrived the butler opened the door to let them in The guard wouldnt let me into the stadium because I had forgotten my ticket 2 let inlinto pv When an opening such as a window door hole crack and so on allows something to enter it lets it in That small window doesnt let in enough light to read by The hole in the screen is letting the mosquitoes into the house plug in plug in amp plugs in plugging in plugged in plugged in 1 plug inlinto pv When you connect an electrical device to an electrical outlet you plug it in or plug it into the outlet When you connect any cord or cable to asocket designed to receive it you plug it in or plug it into the socket 317
l plugged my 110-volt TV into a 220-volt outlet and ruined it This phone isnt broken you just forgot to plug the phone cord in plugged in partadj When an electrical device is connected to an electrical outlet it is plugged in Be careful with that iron its plugged in Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle sneak in sneak in amp sneaks in sneaking in sneaked in sneaked in 1 sneak inlinto pv When you enter a place without anyone seeing or hearing you you sneak in or sneak into the place When I was a kid I used to sneak into the movie theater through the emergency exit If you dont have a ticket for the game youll have to sneak in sneak out sneak out amp sneaks out sneaking out sneaked out sneaked out 1 sneak out of pv When you leave a place without anyone seeing or hearing you you sneak out or sneak out of the place Susies father told her to stay upstairs in her room but she sneaked out through the window The principal caught me sneaking out of my chemistry class EXERCISE 41 a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Close the door Youre the bugs 2 One of the students and stole the answers for the final exam 3 My grandfather always a new car by not driving it over 50 miles per hour until it had gone 1000 miles 4 Mark told me he bought a large-screen TV Lets go to his house and it 5 My laptop computer is in this bag so I think it would be better to keep it with me on the flight than to it 6 These speakers sockets in the back of the stereo 7 Are you sure this is the right key for this lock It wont 8 When Im away on a business trip I always with my office every morning 318
9 I was late for class so I waited until the teacher wasnt looking and 10 The soldiers were ordered to and capture the enemy position 111 dont trust that guy my daughter wants to marry Im going to him 12 Dinner is being served Letsthe dining room 13 Theres a crack in the basement wall thats water 14 At the supermarket you can in the express line only if you have fewer than 15 items 15 Well the Grand Hotel on Wednesday 16 After a week at the hotel well and go home 17 Any burglar who tries to my house is going to get a big surprise Ive got three big dogs that arent very friendly 18 I only 15 minutes before my flight time and I almost missed the plane EXERCISE 41 b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Janice entered the house quietly so that no one would hear her What did Janice do 2 Lydia unlocked the door so that her brother could enter the house What did Lydia do 3 Ms Cummings paid her hotel bill and left What did Ms Cummings do 4 In Question 3 Ms Cummings had to leave the hotel before noon so that she would not have to pay for another day What is noon at the hotel 5 The window of Nancys house was broken and her jewelry TV and computer were gone What happened to Nancys house 6 In Question 5 what happened at Nancys house 7 When I arrive at the airport Ill give my ticket to the agent and shell give me a boarding pass What will I do at the airport 319
8 In Question 7 where will I go in the airport 9 The room is full of cigarette smoke and Karen doesnt want to enter it What doesnt Karen want to do 10 I saw an interesting house with a quotfor salequot sign on Pine Street as I was driving home Tomorrow Ill stop and learn more about it What will I do to the house tomorrow 11 When Erik flies to Colorado to go skiing he always gives his skis to the airline agent so that they will be put in the baggage compartment What does Erik always do with his skis 12 In Question 11 how would you describe Eriks skis after he gives them to the airline agent 13 You opened the window quietly when no one was looking and left your house What did you do 14 Mr Baker hasnt arrived at his hotel and arranged for a room yet What hasnt Mr Baker done yet 15 Hank bought a new CD player and connected the plug to the outlet What did Hank do 16 In Question 15 how would you describe Hanks new CD player 17 Before Ned was hired for his job in a nursing home the human resources manager at the nursing home called his previous employer and asked questions about Ned What was done to Ned 18 My feet are killing me It wasnt very smart to wear new hiking boots that arent soft and comfortable Why are my feet killing me EXERCISE 41 c Write seven original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 320
EXERCISE 41 d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one blow off 40 help out 33 start out 20 come on 37 leave over 37 straighten out 39 fill up 39 let down37 take over 3 9 get off on40 live with 35 talk to 37 go away 40 narrow down 35 hang out 37 put down 36 1 I hope you like spaghetti because so much was after the party that were going to be eating it for a week 2 My son has promised me a hundred times that hell stay out of trouble and work harder in school but he always me 3 I want to watch the news Its going to as soon as this game is over 4 Even though you dont like your brother you shouldnt him in front of his children 5 Today cold and rainy but now the sun is out and its a lot warmer 6 I cant drive because of my broken leg but Carmen said shed me if I need anything 7 Ive got an appointment to get my teeth cleaned tomorrow at 400 but if you want to go to the beach I can my appointment 8 The company was considering eight cities for the new factory but theyve it to three 9 A lot of the employees are confused about the new contract We should ask management to have a meeting so that we can everything 10 Lydia is going tofor Judy during her maternity leave 11 Her husband said he wasnt going to stop smoking and that she would just have to learn to it 12 The commercial on TV said that if you your cars gas tankwith their gas youd get better mileage and a cleaner engine 321
13 Were planning to for a few weeks Would you mind watering our plants until we return 14 David put a pool table and a pinball machine in his basement Its a great place to and relax 15 Can you believe how rude that guy was to me Nobody has ever me like that before 16 Bob is very kind and generous He helping other people 42 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with get 1 Many phrasal verbs are based on the verb get and it is important to understand that the meaning of get in these verbs is not the same as the nonphrasal form of get meaning receive Instead get has a meaning similar to become or change to I got up at 600 was not up before and then I became up I changed from not being up to being up Many phrasal verbs with get that relate to a change in physical location might seem identical in meaning to a variety of phrasal verbs using come go and other verbs that describe physical movement such as walk run move and so on and often they can be used with little difference in meaning l came back last night I got back last night But there is a difference get emphasizes the change in location come go and so on emphasize the movement from one location to another It is very common to use the adverbs right and back with get phrasal verbs To review the adverb right see Sections 19 and 22 To review the adverb back review Section 26 and do not confuse the adverb back with the particle back Note that two forms of the past participle of get are shown gotten and got Gotten is more common in American English but got is occasionally used Both are correct Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get back get back amp gets back getting back got back gottenlgot back 1 get back to pv When you return to a level or place where you were before you get back or get back to that place 322
We left three weeks ago and we didnt get back until yesterday Where are you going Get right back here Mark lost a tot of weight when he was sick and it took him a long time to get back to his old weight 2 get back to pv When you get something back or get something back to a person or place you return it to that person or place Jim uses his mothers car in the morning but she needs it to go to work at 430 so he has to get it back before then I have to get these books back to the library theyre overdue 3 get back from pv When you get something back or get something back from someone or someplace you have something that you had before l couldnt believe I got my stolen car back Jim borrowed a book from me three years ago and I still havent gotten it back from him 4 get back from pv When you get back or get back from something that is very hot or dangerous or that you should not be near you move away from it so that there is more distance between you and it Get back from the edge of the cliff You might fall As the President came closer the police told the crowd to get back Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get get behind amp gets behind getting behind got behind gottenlgot behind 1 get behind in pv When you are in a group that is studying or working and so on and they learn faster or get more work done because you are learning or working more slowly than the others you get behind or get behind in your studies or work When you do not complete work as fast as originally planned and expected you get behind schedule Keep up is the opposite of get behind Fall behind is similar to get behind Linda had some problems last semester and she got behind in her studies With all the bad weather weve been having the construction project has gotten way behind schedule get by get by amp gets by getting by got by gottenlgot by 1get by pv When you get by or get by something you pass something or someone while you are walking or driving even though it may be difficult because there is not enough room Can you move all that junk in the hallway please Its hard for people to get by There was an accident on the highway and no one could get by 2 get by on pv When you get by or get by on a certain amount of money you continue with your work or continue with your life even though it may be difficult 323
Dont worry about me Ill get by somehow Its not easy getting by on 250 a week 3 get by pv When something such as a mistake or a problem gets by you you do not notice it Ive got a great editor no mistakes get by her I checked this report twice How did all these misspellings get by me Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get down get down amp gets down getting down got down gottenlgot down 1 get down to pv When you move to a lower level or place or from north to south you get down or get down to that level or place Get up is the opposite of get down Go down is similar to get down Youre going to fall out of that tree and break your neck Get down right now The first thing I did after I got down to Miami was go to the beach 2 get down from pv When you get things or people down you move them from a higher level or place to a lower one Why do you always put the dishes on the top shelf I cant get them down The fire fighters got the people down from the roof of the burning building 3 get down pv When you bend your body and lower your head to avoid danger or to prevent people from seeing you you get down When the enemy soldiers started shooting the sergeant ordered his men to get down Get down If the police catch us here well be in a lot of trouble 4 get down pv When things or people get you down they make you sad or depressed Dont let your troubles get you down Everything will be all right Jims marriage problems are really getting him down get in get in amp gets in getting in got in gottenlgot in 1 get inlinto pv When you get in or get into a place building room car boat and so on you enter it Get in the car Were going now Wed better get into the school the bells going to ring soon 2 get inlinto pv When you get in or get into a place building club restaurant meeting and so on you obtain permission to enter When you get other people in or get other people into a building club restaurant meeting and so on you arrange for them to enter Well never get into that club we dont know the right people l didnt have an invitation to the party but Nancy got me in 324
3 get inlinto pv When you get something in or get something into a place building room container enclosure and so on you get the object inside even though it is difficult The shoes are too small I cant get my feet in How did they get that elephant into its cage 4 get inlinto pv When you get in trouble or get into a difficult situation or a mess a mess is a confused or difficult situation you become involved in it When you get people in trouble or get them into a difficult situation or a mess you cause them to become involved in it Susie got in a lot of trouble at school today I dont see any solution to this problem How did I ever get into this mess 5 get inlinto pv When you get in or get into a place you arrive When the vehicle you are in gets in or gets into a place it arrives Come in is similar to get in Im exhausted I got in really late last night Ill be waiting for you at the station when your train gets into the station 6 get in pv When a store gets something in it receives a delivery of something that it will offer for sale Karen asked the sales clerk when the store was going to get some summer dresses in I wanted to buy that new book but the bookstore hasnt gotten it in yet 7 get in pv When you get an activity in you find the time for it or make the time for it Dinner isnt until 730 so weve got time to get a tennis game in Whenever I go to San Francisco on business I try to get a baseball game in Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get out get out amp gets out getting out got out gottenlgot out 1 get out of pv When you get out or get out of a place building room car boat and so on you leave or escape from it When Bob heard his cars engine making a strange noise he got out and looked under the hood We smelled gas and got out of the building just seconds before it exploded 2 get out to pv When you go to a place that is west of where you are or to a place outside a large city you get out or get out to that place l love it here in the city I almost never get out to the suburbs anymore I told my friend in New York quotIf you ever get out to California please visit mequot 3 get out of pv When you get people out or get them out of a place you take them out or you arrange for them to leave 325
The soldiers were surrounded so they called for a helicopter to get them out After Hank was arrested his lawyer got him out of jail 4 get out of pv When you get out or get out of a dangerous awkward or difficult situation you avoid it When you get people out of a dangerous awkward or difficult situation you help them to avoid it Erik made a date with two girls for the same night How is he going to get out of this mess You got me into this mess you get me out 5 get out of pv When you get something out or get something out of a container or place you remove it Mothers coming for dinner tonight so lets get the good china out The videotape is jammed I cant get it out of the VCR 6 get out of pv When you get dirt or a stain out or get dirt or a stain out of a material you remove it by cleaning This detergents ad claims itll get dirt out even in cold water Do you think bleach will get this wine stain out of my white blouse 7 get out pv When information gets out it becomes known to people who are not supposed to know it Be careful well be in a lot of trouble if this information gets out There was a huge scandal after the news got out 8 get out of pv When you leave your house and do things that are relaxing and fun you get out or get out of the house You work too hard you should get out more Ned doesnt get out of the house much he prefers to stay home and play computer games Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get over get over amp gets over getting over got over gottenlgot over 1 get over to pv When you get over to a place you go there When you tell people to get over here you want them to come where you are Francisco called and he said he needs you to help him with something so get over to his house right way Susie get over here and clean up this mess immediately 2 get over pv When you get over a problem illness or emotionally painful experience you stop letting it affect you and continue with your life Ive got a bad cold Ive been sick for a week and I still havent gotten over it You cant feel sorry for yourself forever youve got to get over it and get on with your life 326
3 get over pv When something happens that surprises you or makes you angry and you cannot stop thinking about it you cannot get over it l cant get over seeing my ex-wife with her new husband The coach couldnt get over losing the state championship 47 to 0 Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get up get up amp gets up getting up got up gottenlgot up 1get up to pv When you move to a higher level or place or from south to north you get up or get up to that level or place Get down is the opposite of get up Go up is similar to get up Tom your brother is in the basement Please go tell him to get right up here and start doing his homework I havent gotten up to my brothers house in Canada for a long time 2 get up pv When you get up or someone gets you up you rise from your bed When you get people up you cause them to rise from their beds l dont usually get up until 1100 on weekends I make breakfast getting the children up and ready for school in the morning is Bills job 3 get up pv When you change from a sitting or lying position to a standing position you get up Stand up is similar to get up The teacher told the sleeping students to get up After he hit me I got right up and hit him back EXERCISE 42a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 That bomb might explode Maybe we should a little 2 As soon as the car stopped I right and went inside the house 3 Ill lose my job if this information so dont tell anyone 4 Jims death took me a long time 5 Now the police are outside Look at all the trouble youve me 6 I thought these pants were ruined after I got ink on them but this detergent the ink right 7 I was working in my office on the third floor and my boss called from his office on the sixth floor and told me to there immediately 327
8 Work work work thats all you do You need to more often 9 Its 410 If we hurry we mighta round of golfbefore it gets dark 10 I was trying to leave work a little early but my boss said quotYou cant go home until 500 back herequot 11 Would you like to go shopping at Wal-Mart tomorrow They just some new stuff 12 The game is sold out but I know someone who might be able to us 13 What time did your plane last night 14 Hank is in a lot of trouble If heof it itll be a miracle 15 Nicole does her work very carefully and never makes mistakes Nothing her 16 Your sisters upstairs sleeping Go tell her to right here and eat breakfast 17 Look theres a bear it might see us 18 My husband spent his whole paycheck on beer and lottery tickets I dont know how were going to this month 19 I wish I hadnt late I missed the bus and now I have to walk to school 20 This is a very difficult class If you dont study hard youll 21 The teacher said quotYour midterm score wasnt very good but Im sure if you study hard youll do a lot better on the final Dont let it youquot 22 Excuse me could you move I cant 23 Mike usually leaves around 800 in the morning and around 530 24 My cat has been in that tree for three days Can you help me her 25 Its amazing I cant how great Tom looks Ill bet hes lost forty pounds 26 If you lose your receipt your money for something you bought is usually impossible 328
27 Timmys mother saidquotWho said you could leave the table back here and finish your vegetablesquot 28 Our neighbor called and saidlYour dog is in my garden it quot 29 The situation in that country is very dangerous so Washington is making plans to its embassy staff 30 David was so sick he couldnt even of bed 31 It isnt easy to this big car that small garage EXERCISE 42b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 My father came into my bedroom shook my shoulder and told me that breakfast was almost ready What did my father do 2 I live in New Orleans and its difficult to find the time to travel to Minnesota to visit my sister What is difficult 3 After you were arrested for drunken driving you were in a lot of trouble What did you do 4 You need to return to your home very quickly What do you need to do 5 After Judy pays her bills she just barely has enough money to survive until the end of the month What can Judy just barely do 6 If Heather doesnt work harder in her math class she will not be able to stay at the same level as the other students What will happen to Heather if she doesnt work harder 7 Its been five years but Frank is still sad about his brothers death What hasnt Frank done yet 8 I was trapped in my car after an accident but a rescue worker removed me from my car What did the rescue worker do 9 Alex is removing his toy train from the closet What is Alex doing to his toy train 10 Carlos is standing on a table so that he can get the toy airplane that he threw on top of the refrigerator What is Carlos doing 11 The sofa was too big and the movers couldnt bring it inside our new house What couldnt the movers do 329
12 There is a huge truck in front of us and we cant pass it What cant we do 13 Lydia left the building when she heard the fire alarm What did Lydia do 14 After getting out of her car Janice entered it again What did Janice do 15 Eriks bicycle was stolen but now he has it again What did Erik do 16 The pilot had mechanical problems with her airplane but the controllers on the ground helped her land What did the controllers do to the pilot 17 Bill called and asked me to come to his house very quickly What did Bill ask me to do EXERCISE 42c Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one brush off 37 float around 34 punch in 30 sneak out 41 call back 28 go inlinto 41 punch out 30 start up 26 call up 28 leave behind 35 run around 40 clear out 32 pick up 39 sell out 39 cross off 39 plug inlinto 41 sneak inlinto 41 1 Theres nothing to eat for dinner tonight Can you some takeout food when you come home from work tonight 2 My brother wants to store some of his stuff in my attic so tonight Im going to some of the junk up there to make more room 3 If you want to get a ticket for the Superbowl youll need to hurry theyre fast 4 When I go on vacation I want to relax at the beach and my worries 5 Ned is worried Theres a rumor that someone is going to get fired 6 I cant find the toy my daughter wants for her birthday anywhere Ive been all day looking for it 7 Im going to be late for work Would you mind me 8 Dan must still be here in the office somewhere He hasnt yet 9 I havent talked to Nancy in a long time I think Ill her tonight 330
10 Nancy was in the shower when I called but her brother said shed me right 11 Are you sure this is the right key It wont the lock 12 Margaret Cummings decided to leave her job with a big company and her own company 13 the theater was easy One of our friends went inside and opened the fire exit for the rest of us 14 My father wont let me go to the dance so Im going to after he goes to bed 15 None of the bad things people say about Charles bother him He just it 16 I made a list of people to invite to my wedding but after I heard all those nasty things Sarah said about my fiance I her name the list 17 Well I think Ive fixed the vacuum cleaner Lets it and see if it works now 43 FOCUS ON modals and present perfect phrasal verbs Remember that the present perfect is formed with have or the contraction ve and the past participle The only difference is that has is not used for the third person singular He has run up a big bill He would have run up a big bill The meanings of the modal and semimodal auxiliaries are unchanged in the present perfect except for may and might Past speculation and you do not know what happened might have or may have When discussing something that was possible in the past and you do not know what happened either might have or may have can be used 331
l wonder where Jim is He might have stopped off at the bar I wonder where Jim is He may have stopped off at the bar Because you do not know whether Jim stopped off at the bar either might have or may have can be used Past speculation and you know what happened only might have When discussing something that was possible in the past and you know what happened only might have can be used Climbing that tree was stupid You might have fallen out Climbing that tree was stupid You may have fallen out Because I know that the person I am talking to did not fall out of the tree only might have can be used Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle blow out blowout amp blows out blowing out blew out blown out 1 blow out pv When a flame blows out or is blown out by a strong wind it stops burning When you blow out a flame you use your breath to make the flame stop burning Dont open the window the candles will blow out I couldnt light my cigarette the wind kept blowing the match out The stove isnt working Maybe the pilot light has blown out 2 blow out of pv When something is moved outward away from where it was by an explosion or a very strong wind it is blown out or blown out of where it was before The force of the explosion blew all the windows out Look theres a dead bird The wind might have blown it out of its nest blowout n When a tire bursts and suddenly loses its air while you are driving you have a blowout Maria had a blowout while she was driving lost control of her car and hit a tree 3 blow out pv When a piece of electrical equipment or a fuse blows out it fails because too much electricity is passing through it Dont be surprised if the fuse blows out you have seven lights your computer and your TV all plugged into one outlet When lightning hit our house it blew all the telephones out 332
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle give out give out amp gives out giving out gave out given out 1 give out to pv When you distribute something to other people you give it out or give it out to them Hand out is similar to give out They gave out free hats to the first 5000 fans to enter the stadium The aid workers would have given more food out to the famine victims but they didnt have enough 2 give out on pv When a mechanical or electrical device stops working it gives out or gives out on you When a supply of something is completely used it gives out or gives out on you The explorers tost their way in the desert and died after their water gave out I bought a Chevrolet in 1964 and drove it more than 300000 miles before it finally gave out on me gross out gross out amp grosses out grossing out grossed out grossed out 1 gross out pv informal When something grosses you out it upsets you or makes you sick because you think it is disgusting You had to dissect a cadaver in your biology class Yuk that wouldve really grossed me out Alex hates changing his little brothers diapers it grosses him out grossed out partadj When something upsets you or makes you sick because you think it is disgusting you are grossed out l was eating an apple and I found half a worm in it I was so grossed out that I almost threw up head toward head toward amp heads toward heading toward headed toward headed toward 1 head toward pv When you head toward a certain location you move toward it When you say that you are headed toward or are heading toward a certain location you mean that you are planning to go there or that you are going there but have interrupted your journey and will resume it Head for is the same as head toward The escaped convicts must have headed toward Mexico Im heading toward Portland Where are you going run up run up amp runs up running up ran up run up 1 run up to pv When you run to a higher level or place you run up or run up to that place Run up and answer the phone if it rings okay If Id heard the baby crying I would have run up to his bedroom 333
2 run up pv When you accumulate a number of debts resulting in a total debt of a certain amount you run up a bill for that amount Giving my son a credit card was a mistake he ran up a 2500 bill in only one month Calling your family every week from Australia must have run a big phone bill up run-up n A large sudden increase in the price value or cost of something is a run-up Bill was lucky to buy 500 shares of the stock just before the big run-up 3 run up to pv When you run toward people you run up or run up to them The prince didnt have any bodyguards Anyone could have run up and attacked him After the explosion a man covered with blood ran up to me and asked for help Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle shut up shut up amp shuts up shutting up shut up shut up 1 shut up about pv informal When people stop talking they shut up or shut up about something they are talking about When you are angry and want people to stop talking you tell them to shut up Marvin talks and talks and talks he never shuts up I said I was sorry about crashing your car Now will you please shut up about it 1 shut up pv informal When people or things cause you to stop talking they shut you up Toad was making jokes about his wife at the party until she gave him a look that shut him right up I cant hear the TV can you shut those kids up stop off stop off amp stops off stopping off stopped off stopped off 1 stop off atlin pv When you stop off at a place or stop off in an area on the way to another place you stop there briefly before continuing your journey l would have stopped off at Sallys house this morning but I was late for work Stopping off in Cairo on our way to India would be fun try on try on amp tries on trying on tried on tried on 1 try on pv When you try on an item of clothing before deciding whether you will buy it or borrow it from someone in order to see if it fits or to see if you like it you try it on She must have tried on twenty pairs of shoes before making up her mind Would you like to borrow this dress for the dance tonight Here try it on 334
EXERCISE 43a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I got into Atlanta last night and tomorrow Im going to Miami 2 I shouldve this sweater before I bought it Its too small and now I have to return it 3 Nicole figured out why all the lights were off a fuse 4 Sam couldnt have finished the marathon his strength completely 5 Its a good thing Linda has health insurance she has a huge bill at the hospital 6 When the gas exploded all the doors and windows 7 Marshas always bragging about how smart she is and teasing me about my bad grades but when I got 100 on the algebra test and she got 52 it really her 8 Were not flying directly to Japan were going to in Hawaii for a few days 9 Hanks bad breath everyone 10 Im tired of listening to your constant criticism 11 I was so excited to see Karen after so many years that I to her and gave her a big hug 12 This gas stove isnt working I think the pilot light may have when you opened the window 13 Job applications were to everyone standing in line 14 When I saw smoke coming from the third floor window Ito look for the fire EXERCISE 43b Complete the sentences with the correct second particles 1 The flight attendant was blown out the hole in the airplanes fuselage 2 Free samples will be given out every customer who walks through the door 3 His diseased heart finally gave out him 335
4 I was so angry that when I saw him I ran up him and hit him 5 George and Tom might have stopped off New York 6 Maybe they stopped off Jims house in the suburbs EXERCISE 43c Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The wind blew out the candle it 2 They gave out information it 3 She ran up a 4000 bill it 4 Can I try on these pants these 5 The smell grossed out everyone them 336
EXERCISE 43d Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Rosa bought a coat but its too small What should Rosa have done 2 Your cars transmission finally stopped working after several days of problems What did your k cars transmission do 3 The price of gold increased a lot very quickly What would you call this increase in the price of gold 4 Todd didnt know that the taco he ate at Miguels house was made with cow brains When Miguel told Todd what he had eaten what must that have done to Todd 5 In Question 4 how must Todd have been 6 The children ran toward Betty very quickly What did the children do 7 The truck driver wouldnt have traveled toward Detroit What wouldnt the truck driver have done 8 Janice used her breath to stop the kerosene lamp from burning What did Janice do 9 Stopping Marvin from talking is nearly impossible What is impossible 10 Sally asked her brother how he could have accumulated such a large credit card bill What did Sally ask her brother 11 David stayed fora couple of nights in Denver before continuing to LasVegas What did David do 12 My tire burst while I was driving What did I have EXERCISE 43e Review Complete the sentences with these participle adjectives from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one
broken in 41 crossed off 39 plugged in 41 checked in41 filled up 39 put off 31 checked out 41 leftover 37 rundown 36 chopped up 39 let down 37 sold out 39 covered up 37 paid off 37 straightened out 39 337
1 If youre hungry theres some pizza in the refrigerator 2 This meat isnt enough the pieces are too big 3 That food isnt flies are going to land on it 4 Someday John wants to move from this neighborhood to a better one 5 My feet really hurt because these shoes arent yet 6 My car loan is I made my final payment last month 7 After forty-five years with the company I thought they would give me more than this cheap pen at my retirement party I feel 8 There arent eight names on the list there are only five three are 9 Were now we can take our luggage up to our hotel room 10 We can get a taxi for the airport now were 11 The game isnt there are plenty of tickets left 12 No wonder this radio doesnt work its not 13 The tank isnt yet theres room for another gallon or two 14 Is everything or do I need to explain it again 15 Why are you so Did I say something that offended you EXERCISE 43f Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one burst out 40 go inlinto 41 keep from 38 keep up 38 come back 40 keep at 38 keep off 38 sneak inlinto 41 get back 42 keep away 38 keep on 38 sneak out of 41 get behind 42 keep down 38 keep to 38 wipe out 39 1 Susie the kitchen and took a cookie when her mother wasnt looking 2 When I was a teenager I used to of the house and meet my friends after my parents went to bed 338
3 I just shampooed the carpet in the living room so it 4 I need to see my physical therapist That pain I used to have in my knee is 5 Do you have a bigger envelope This letter wont this small one 6 Betty asked the bus driver to stop but he didnt hear her and right going 7 Maria leaves for work at 700 in the morning and she doesnt usually to her house until after 800 in the evening 8 Jim has way in his studies because hes been in the hospital for several weeks 9 Marvin was acting like such an idiot when he was angry that I couldnt laughing 10 Dont give up nowit 11 It was hard to my magazine article only 2000 words there was so much I wanted to say 12 Mike crying when his wife told him she wanted a divorce 13 I try to take notes in my history class but the teacher talks so fast that I cant 14 The enemy soldiers were almost completely in the attack 15 That dog of yours is dangerous so please itfrom my children 16 The candy company has the cost of its products despite the rise in the cost of sugar 339
44 FOCUS ON participle adjectives and passive phrasal verbs with the verb get It is important to understand two different but related uses of get in forming the passive voice get adjectives get become It is very common in English to use get followed by an adjective This is not the passive In this case get is similar to become She got sick yesterday She became sick yesterday get past participles a form of the passive It is also very common to use get in place of be to form the passive voice The construction is the same get is followed by the past participle Judy got kicked out of school Judy was kicked out of school There is a difference however between the passive formed with be and the passive formed with get When the passive is formed with get there is often but not always a suggestion that the subject of the sentence was somehow responsible or partially responsible for what happened Judy got kicked out of school A person hearing the sentence above might think that perhaps Judy did something wrong that resulted in her getting kicked out of school Sometimes to leave no doubt that the subject is responsible for what happened a reflexive pronoun is used Judy got herself kicked out of school get participle adjectives adjective or passive As we have seen in English the past participles of many verbs are used as adjectives When get is followed by a past participle it is not always clear whether the sentence is passive or whether the past participle is functioning as an adjective 340
l got mixed up last week I became mixed up last week In the examples above we can see that the past participle is clearly functioning as an adjective since get can be replaced with become but notice that the sentence can also pass the by test discussed in Section 13 which indicates that it is passive l got mixed up by all the confusing road signs last week Again we see how closely related adjectives and past participles are in English and how it is not always easy to distinguish between the two Fortunately it is not usually very important What is important is to be comfortable using past participles as adjectives and the key to doing so is not to understand the difference between true adjectives derived from past participles and past participles with an adjective function but instead to understand that there often is no difference Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle beat up beat up amp beats up beating up beat up beaten up 1 beat up pv informal When you beat people up you hit them or kick them repeatedly The muggers stole my money and then beat me up Timmy got beaten up at school today My car is an old beat-up piece of junk carry away carried away 1 carry away with pv always passive When you get carried away or carried away with something you do more than is necessary or proper because you enjoy it or because you think it is important l was going to make a dozen cupcakes for desert tonight but I got carried away and ended up making forty You should always start a new exercise program slowly If you get carried away with it you might hurt yourself kick out kick out amp kicks out kicked out kicking out kicking out 1 kick out of pv When you kick people out or kick people out of a group place building room and so on you order them to leave Throw out is similar to kick out 341
David drank too much and got himself kicked out of the bar Bobs in our car pool but hes always arguing with the other guys about something so were going to kick him out Infinitive present tense ing form past tense past participle lock up lock up amp locks up locking up locked up locked up 1 lock up pv When you lock all the doors and windows of a building you lock it up The manager always locks up before he goes home We locked our house up before we went on vacation locked up partadj After all the doors and windows of a building have been locked it is locked up You cant get in the house its locked up 2 lock up pv When you lock people up you put them in prison The police locked Hank up after they caught him shoplifting Whoever committed that terrible crime ought to be locked up forever locked up partadj Someone who has been put in prison is locked up Being locked up in jail was a terrible experience lockup n A prison or other place where people are locked up is a lockup Omar was put in the lockup after he was arrested for drunken driving mix up mix up amp mixes up mixing up mixed up mixed up 1 mix up pv When you mix something up that has two or more ingredients you stir it so that the ingredients will be thoroughly combined Put in the eggs butter sugar flour and water and then mix it up well An electric mixer will mix up the ingredients better than a hand mixer 2 mix up pv When you mix two things up you confuse them with each other Jerry and his twin brother look exactly the same and everyone mixes them up Newborn babies sometimes get mixed up in the hospital mixed up partadj When you are confused about something that you want to understand or when you have emotional or behavioral problems you are mixed up Can you help me with my calculus homework Im really mixed up Jimmy is a mixed-up kid who gets in trouble with the police a lot mix-up n A mistake misunderstanding or confused situation is a mix-up Waiter I think theres been a mix-up I asked you for a chicken salad sandwich but you brought me a tuna salad sandwich 342
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle piss off piss off amp pisses off pissing off pissed off pissed off 1 piss off pv informal and offensive to some people When you make people angry you piss them off Youd better stop that Youre pissing me off Dont make a lot of noise when Mark is trying to study it pisses him off pissed off partadj When you are angry you are pissed off Melon ie got really pissed off at Heather for borrowing her necklace without asking and then losing it rip off rip off amp rips off ripping off ripped off ripped off 1 rip off pv informal When you rip people off you steal something from them cheat them or charge them more money for something than it is worth Dont do business with Marvin he rips everyone off Hank got ripped off by the drug dealer rip-off n When someone steals something from you cheats you or charges too much for something this is a rip-off I paid nine dollars to see that awful movie What a rip-off stress out stress out amp stresses out stressing out stressed out stressed out 1 stress out pv informal When people or things stress you out they make you worried nervous or tense Having that new manager around watching me all the time is stressing me out Sallys sister has to take care of quadruplets all day without any help That must stress her out stressed-out partadj When you are worried nervous or tense you are stressed-out l had to make a speech at work today and I was so stressed-out afterward that I took the rest of the day off EXERCISE 44a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The prison guard put Jake in a cell and him 2 Tom asked the barber to just cut his hair a little bit but when he looked in the mirror he could see that the barber was getting and cutting his hair too short 343
3 Erik promised me that he would come to my house to help me move some stuff this morning but he still hasnt shown up Hes always doing things like that and it really me 4 If Janice doesnt pass her chemistry test tomorrow she wont graduate with the rest of her lass and worrying about it so much is really her 5 I got of school after I got caught cheating on the test 6 The robbers the shop owner so badly that she had to be hospitalized 7 Add a cup of water and four eggs to the cake mix and it well 8 The night manager forgot to when she left the restaurant 9 The jewelry store me I paid 5000 for a diamond ring made of glass 10 The teacher has two students with the same name and she always them EXERCISE 44b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The thugs beat up the woman her 2 The hotel manager kicked out the rock group them 3 The cops are going to lock up the crook her 344
4 Mixing up is easy the twins them 5 Getting a tattoo must have pissed off your father him 6 The contractor was accused of ripping off homeowners them 7 All these problems are stressing out the staff them EXERCISE 44c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Tom paid a mechanic to replace his cars generator with a new one but the mechanic put a used generator in and still charged Tom for a new one What did the mechanic do to Tom 2 In Question 1 what would you call what the mechanic did to Tom 3 If they dont stop making so much noise the manager is going to tell them to leave What is the manager going to do 4 You locked all the doors and windows in your house What did you do 5 In Question 4 how would you describe your house after you locked all the doors and windows 6 Many cars look the same these days and its hard to tell them apart If it is hard to tell them apart what is it easy to do 345
7 Scratching my brothers new car really made him angry What did scratching my brothers new car do to my brother 8 In Question 7 how would you describe my brother 9 Linda is very confused about how to use her computer How would you describe Linda 10 Driving in all this traffic is making you nervous and tense What is driving in all this traffic doing to you 11 In Question 10 how would you describe yourself 12 I let Charles use my skis and when he returned them they were in very bad condition How were my skis when Charles returned them 13 Sams father was sent to prison for bank robbery What happened to Sams father 14 In Question 13 how would you describe Sams father 15 Karen went to the store planning to buy a pair of shoes but she ended up buying five pairs of shoes three dresses four blouses and a new winter coat What happened to Karen 16 When the angry people caught the thief they hit and kicked him again and again What did the angry crowd do 17 When you put all the ingredients in you have to stir them so they will be combined What do you have to do EXERCISE 44d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one break inlinto 41 keep at 38 keep off 38 pay off 37 bring up 40 keep away 38 keep on 38 put up to 34 cover up 37 keep down 38 keep to 38 stick with 40 help out 33 keep from 38 keep up 38 take over 39 1 The newspaper story claimed that the governor had taken a bribe and had then tried to it 2 That stock I bought really It went up nearly 100 percent in only three months 346
3 After the new manager next month you can expect a lot of changes 4 Will you kids it please Im on the phone 5 I told you to stop If you doing that Im going to get pissed off 6 The police think the burglars may have through the back door 7 If you kids go outside to playfrom that pile of junkits full of broken glass 8 I need to talk to Jerry about his bad breath but Im nervous about it 9 Dan is so sad about what happened that he cant crying 10 When I went to the car rental office they had already rented all the good cars and they me a beat-up piece of junk 11 The legislature passed a tough new law designed to drunken drivers the streets 12 When youre depressed you should talk to people about whats troubling you not it yourself 13 Im broke do you think you could me till payday 14 Nothing the inventor tried worked but he it until he solved the problem 15 I cant believe that my daughter would steal money from me That awful boyfriend of hers must have her it 16 Jane did very well in her first semester of college I hope she can it for the next four years 347
45 FOCUS ON phrasal verbs with the verb turn Many phrasal verbs are based on the verb turn In most cases phrasal verbs with turn involve two options and a change from one option to the other or when it is possible a move closer to one option and farther away from the other In other words choosing either A or B or when it is possible to be somewhere between A and B moving closer to A and farther away from B or vice versa Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle turn down turn down amp turns down turning down turned down turned down 1 turn down pv When you turn down an electrical or mechanical device you change the controls to decrease the level of what it is producing or doing Turn up is the opposite of turn down Could you turn the radio down Im trying to sleep If it gets too cold Ill turn down the air conditioner 2 turn down pv When you deny a request you turn down the request or turn down the person who has made the request l asked Nancy to go to the dance with me but she turned me down My request for a pay raise was turned down Getting turned down every time I apply for a job is getting me down turn in turn in amp turns in turning in turned in turned in 1 turn in to pv When you inform the police that certain people have committed crimes or tell the police where they are you turn them in or turn them in to the police The escaped prisoner got tired of running and turned himself in When Jake told me that he had murdered Luis I knew I had to turn him in to the police 2 turn in to pv When you return something that was given to you by a person in authority you turn that thing in or turn it in to a person in authority Hand in is similar to turn in The police officer was ordered to turn in her badge after she was caught taking a bribe The delivery truck drivers have to turn their keys in to the dispatcher before they go home 3 turn in to pv When you complete a test report or project and you give it to the person who assigned the work to you you turn it in or turn it in to the person who assigned the work Hand in is similar to turn in 348
Melanie asked her teacher if she could turn her project in late I have to finish this report and turn it in to the sales manager by tomorrow 4 turn in pv When you go to bed you turn in Im really tired Im going to turn in early Its getting late Im turning in Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle turn into turn into amp turns into turning into turned into turned into 1 turn into pv When something turns into something else it becomes that thing It was cold and rainy this morning but it turned into a nice day Its amazing that this small seed can turn into a huge tree 2 turn into pv When you turn something into something else you change it into that thing The Youngs are thinking of turning their house in the country into a hotel The children turned the big box into a playhouse turn off turn off amp turns off turning off turned off turned off 1 turn off pv When you turn off an electrical or mechanical device you change the controls to stop it from producing or doing something Turn on is the opposite of turn off Switch off and shut off are similar to turn off Would you turn the light off I want to go to bed When Im driving and have to wait for a long freight train to pass I always turn my car off turned off partadj After you have changed the controls of an electrical or mechanical device to stop it from producing or doing something it is turned off Turned on is the opposite of turned off Switched off and shut off are similar to turned off l cant see anything the lights are turned off 2 turn off pv informal Something that turns you off offends you and causes you to lose interest in something or someone Something about a person of the opposite sex that turns you off causes you to lose sexual or romantic interest in that person Turn on is the opposite of turn off When I met Dan I thought he was a nice guy but his racist comments turned me off I got turned off when she lit a cigarette turned off partadj When something about a person of the opposite sex causes you to lose sexual or romantic interest in that person you are turned off Turned on is the opposite of turned off Whats wrong with Nicole She was having a good time with Frank a little while ago but now she seems kind of turned off 349
turnoff n Something that offends you and causes you to lose interest in something or someone is a turnoff Something about a person of the opposite sex that causes you to lose sexual or romantic interest in that person is a turnoff A turn-on is the opposite of a turnoff l dont like tattoos To me theyre a real turnoff 3 turn off pv When you turn off a road or path that you are traveling on you leave it and start to travel on another road or path When a road or path leaves another road or path and travels in a different direction it turns off Be careful you dont turn off the main road youll get lost The path to the cabin turns off just after the big tree stump turnoff n A road or path that leaves another road or path and travels in a different direction is a turnoff Were lost I think we should have taken that turnoff we passed a few miles back Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle turn on turn on amp turns on turning on turned on turned on 1 turn on pv When you turn on an electrical or mechanical device you change the controls to make it start producing or doing something Turn off is the opposite of turn on Switch on is the same as turn on Can you turn the light on please Its dark in here This October has been so warm that I havent turned the heat on once yet turned on partadj After you have changed the controls of an electrical or mechanical device to make it start producing or doing something it is turned on Turned off is the opposite of turned on Switched on is similar to turned on Be careful of the stove its turned on 2 turn on pv informal Something that turns you on pleases you and causes you to gain interest in something or someone Something about a person of the opposite sex that turns you on causes you to become sexually or romantically interested in that erson Turn off is the opposite of turn on When I saw this house from the outside I didnt think I would buy it but the beautiful woodwork inside really turned me on Eriks blue eyes turn on his wife turned on partadj When something about a person of the opposite sex causes you to become sexually or romantically interested in that person you are turned on Turned off is the opposite of turned on Paul was really turned on after seeing all the beautiful women in the Victorias Secret catalog 350
turn-on n Something that pleases you and causes you to gain interest in something or someone is a turn-on Something about a person of the opposite sex that causes you to become sexually or romantically interested in that person is a turn-on A turnoff is the opposite of a turn-on l bought my wife an ankle bracelet for Valentines Day I think theyre a turn-on 3 turn on pv When people or animals that you had good relations with turn on you they stop being friendly and try to hurt you Lydia used to be my friend but now shes telling people terrible things about me I wonder why she turned on me like that Wild animals dont make good pets They can be friendly one minute and turn on you the next 4 turn on to pv informal When you turn people on to something you tell them about something you think they will like or something that will help them Maria turned me on to a great Colombian restaurant This was a good book Thanks for turning me on to it Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle turn out turn out amp turns out turning out turned out turned out 1 turn out pv usually followed by quotto bequot plus an adjective an infinitive verb plus a noun or a complete sentence When things or people turn out to be a certain way it is discovered or considered that they are that way When things or people turn out to be something it is discovered or considered that they are that thing When you say that it turns out that or turned out that and then make a statement of fact you mean that this information which is contrary to what you believed or expected was discovered to be true l didnt think I would like my brothers new wife but she turned out to be very nice Before I met Rustys son Danny I assumed he had red hair like his father but Danny turned out to have black hair I thought Sam bought a Mercedes-Benz but it turns out that he bought a BMW I thought Sam bought a Mercedes-Benz but it turned out that he bought a BMW 2 turn out pv When something turns out it becomes what you want it to become When something turns out a certain way it becomes that way Did the pictures you took at the wedding turn out The pictures turned out perfectly Your plan was excellent but it didnt turn out well 3 turn out pv When people companies factories workshops and so on turn out something they manufacture it or produce it This new factory will turn out 50000 units per year High schools in America are turning out people who can barely read 351
4 turn out for pv When people turn out or turn out for an event they attend or participate in the event When people turn out to do something they go to a place to do it Are you nuts How many people do you think would turn out for an outdoor concert In the middle of winter Thousands of people turned out to see the Pope when he visited turnout n The number of people who attend or participate in an event is the turnout Voter turnout for the election was only around 30 percent Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle turn over turn over amp turns over turning over turned over turned over 1 turn over pv When you turn something over you move it so that the side that was on the bottom is on the top and vice versa When something turns over it moves so that the side that was on the bottom is on the top and vice versa When one side of the steak is cooked turn it over and cook the other side The driver was killed when his car turned over 2 turn over to pv When you give something to someone because that person demands or requires it or because you are not its rightful owner you turn it over or turn it over to that person Hand over is similar to turn over The detective always turns the evidence from the crime scene over to the lab for analysis After the thieves are captured the stolen items will be turned over to the rightful owners 3 turn over to pv When the police or other authorities are looking for people and you take these people or transfer control of them to the police or authorities you turn them over or turn them over to the police or authorities l caught a burglar in my basement and I turned him over to the police The local police chief was relieved to turn the terrorist over to the FBI 4 turn over pv When employees of a company leave their jobs and are replaced by new employees they turn over Conditions at the factory were so bad that employees turned over at a high rate We have a very stable work force in our plant Employees turn over very slowly turnover n The rate at which employees of a company leave and are replaced by new employees is the turnover The new personnel manager said her top priority would be reducing the high turnover 352
5 turn over pv When a business turns over something that it sells it continually sells it and replaces it with new merchandise Were turning over forty cases of bananas a week in this supermarket Snowtnobiles and skis turn over very slowly in the summer turnover n How much money a business has made in a certain time period is its turnover The companys annual turnover increased by 36 percent compared to the previous year Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle turn up turn up amp turns up turning up turned up turned up 1 turn up pv When you turn up an electrical or mechanical device you change the controls to increase the level of what it is producing or doing Turn down is the opposite of turn up Will you turn up the TV I cant hear it It was freezing in here last night so I turned up the beat 2 turn up pv When you turn up something you find it or learn of it as a result of an investigation or search When something turns up it is found or is learned of as a result of an investigation or search The police turned up enough evidence to convict Jake of murder Despite a thorough search the murder weapon still hasnt turned up 3 turn up pv When people or things turn up at a place they appear there Show up is similar to turn up Its hard to plan a picnic when I dont know how many people will turn up Every few years my worthless brother turns up at my door asking for money EXERCISE 45a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I thought going camping would be a lot of fun but it sure didnt that way 2 Its 230 in the morning dont you think you ought to soon 3 Heather was sort of interested in Tom but his childish behavior her 4 The store manager said that she usually only twenty or twenty-five units per month 353
5 Jake thought Hank was his best friend but Hank Jake and now theyre enemies 6 All the medical students must their lab equipment before leaving the lab 7 Any spies caught behind enemy lines will be to the military for questioning 8 The investigation evidence of corruption in City Hall 9 This old house looks pretty bad now but with enough time and money you could it something really nice 10 I want to watch TV please it 11 The volume is too low please it 12 Now the volume is too high please it 13 Theres nothing good on TV please it 14 The first thing I noticed when I met my wife for the first time was her beautiful smile it really me 15 Employees at a very high rate in this industry 16 Not many people are likely to for the parade in this miserable weather 17 The boy was given a reward for the bag of money that he found in the street 18 To get to Uncle Johns house you have to the main road after you cross the bridge and drive north for three miles 19 Mark knows a lot about wine Hes me to some excellent wines from California 20 My supervisor my request to be transferred to San Diego 21 The first few chapters of this novel were a little boring but now that Im near the end its to be a pretty good book 22 Please the carpet I want to read the label on the back 354
23 A huge crowd is expected to at the airport to welcome the returning Stanley Cup champions 24 This company has been first-rate merchandise for a hundred years 25 I told the teacher that Id been in the hospital and wouldnt be able to my project on time 26 Weve had one problem after another this is to be a bad day 27 When Jake told his mother that he had murdered someone she told him he had to himself EXERCISE 45b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Caterpillars become butterflies What do caterpillars do 2 Dan appeared at his uncles funeral What did Dan do 3 Frank was thinking of asking Jane for a date but when he saw her smoking one cigarette after another he changed his mind What did Janes smoking do to Frank 4 In Question 3 what does Frank think smoking is 5 In Question 3 how did Frank feel when he saw Jane smoking 6 Whenever my wife wears my favorite perfume I feel romantic What does the perfume do to me 7 In Question 6 what do I think the perfume is 8 In Question 6 how do I feel whenever my wife wears my favorite perfume 9 Youre changing the controls of the heater to make it warmer What are you doing 10 The rate at which old employees are replaced with new employees in my company is very low What is very low at my company 11 This factory manufactures 25000 cars every year What does the factory do
12 Nicole didnt change the controls of her radio to make it louder What didnt Nicole do 13 The detective asked every bank employee a lot of questions about the missing money but she hasnt discovered anything What hasnt the detective done 14 After the gas station went out of business it was bought and changed into a Chinese restaurant What happened to the gas station 15 Sally wanted to dye her hair red but it became orange What did Sallys hair do 16 Karens father asked her if he could borrow enough money to pay his property taxes and Karen couldnt say no to him What couldnt Karen do 17 Todds company will probably make 4 million this year What will Todds company probably do this year 18 Ned hasnt given his paper to his teacher What hasnt Ned done 19 Lydia knows that her brother robbed a bank but shes not going to tell the police What isnt Lydia going to do to her brother 20 So many people attended the political rally that there wasnt enough room in the auditorium Why wasnt there enough room at the political rally 21 In Question 20 the number of people who attended the rally was large What was large 22 David was too lazy to wash the rug so he put the dirty side on the bottom and the clean side on the top What did David do to the rug EXERCISE 45c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 356
EXERCISE 45d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one beat up 44 get by 42 get over 42 lock up 44 carry away 44 get down 42 get up 42 run up 43 get back 42 get inlinto 42 gross out 43 stop off 43 get behind 42 get out 42 head toward 43 try on 43 1 I lost a very expensive gold watch and Ill be very surprised if I ever it 2 I had dinner with some friends and we a 500 tab 3 Have you to see your parents in Alaska lately 4 I should have these pants before buying them theyre too small 5 Carlos was hitting his brother Alex so Alex said to Carlosquot of herequot 6 I called my brother in Miami and told him that I was leaving Boston at 840 in the morning and that I should there around 100 in the afternoon 7 I wish youd chew with your mouth closed youre me 8 Our flight wont Santa Fe until after midnight 9 After I leave Texas Im going to Mississippi 10 Karens expecting me for dinner tonight at her house way out in the suburbs but my car is in the shop I dont know how Im going to there 11 The night manager has to leave early tonight so Im going to for him 12 Hank had a fight with a guy in a bar and gotpretty badly 13 I had a bad day at work so I at a bar for a drink before going home 14 Sofia is having a lot of trouble in her history class and isfurther and further 15 After her husband died she had a hard time it 16 You can use my credit card to buy a few things but dont get
46 FOCUS ON pronunciation of phrasal verbs with the particle into As we saw in Section 6 three-word phrasal verbs are normally accented on the second or middle particle whether they are separable or nonseparable This also applies to phrasal verbs that convert in to lnfo when they are used with an object Although these verbs are not made up of three words recall that into is actually a combination of the particles in and to two words written as one For this reason it is the first syllable of into that is accented The speakers are built INto the wall This is also true of phrasal verbs using into that do not have an in version l bumped INto an old friend Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle build in build in amp builds in building in built in built in 1 build inlinto pv When you build something in or build something into something else you put it in the item you are making during its construction or assembly rather than adding it later l told the builder that I wanted him to build some shelves in In the past FM radios werent built into cars you had to add one later if you wanted one built-in partadj When something has been put into something else during its construction or assembly rather than being added later it is built-in The sound from the stereo goes to built-in speakers in every room of the house bump into bump into amp bumps into bumping into bumped into bumped into 1 bump into pv When you bump into things or people you accidentally hit them with your body l couldnt see where I was going in the dark and I bumped into the door Would you please move these boxes I keep bumping into them 2 bump into pv When you meet people unexpectedly or unintentionally you bump into them Run into is the same as bump into We bumped into Sarah at the mall today Bumping into one of my neighbors while I was in Rome sure was a surprise 358
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle con into con into amp cons into conning into conned into conned into 1 con into pv informal When you con people into something or con people into doing something you persuade them to do it by fooling or deceiving them Trick into is similar to con into They werent sure that it was a good idea to give all their money to Marvm but he conned them into it That crooked mechanic tried to con me into paying for a lot of repairs my car didnt need con out of con out of amp cons out of conning out of conned out of conned out of 1 con out of pv informal When you con people out of something you persuade them to give it to you by fooling or deceiving them Marvin conned them out of their life savings That crooked mechanic tried to con me out of 547 freak out freak out amp freaks out freaking out freaked out freaked out 1 freak out pv informal When you freak out you become very upset or very angry When you freak other people out you cause them to become very upset or very angry Melanie freaked out when she learned that her husband had been arrested for murder I wish you would take that Halloween mask off youre freaking me out make for make for amp makes for making for made for made for 1 make for pv When something causes another thing situation or event to have a certain quality or characteristic it makes for the other thing situation or event Beer pizza football and the kids staying with their grandparents make for a perfect Sunday afternoon Alcohol and teenage drivers make for trouble 2 make for pv informal When you make for a place you go there in a hurry After the robbery the bank robbers made for the border The enemy soldiers are getting closer lets make for the hills talk into talk into amp talks into talking into talked into talked into 1 talk into pv When you talk people into something or talk people into doing something you persuade them to do it 359
My father didnt want to let me use his car Friday night but I talked him into it This museum is really boring I wish I hadnt let you talk me into coming here with you talk out of talk out of amp talks out of talking out of talked out of talked out of 1 talk out of pv When you talk people out of something or talk people out of doing something you persuade them not to do it That man was going to jump off the building but the police officer talked him out of it Eriks parents talked him out of changing his major from business to philosophy EXERCISE 46a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 My daughter is trying to me getting her a pony but I keep telling her we cant afford one 2 When I ordered my computer I had them some extra memory 3 It was a nice surprise to Aunt Kathy today I hadnt seen her in years 4 Dont tell your mother youre going to shave your head shell 5 Joe says hes going to quit school and we cant him it 6 Their sleazy son-in-lawthemlending him 14000 7 It was so dark last night that I a tree and broke my nose 8 Nancy and Tom dont have anything in common that doesnt a happy marriage 9 Dont trust Marvin hell you your last penny 10 When the enemy soldiers attacked we the woods 360
EXERCISE 46b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Karen is trying to persuade me to help her paint her house What is Karen trying to do 2 Francisco unexpectedly met Raul downtown a couple of days ago What did Francisco do 3 That lawyer is lying to you and trying to persuade you to give him everything you own What is the lawyer trying to do 4 Having both of my ex-wives at the party will make the evening very uncomfortable What will having both of my ex-wives at the party do 5 That dishonest guy deceived my Aunt Kathy to get her to sell her house for a lot less than its worth What did the dishonest guy do to my Aunt Kathy 6 Carmen is upset and very nervous because she cant find her children at the shopping center What is Carmen doing 7 When my house was constructed a shelf for a TV was made in the wall What was done to the wall 8 In Question 7 how would you describe the shelf 9 Bob has decided to quit his job and no one can persuade him not to What can no one do to Bob EXERCISE 46c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 361
EXERCISE 46d Review Complete the sentences with these nouns from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one blowout 43 checkout 41 mix-up 44 takeover 39 break-in 41 comeback 40 pickup 39 wipeout 39 check-in 41 lockup 44 run-up 43 1 The guy that got arrested didnt have enough money for bail so he was put in the 2 The baseball player had a few bad years but last year he made an amazing and had his best year ever 3 Not one person was left alive after the battle it was a complete 4 is two hours before the flight 5 The hotels time is 1100 AM 6 There was a tragic at the hospital a patients healthy left kidney was removed instead of his diseased right kidney 7 The detective asked the store owner for a complete list of items stolen during the 8 Is this a or a delivery 9 After the military hundreds of people were executed 10 Unfortunately I sold my house before the big in real estate prices 11 The truck driver was killed in an accident after she had a on the highway EXERCISE 46e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one blow off 40 give out 43 lock up 44 stick with 40 bring up 40 go away 40 piss off 44 stress out 44 burst out 40 kick out 44 shut up 43 turn in 45 get by 42 let inlinto 41 stand for 34 turn into 45 1 Sooner or later hell get tired of running from the police and hell himself 362
2 I my children to be honest 3 When we leave our summer home to go back to the city we always it securely 4 I took three aspirin but this headache still hasnt 5 Do you know what quotPhDquot 6 I usually check my work pretty carefully I dont know how this mistake me 7 Worrying about how Im going to find the money to pay my taxes is really me 8 Im tired of listening to my brother talk about winning four million dollars in the lottery I wish he would just 9 Those new computers are really fast but Im going to the one I have its fine for writing letters 10 The tennis player had to retire when his elbow 11 Im going to talk to my husband about the garage an apartment for my mother 12 Joe promised that hed help me fix my car yesterday but he never came he just me 13 Joe does that sort of thing all the time and its very rude He really me 14 The door was locked so I knocked on it again and again until someone me 15 What did Nancy do to get herself of school 16 When I heard about the crazy thing that Nancy had done at school I laughing 363
47 FOCUS ON particles used without verbs The particles of many phrasal verbs especially phrasal verbs that relate to physical movement are frequently used alone with a form of be This is very common in conversation when the verb has already been stated at least once and does not need to be repeated Customer Have you run out of coffee Store clerk Were out of regular coffee but were not out of instant Marsha When do you have to move out of your apartment Nancy l have to be out by next Wednesday Jim Did you turn the air conditioner on Bob No it was on when I came in Mother Has your sister woken up yet Susie No shes still not up Using the particle without a verb is also common when a phrasal verb can be understood from the context Sometimes only one verb is obvious Ra u I Are you through Todd No I wont be through until after 400 If this conversation occurred at a place of employment the phrasal verb could only be get through But often in a particular situation more than one verb might be understood but to the speakers it is not important or necessary to be specific about which one Carlos Is Karen in Paul No she isnt If this conversation occurred in an office building several verbs might be understood come in go in get in be let in Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle brush up brush up amp brushes up brushing up brushed up brushed up 1 brush up on pv When you brush up or brush up on something you study or practice a skill or subject you used to know but have forgotten or partly forgotten Its been a long time since I studied algebra but Im going to need it if I go back to school to study for my masters degree so Id better brush up Franks going to Peru next month so hes been brushing up on his Spanish 564
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle come in come in amp comes in coming in came in come in 1 come inlinto pv When people or things enter a place room house and so on that you are in they come in or come into it Go out is the opposite of come in Welcome to my house Please come in The burglar came into the house through the back door 2 come in pv When a train bus airplane or ship comes in it arrives Get in is similar to come in Do you know when the train from Kankakee comes in Davids plane hasnt come in yet 3 come in pv When people arrive at the place where they work they come in Get in is similar to come in The manager is angry with Linda because she comes in late every day I called to tell the boss that I was sick and wouldnt be coming in 4 come in pv When something that a store will sell comes in it is delivered to the store Lets go shopping at Macys tomorrow the summer clothes have come in I couldnt buy that new book I wanted it hasnt come in yet 5 come in pv When a thing or skill comes in handy it is something useful that you like to have available when you need it When I travel I always take a small sewing kit with me it really comes in handy if a button falls off I dont know how to speak Japanese but knowing how to say the numbers and quotpleasequot and quotthank youquot when I was in Japan sure came in handy cut back cut back amp cuts back cutting back cut back cut back 1 cut back on pv When you cut back or cut back on the amount of money youspend you spend less The President said he was against cutting back on spending for education My father said that were spending too much and have to cut back cutback n A cutback is a reduction in the amount of money you spend on something The people who work on the air force base are worried that theyll lose their jobs because of military spending cutbacks
2 cut back on pv When you cut back or cut back on something that you consume you use it less When you cut back or cut back on something that you do you do it less Cut down is similar to cut back Mark hasnt been able to quit smoking but he has cut back a bit Youre getting a little overweight maybe you should cut back on sweets Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle move in move in amp moves in moving in moved in moved in 1 move inlinto pv When you move in or move into a place you bring your furniture and other personal possessions into a place where you will live Move out is the opposite of move inlinto The landlord said we could move right in if we want to Eriks moving into a bigger apartment next week 2 move inlinto pv When you move people in or move them into a place you bring their furniture and other personal possessions into a place where they will live When you move things in or move them into a place you take them in Move out is the opposite of move inlinto The movers moved me in in less than two hours Moving all this furniture into a fifth-floor apartment isnt going to be easy 3 move in with pv When you move in or move in with people you bring your furniture and other personal possessions into a place where you will live Bill moved out of his house for a while when he separated from his wife but yesterday he moved back in My Aunt Kathy might move in with her son and his family move out move out amp moves out moving out moved out moved out 1 move out of pv When you move out or move out of a place you take your furniture and other personal possessions out of a place where you lived Move inlinto is the opposite of move out Could you help me move out I have to be out by the end of the month Mr and Mrs Baker moved out of their big house and into a smaller place after their children grew up 1 move out of pv When you move people out or move them out of a place you take their furniture and other personal possessions out of a place where they lived When you move things out or move them out of a place you take them out Move inlinto is the opposite of move out One of our roommates wasnt paying his rent so we moved his stuff out while he was at work The company had a sale to try to move some merchandise out of the warehouse 366
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle pull out pull out amp pulls out pulling out pulled out pulled out 1 pull out of pv When a car truck or other vehicle pulls out or pulls out of a parking space it leaves the place where it was parked and starts driving in the street When the drivers of cars trucks or other vehicles pull out or pull out of a parking space they leave the place where they were parked and start driving in the street The accident happened when the Ford pulled out in front of the Chevy You should fasten your seat belt before you pull out of the parking space 2 pull out of pv When you pull out or pull out of an agreement or arrangement you leave it because you decide that you do not want to participate any longer The French company reconsidered its agreement to build a plant in Canada and decided to pull out I wish I hadnt pulled out of that business deal Now everyone who stayed in is making a lot of money 3 pull out of pv When soldiers leave a combat zone or an area where combat is likely they pull out or are pulled out Go in is the opposite of pull out When Sergeant Jones saw the enemy soldiers getting closer he ordered his men to pull out General Johnston pulled all the troops out of the occupied territory pullout n When soldiers leave a combat zone or an area where combat is likely a pullout takes place General Johnston ordered an immediate pullout of all troops in the occupied territory put in put in amp puts in putting in put in put in 1 put inlinto pv When you put something in or put something into a container storage place or building you place it inside Take out is the opposite of put inlinto Please put your clothes in the closet The clerk put the bottle into the bag and gave me a receipt 2 put inlinto pv When you put money in or put money into a bank or anaccount at a bank you deposit the money Put inlinto is the opposite of take out Im going to the bank today How much money do you think I should put in We put 10000 into our savings account 3 put inlinto pv When you put people in or put them into a prison hospital school or other institution you take them there or require them to go there Jake got put in jail for twenty years Marvin should be put into a mental institution 367
4 put inlinto pv When you put time or effort in or put time or effort into something you spend time and work hard to accomplish it At the Christmas party the manager thanked his employees for all the work they had put in I put a lot of time into becoming a doctor 5 put inlinto pv When you put money in or put money into something you contribute money to help pay for something or as an investment you hope will return a profit When the check came for dinner we each put 25 in Ive already put 100000 into this business I hope it starts making money soon 6 put in pv When you construct or install something in a building you put it in Were having new carpeting put in next week Erik and Nancy are thinking about putting in central air conditioning 7 put in pv When you cause people to be in a situation position or condition you put them in that situation position or condition Youve put Jim in a very awkward situation Margaret Cummings was put in charge of the sales department Infinitive present tense ing form past tense past participle run out run out amp runs out running out ran out run out 1 run out of pv When people or things run out or run out of a place room building and so on they leave it very quickly Run inlinto is the opposite of run out Theres Sofia across the street run out and ask her to come over here When I opened the door the dog ran out of the house 2 run out of pv When you do not have any more of something because you have used consumed or sold all of it you run out or run out of it Im sorry I cant give you sugar for your coffee Ive run out Sam was late to work this morning because he ran out of gas 3 run out pv When something is completely used consumed or sold it runs out l played poker last night and for a while I was ahead by 3000 But then my luck ran out and I ended up losing it all My brother is too lazy to look for a job He asks me for money and when the money runs out he comes back for more EXERCISE 47a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 We have a lot of shopping to do but the store closes in twenty minutes so lets try to finish before we of time 368
2 Michael a lot of time getting his pilots license 3 The government threatened to of the cease-fire agreement after the latest terrorist bombing 4 This little flashlight on my key chain handy when its dark outside 5 I havent stopped drinking completely but I have way 6 When Timmys mother saw him outside throwing rocks at cars she and stopped him 7 We bought a house in Milwaukee and were it next month 8 Instead of spending all your money maybe you should some of it the bank 9 Im starting a new job as a secretary next week so I need to on my typing 10 After my mother died I asked my father to with me 11 Ill be waiting for you at the station when your train 12 All these problems are me a bad mood 13 How much money are you going tothis investment fund 14 Were very busy at work so my boss asked me to early tomorrow 15 I need to find a new place to live soon I have to of the place Im in now by the end of the month 16 These computers are being sold at 15 percent off the regular price for three days only so hurry before time 17 Linda hired a carpenter to some shelves her sons room 18 We lost the key for the front door so everyones been through the back door all day 19 Since Jim lost his job weve had toa lot on our spending 20 The troops were of Vietnam and sent back to the United States 369
21 I bought a new bed for Susie so Im going to her old bed of her room and into her brothers room 22 After my surgery I was the intensive care unit 23 The store clerk says the new computer I want is supposed to tomorrow 24 My couch is huge theres no way I can it my new place without help 25 Erik too much salt the soup and now it tastes terrible 26 Safe drivers always look both ways before they and drive away EXERCISE 47b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Tom is going to live with his Uncle John What is Tom going to do 2 The government is spending less on the military What is the government doing 3 In Question 2 what would you call this reduction in military spending 4 I cant figure out where the mosquitoes are entering my house What cant I figure out 5 My plane didnt arrive on time What didnt my plane do 6 Bobs taking all his furniture out of his old apartment What is Bob doing 7 You spent all your money and now youre broke What did you do 8 Nancys truck was parked but now shes driving it into the street What is Nancy doing 9 Sarah shouldnt have built a pool in such a small backyard What shouldnt Sarah have done 10 Daniela hasnt studied Italian since high school but shes been studying it again lately because shes going to Italy soon What is Daniela doing 11 Charles might change his mind and decide not to participate in a business deal What might Charles do
12 Your dentist told you that you should eat less candy What did your dentist tell you 13 Ned is going to arrive at work late tomorrow What is Ned going to do 14 Jane is working very hard to learn Chinese What is Jane doing 15 The basketball game ended before Jims team could score enough points to win it Why didnt Jims team win the game 16 Joe hasnt placed his clothes in the washing machine What hasnt Joe done 17 Tom asked Sally when she was taking her furniture into her new apartment What did Tom ask Sally 18 Bill deposits 1000 every month in his checking account What does Bill do every month EXERCISE 47c Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one bump into 46 get down 42 kick out 43 stop off 43 con into 46 get inlinto 42 make for 46 talkinto46 con out of 46 get out 42 rip off 44 talk out of 46 freak out 46 get up 42 shut up 43 try on 43 1 Alfonso must have thirty pairs of pants before picking one out 2 Bob got of the bar after he started a fight 3 You cant trust Marvin at all He everyone he does business with 4 I cant reach those books on the top shelf Would you them for me please 5 That sneaky real estate agent me selling her my house for a lot less than it was worth 6 My parents live between my job and my home so sometimes on the way home from work I for a visit 7 Sams wife didnt want to go camping with him but he finally her it 371
8 My father-in-law was 800 by a house painter who took the money but never came back to start painting the house 9 When I was a child my mother was on drugs and my father was in jail That situation didnt a very happy childhood 10 Carlos the table and a glass of wine fell on the floor 11 All you ever do is talk talk talk Will you please 12 It sure was hot yesterday It must have to 100 degrees 13 Our daughter has decided to get her nose pierced and theres no way we can her it 14 I found my old army uniform in the attic and I can still it even though its twenty-five years old 15 My teacher caught me cheating on the test today and he said hes going to call my parents tomorrow to tell them How am I going to of this mess 16 I saw a guy today who looked exactly like my dead brother It really me 48 FOCUS ON modals and present perfect passive phrasal verbs In Section 43 we discussed the use of several modal and semimodal auxiliaries in the present perfect These same modals and semimodals are commonly used in passive sentences The modal or semimodal is followed by have or the contraction ve been and the past participle could have been past participle would have been past participle should have been past participle have to have been past participle must have been past participle might have been past participle may have been past participle Lets compare a present perfect active sentence containing a modal with a present perfect passive sentence containing a modal 372
active Jane might have switched on the light passive The light might have been switched on As we have seen the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence Also there is no object in the passive sentence so the passive phrasal verb cannot be separated The object of the active sentence can be used in a by phrase active Jane might have switched on the light passive The light might have been switched on by Jane And once again we see that it is not always easy to distinguish between a past participle The burglar alarm must have been switched off by the night manager because hes the only one with a key and a participle adjective The burglar alarm must have been switched off because if it had been on everyone in the neighborhood would have heard it when the burglars smashed the window of the jewelry store Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle close down close down amp closes down closing down closed down closed down 1 close down pv When you close down a business or a business is closed down it closes permanently or for a long time The restaurant was closed down by the health department The ski resort will close down for the summer on May 1 knock out knock out amp knocks out knocking out knocked out knocked out 1 knock out pv When you knock people out you hit them hard enough to cause them to lose consciousness When people are knocked out they are hit by someone or something hard enough to cause them to lose consciousness The boxer knocked his opponent out with a blow to the head David fell and hit his head on the sidewalk so hard that it knocked him out knockout n A hit hard enough to cause someone to lose consciousness is a knockout At the count often the referee declared a knockout 2 knock out pv If something knocks you out it impresses or surprises you a lot 373
Toms new house is fabulous It really knocked me out The Youngsdaughter is only twelve and shes already in college That just knocks me out knockout n A knockout is something that impresses or surprises you a lot Have you seen Eriks new girlfriend Shes a real knockout 3 knock out pv When you try very hard to please other people you knock yourself out or knock yourself out to do something Marshas Thanksgiving dinner was fabulous She really knocked herself out Thanks for inviting me to spend the weekend with you but dont knock yourself out I dont mind sleeping on the couch 4 knock out pv When soldiers knock out a piece of the enemys equipment they destroy it or damage it enough so that it no longer operates The enemy radar installation was knocked out by a 500-pound bomb I cant contact headquarters I think our communications system might have been knocked out during the attack Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle look down on look down on amp looks down on looking down on looked down on looked down on 1 look down on pv When you look down on people you consider them to be less intelligent less educated or from a lower level of society than you Some people look down on Hank because his father was in prison Looking down on people because of things they have no control over is stupid look up to look up to amp looks up to looking up to looked up to looked up to 1 look up to pv When you look up to people you admire and respect them Ive always looked up to my father because of his honesty and concern for others You should look up to people who have overcome difficulties to become successful put back put back amp puts back putting back put back put back 1 put back pv When you put something back you return it to where it was before After you finish listening to my CDs please put them back Susie I told you were eating dinner in ten minutes so put that cookie right back 2 put back pv When something slows the development or progress of project it puts the project back or it puts the people involved in the project back The hurricane put the hotel construction project back by at least three months I had planned to finish college last year but being hospitalized for several months put me back 374
3 put back pv When you put back the date that you plan to do or complete something by you postpone it The closing on the house Im selling might have to be put back if the buyers cant get their loan approved in time The graduation date will have to be put back if the teachers strike doesnt end soon 4 put back pv informal When you put back alcoholic beverages you drink a lot of them Did you see how much David was drinking last night He sure can put it back Im not surprised he has a hangover he must have put back half a bottle of tequila Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle switch off switch off amp switches off switching off switched off switched off 1 switch off pv When you switch off an electrical or mechanical device you change the controls to stop it from producing or doing something Turn off is similar to switch off Switch on is the opposite of switch off Try to remember to switch off the lights when you leave the room I switched the engine off and got out of the car switched off partadj After you have changed the controls of an electrical or mechanical device to stop it from producing or doing something it is switched off Switched on is the opposite of switched off Turned off is similar to switched off Last night the light in the hallway was switched off and I fell down the stairs switch on switch on amp switches on switching on switched on switched on 1 switch on pv When you switch on an electrical or mechanical device you change the controls to make it start producing or doing something Turn on is similar to switch on Switch off is the opposite of switch on Push this button to switch the computer on The sign should have been switched on by the manager in the morning switched on partadj After you have changed the controls of an electrical or mechanical device to make it start producing or doing something it is switched on Switched off is the opposite of switched on Turned on is similar to switched on When I drove by the restaurant I noticed that the sign wasnt switched on throw out throw out amp throws out throwing out threw out thrown out 1 throw out pv When you throw something out you dispose of it by putting it in the wastebasket trash and so on Throw away is the same as throw out l cant find some important papers and I think they mightve been accidentally thrown out Dont throw that newspaper out I havent read it yet 375
2 throw out of pv When you throw people out or throw people out of a group place building or room you order them to leave Kick out is similar to throw out Frank started a fight and got thrown out of the bar I havent paid the rent in six months and Im worried that the sheriff will come and throw us out EXERCISE 48a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 We might our wedding until September so that Rosas parents can attend 2 Please the lights Im trying to sleep 3 Bob was when the baseball hit him in the head 4 When I was a little girl I my grandfather and wanted to be like him 5 Sam must have three gin and tonics in about a half an hour last night 6 Its cold in here the air conditioner shouldnt have been 7 Mrs Flores was so angry with her husband that she him right of the house 8 My wife thinks I forgot our anniversary again so shes going to be when I give her this gold bracelet 9 The blizzard has our efforts to find the crashed plane but well keep looking until we find it 10 Im tired of looking at all this junk why dont you it 11 Citizens of the neighborhood have demanded that the noisy bar be 12 Charles anyone who comes from the poor side of town 13 If youre finished with these tools them 14 The soldier used a bazooka to an enemy tank 376
15 Timmys mother planned a really nice birthday party for Timmy and all his friends She really herself EXERCISE 48b Write three sentences using the objects in parentheses Be sure to put the objects in the right place 1 The health department should close down the restaurant it 2 Alis left hook knocked out Joe him 3 General Johnston had to put back the attack it 4 Have you switched on the TV it 5 Are you going to switch off the lights them 6 Throwing out is going to be a big job all this junk it 377
EXERCISE 48c Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 The judges decision has slowed our fight for justice What has the judges decision done to us 2 Jim respects his uncle and wants to be like him What does Jim do to his uncle 3 Todd was really amazed at how good Eriks new book is What did Eriks book do toTodd 4 In Question 3 what would Todd call Eriks book 5 You pushed the button on the remote and now the TV is on What did you do to the TV 6 In Question 5 how would you describe the TV after I pushed the button on the remote 7 The lights were on but theyre not on anymore What must have been done to the lights 8 In Question 7 how would you describe the lights now 9 The bar owner will be ordered to close his bar permanently What will be done to the bar 10 Charles thinks people from that part of town are low-class What does Charles do to people from that part of town 11 Joe would have been ordered to leave his house if he hadnt paid his late mortgage payments What would have happened to Joe if he hadnt paid his late mortgage payments EXERCISE 48d Review Complete the sentences with these nouns from previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one carryout 28 lockout 29 turnoff45 turnover 45 cutback 47 make-up 23 turn-on 45 rip-off 44 falling-out 32 pullout47 turnout 45 runaround40 1 Heather kind of liked Anns brother until she saw him smoking To her thats a big 2 The Senate voted against a in spending for AIDS research 3 Lydia doesnt want anyone to take pictures of her without her on 4 Bill thinks that Nicoles short skirt is a 378
5 The soldiers were ordered to prepare for a 6 I hate cooking so we eat food almost every night 7 Ive gone to every office in City Hall about my problem but no will help me They just give me the 8 The companys high rate is one reason why it lost money last year 9 Can you believe the frames for these glasses cost 300 What a 10 One thief broke into the store while the other stayed outside as a 11 The for the parade would have been a lot bigger if it hadnt been raining 12 George had a with his brother and hasnt spoken with him for fifteen years EXERCISE 48e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one blow out 43 con into 46 pull out 47 talkinto46 brush up 47 con out of 46 put inlinto 47 talk out of 46 bump into 46 move inlinto 47 stick out 32 turn over 45 carry away 44 move out 47 stress out 44 turn up 45 1 Your work isnt very good You ought to more effort it 2 I was so mad at my boss that I almost quit my job Fortunately my wife me it 3 Did you see Mikes house He said he was going to put a few Christmas tree lights on the roof but there must be 5000 I guess he got 4 Dont let that crooked contractor you any money for unnecessary home repairs 5 France was a member of NATO until it in 1966 6 Dont quit now were almost finished Youve just got to it for a little while longer 7 What a surprise I Bob at the train station yesterday I hadnt seen him in years
8 The police acted on a tip that the suspect would be at the bus station on Saturday morning but he didnt 9 If youre not careful that crook will you selling him your land for a lot less than its worth 10 Mike used to speak Arabic pretty well but he ought to before he goes to Egypt 11 How could I have been doing something stupid 12 The apartment has been cleaned and painted You can right any time you want 13 it I want to see whats on the other side 14 Living with Sam is driving me crazy I have to 15 After you make a wish you can the candles 16 Living in a house with seven dogs is really my cat 49 FOCUS ON combinations of get right back and to The focus of this section is an expanded definition of the two-word phrasal verb get to and the three-word phrasal verb get back to The purpose is to try to make some sense out of a seemingly limitless number of idiomatic combinations of get to and various particles and adverbs in particular right and back and to demonstrate that many phrasal verbs comprised of get and a particle are actually variations of get to that can be modified with right andlor back Remember that back is sometimes part of a phrasal verb and sometimes an adverb used to modify a phrasal verb review Section 26 although we will see that there is often no difference in meaning between the phrasal verb get back to discussed in Section 42 and the phrasal verb get to modified by back get back to The numbers in the chart correspond with the meanings in the definitions get to 1 Although the phrasal verb get to is defined here as meaning arrive it can be understood as the basis for some of the phrasal verbs that were discussed in Section 42 Bill got to Peoria Bill arrived in Peoria Bill got back to Peoria Bill returned to Peoria Bill got up to Peoria Bill arrived in Peoria from the south Bill got down to Peoria Bill arrived in Peoria from the north 380
Bill got over to Peoria Bill arrived in Peoria from the east or west Bill got out to Peoria Bill arrived in Peoria from the east or from a larger city We see that get back to get up to get down to get over to and get out to are variations of get to but with additional information These verbs can be modified with right meaning immediately quickly or directly see Section 10 Bill got right back to Peoria Bill returned to Peoria quickly 381
Get to work has two meanings similar but not the same Get to work can refer to an arrival at a place where someone works Ann got to work Ann arrived at the place where she works But get to work see meaning 3 can also mean start working without any reference to a change of location Joe got to work Joe started working Joe got back to work Joe started working again Joe got right to work Joe started working immediately Joe got right back to work Joe started working again immediately The difference in these two meanings is illustrated by the following sentence l got to work at 900 but I didnt get to work until 1000 which can paraphrased as I arrived at my office at 900 but I didnt start working until 1000 2 Although the phrasal verb get to is defined here as meaning reach a certain level number or amount it can be understood as the basis for some of the phrasal verbs discussed in Section 42 Jane got to 120 pounds Jane got back to 120 pounds Jane weighs 120 pounds again Jane got up to 120 pounds Jane used to weigh less that 120 pounds Jane got down to 120 pounds Jane used to weigh more that 120 pounds We see that get back to get up to and get down to are variations of get to but with additional information Get up to and get down to can be modified by back Jane got back up to 120 pounds Jane used to weigh 120 pounds lost weight and then gained it back Jane got back down to 120 pounds Jane used to weigh 120 pounds gained weight and then lost it 3 If you start to do something you get to it lll try to get to my homework after dinner If you start to do something stop doing it and then later start to do it again you get back to it lll try to get back to my homework after dinner If you start to do something stop doing it and then later quickly start to do it again you get right back to it lll try to get right back to my homework after dinner Remember that when both right and back are used right always comes first Ill try to get back right to my homework after dinner 382
get back to 1 Get back to is a three-word verb meaning talk to someone again later Get back to does not vary in form neither back nor to is optional Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle dog up clog up amp clogs up dogging up clogged up clogged up 1 clog up pv When people or things clog up a drain or something else that liquids must flow through they put something in it that prevents water or other liquids from going through it or that prevents it from working properly Dont pour that bacon grease in the sink youll clog the drain up Dr Smith said my arteries were so clogged up by plaque deposits that it was a miracle I was still alive clogged up partadj When a drain or something else that liquids must flow throughis clogged up something is in it that prevents water or other liquids from going through it or that prevents it from working properly The mechanic told me that the engine valves in my car were clogged up get ahead get ahead amp gets ahead getting ahead got ahead gottenlgot ahead 1 get ahead pv When you get ahead you become more successful and make progress in your job or your life With your pessimistic attitude youll never get ahead Getting ahead is pretty easy when your father owns the company get back to get back to amp gets back to getting back to got back to gottenlgot back to 1 get back to pv When you get back to people you talk to them later usually because you do not have time to talk to them at the time or because you will have information for them later that you do not have now l dont have time to talk now Im really busy Can I get back to you That real estate agent still hasnt gotten back to me to let me know if our offer was accepted Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle get on get on amp gets on getting on got on gottenlgot on 1 get on pv When you move your body toward something and stand sit or lie on it you get on it The nurse asked me to take off my shirt and get on the examination table If you get on that chair you can reach the top shelf
2 get on pv When you mount an animal bicycle motorcycle and so on you get on it Getting on a camel isnt as easy as getting on a horse The children got back on their bikes and went home 3 get on pv When you enter a bus train airplane ship and so on you get on it The bus stopped so that I could get on Only people who are going on the cruise can get on the ship 4 get on pv When you get an item of clothing on you put it on your body Get your coat on Its cold outside These gloves are too small I cant get them on 5 get on with pv When you continue doing something you get on get on withwhat you were doing or get on with it Its getting late If were going to finish this work today wed better get on with it I didnt say you could stop Get on with your work get to get to amp gets to getting to got to gottenlgot to 1 get to pv When you get to a place you arrive there When you get peopleto a place you help them to go there or take them there When you get to workyou arrive at the place where you work Sarah left her house at 830 and got to the beach at 915 When I get to Tokyo Ill call to let you know I arrived safely Frank got fired because he kept getting to work late I went to the restaurant across the street for lunch and I didnt get back to work until 230 2 get to pv When things or people get to a certain level number or amount they reach it lr sure was hot yesterday It must have gotten to 100 degrees When I run I always try to get to five miles before I quit 3 get to pv When you get to something that you want or need to do you find the time to do it When you get to work you start working l didnt have time to do the ironing last night Ill try to get to it tonight Karen finally got back to her school project yesterday She hadnt worked on it for weeks Youve wasted the entire morning When are you going to get to work My boss told me to get off the phone and get back to work 4 get to pv informal When you get to doing something you begin todo it gradually Dad got to thinking that maybe we ought to move to Los Angeles and try to find work there 384
After seeing all those strange lights in the sky I got to wondering if maybe UFOs really exist after all 5 get to pv When you get to do something you are allowed to do it or are able to do it Timmy was excited because he got to ride a pony I hope I get to shake the Presidents hand after his speech 6 get to pv When something gets to you it bothers or annoys you either psychologically or physically Jims constant complaining is really starting to get to his wife Lets sit down and rest this heat is getting to me Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hang on hang on amp hangs on hanging on hung on hung on 1 hang on to pv When you hang on or hang on to something you hold it tightly so that you will not fall or be hurt Hold on is similar to hang on l fell off the horse because I wasnt hanging on tightly enough If shed hung on to my hand she wouldnt have fallen off the cliff 2 hang on pv informal When you hang on you wait for a short time Hold on is the same as hang on Hang on for a minute Ill be right back Judys coming to the phone now can you hang on start off start off amp starts off starting off started off started off 1 start off withlby pv When an activity or event starts off it begins When you start an activity or event off with something you begin with it When you start an activity or event off by doing something you begin by doing it The singer started the concert off with a song from her latest CD Many speakers like to start off a speech by telling a joke 2 start off pv When people or things start off a certain way they are this way at the beginning of a process that changes them Start out is similar to start off The day started off nice but it got cold and cloudy I thought the movie was good but it started off kind of boring Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle throw away throw away amp throws away throwing away threw away thrown away 1 throw away pv When you throw something away you dispose of it by 385
putting it in the wastebasket trash and so on Throw out is the same as throw away If youre finished with these papers throw them away Nancys outside looking in the trash for her wedding ring it was accidentally thrown away 2 throw away pv When you throw away something important or valuable you foolishly do something that causes you to lose it This is your last chance to save your marriage so dont throw it away When I got mad and quit my job I threw away a chance to become vice-president of the company EXERCISE 49a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 We were lucky that the floodwater didnt the second floor 2 These steps have ice on them so to my arm 3 I usuallywork at 840 4 Its important to your day with a good breakfast 5 I never used to care about Marias bad attitude but now its starting to me 6 Im a little busy now Give me your phone number and Ill right you 7 Go your shoes were leaving in a minute 8 Ann cut her hair in the bathroom and she the sink with hair 9 Dont let the baby the table he might fall off 10 If you hadnt the theater late you wouldnt have missed the beginning of the movie 11 all that junk in the garage made a lot more room 12 As Jerry was the train he realized that he had forgotten his ticket 13 Whenever I feeling depressed I call my mother 14 If you want to in this world you need a good education 15 The trail to the top of the mountain level but then it gets steeper and steeper 386
16 Maybe you should with your work and stop wasting time 17 for a couple of minutes Im almost ready 18 This is a great opportunity Dont be stupid and it 19 I know youre busy but when do you think you might have time to back fixing that leak in the roof 20 I waited outside Mr Bakers office for two hours but I never talk to him 21 Madeleine fell off her bike but she right back again 22 work This has to be finished in three hours and you havent even started EXERCISE 49b Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs and participle adjectives from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Lindas three-year-old daughter cant put her shoes on What cant Lindas three-year-old daughter do 2 Luis started to feel a little depressed What did Luis do 3 Marvin had a nice family and a good job but he lost them because of drugs What did Marvin do to his family and job 4 After I take a break Im going to continue working immediately What am I going to do 5 Betty doesnt have the information I want so shes going to call me when she does What is Betty going to do 6 The sewer drain became blocked by dead leaves What happened to the sewer drain 7 In Question 6 how would you describe the sewer drain after it became blocked 8 Ned has never arrived at his office after 930 What has Ned never done 9 You continued with your work What did you do 10 When the temperature inside the turkey reaches 190 degrees take it out of the oven When should the turkey be taken out of the oven 387
11 Bill said that he couldnt wait any longer What did Bill say 12 My taxes are due in three days so Ive got to do them tonight What have I got to do 13 Sams birth certificate must have been accidentally put in the trash What must have happened to Sams birth certificate 14 Dan showed me how to mount a horse What did Dan show me 15 Their marriage began well but things got worse What did their marriage do 16 My brother told me that I shouldnt let it bother me What did my brother tell me 17 Alex was allowed to pet a baby tiger at the zoo What happened to Alex 18 The mountain climber held the rope tightly What did the mountain climber do 19 Mike went to the diving board and stood on it What did Mike do 20 The bus driver stepped out of the bus to check the tires and then he entered the bus again immediately What did the bus driver do after he checked the tires 21 Its been only fifteen minutes since Heather left She could not have arrived at the airport already What couldnt Heather have done already 22 The salesperson always begins his presentation by introducing himself What does the salesperson always do 23 Having an MBA should help you to progress in your career What should an MBA do EXERCISE 49c Write five original sentences using get to and get back to Try to use right and back in some of the sentences 1 2 3 4 5 388
EXERCISE 49d Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one close down 48 get over 42 look down on 48 switch on 48 come inlinto 47 knock out 48 look up to 48 throw out 48 cut back 47 know about 33 put back 48 trick into 35 get off on 40 let inlinto 41 switch off 48 turn down 45 1 The company has decided to save money by on advertising 2 Look at the arrival monitor to see if his plane has yet 3 That sneaky car salesperson me paying for a lot of options I didnt want 4 Those shoes are so ugly Why dont you just them 5 Anyone who has done as much good for other people as he has deserves to be 6 Charles used to me because he went to college and I didnt 7 What do you changing the meeting from Tuesday to Wednesday No one has said anything to me about it 8 The opening of the new factory had to be because some equipment hadnt been delivered 9 Janice loves to cook and she especially baking fancy pastries 10 The antigovernment newspaper was by the dictator 11 Rio de Janeiro is so beautiful It me when I saw it 12 Jim asked Lydia to marry him but she him 13 That chimney is a lot of cold air 14 Most people a cold in four or five days 15 If it gets too cold in here the air conditioner 16 Could you the lights please its getting dark 389
50 FOCUS ON Keep at it I hope the time and effort youve put into finding out more about phrasal verbs has paid off If youve knocked yourself out stuck with it and not fallen behind or gotten mixed up or burned out a great improvement in your ability to understand and use English has come about youve ended up being better able to figure out what you read and hear and better able to come up with the right word when you write or speak But dont get stressed out and give up if you cant remember every meaning of every verb improving your vocabulary takes time It comes down to regularly brushing up on what you have learned and when you come across a word you dont know looking it up in a dictionary Keep at it Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle ask out ask out amp asks out asking out asked out asked out 1 ask out pv When you ask people out you ask them to go with you to a place of entertainment in order to have fun and spend time together Being asked out by Tom was quite a surprise to Judy The Bakers called and asked the Ortegas out come down to come down to amp comes down to coming down to came down to come down to 1 come down to pv When the key to understanding a situation or problem is knowledge and consideration of a certain aspect of the situation or problem this aspect of the situation or problem is what the situation or problem comes down to Learning a language comes down to practice practice practice Our marriage problems arent really that complicated What it comes down to is whether youre willing to deal with your drinking problem deal with deal with amp deals with dealing with dealt with dealt with 1 deal with pv When you deal with a project or a problem you do what you must do to complete the project or to solve the problem There are many problems but I can deal with only one at a time After school the principal will deal with the boys who broke the window 2 deal with pv When a book film article speech and so on deals with a certain subject that is what it is about The governors speech dealt with the growing crime rate I read an interesting article dealing with the issue of legalizing marijuana 390
Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle hold on hold on amp holds on holding on held on held on 1 hold on to pv When you hold on or hold on to something you hold it tightly so that you will not fall or be hurt Hang on is similar to hold on When the horse jumped over the fence I held on as hard as I could Hold on to the rail when you get out of the bathtub its slippery 2 hold on to pv When you hold on or hold on to people you hold them tightly to protect them or to prevent them from leaving When you hold on or hold on to things you hold them tightly to protect them or to prevent them from being taken Sam grabbed the robbers legs and held on while the guard handcuffed her We were holding on to each other as the tornado passed 3 hold on pv informal When you hold on you wait for a short time Hang on is the same as hold on Can you hold on just a little longer Ill be right with you Ive been holding on for fifteen minutes I cant wait any longer pay back pay back amp pays back paying back paid back paid back 1 pay back pv When you pay people back you give them money that you borrowed from them Would you lend me 200 Ill pay you back next Friday when I get paid Mark has never been paid back for all his sisters medical bills 2 pay back for pv When you pay people back or pay people back for something bad they have done to you you do something bad to them lll pay that guy back for the terrible things hes done to me if it takes the rest of my life Jake shot Hank to pay him back for turning him in to the police take up on take up on amp takes up on taking up on took up on taken up on 1 take up on pv When you take people up on an offer you accept their offer My brother has invited us many times to visit him in Hawaii and last winter we took him up on the offer Nicole has never taken me up on my offer to lend her the money she needs for her dental bills Infinitive present tense -ing form past tense past participle turn around turn around amp turns around turning around turned around turned around 391
1 turn around pv When you turn around you move a vehicle or your body so that it faces the opposite direction When you turn something around you move it so that it faces the opposite direction Someone called my name and I turned around to see who it was You should turn this house plant around so that the other side can get some light 2 turn around pv When you turn around a bad situation a failing business a losing game and so on you improve it so that it is successful Turning this money-losing company around is going to take several years The quarterback completed four passes in the last five minutes of the football game and completely turned it around turnaround n A turnaround is a major improvement in a bad situation a failing business a losing game and soon We won the game in a last-minute turnaround This company was losing money but theres been a major turnaround since the new manager took over wear out wear out amp wears out wearing out wore out worn out 1 wear out pv When something wears out or you wear it out it becomes damaged or weak from use and age and is no longer usable People who live in the city wear out their car brakes faster than people who live in the country The carpet in the hallway wore out and had to be replaced worn-out part adj When something is worn-out it has become damaged or weak from use and age and is no longer usable l need new running shoes These are totally worn-out 2 wear out pv When something wears you out it makes you very tired Playing with his grandchildren really wore Fred out Shoveling snow for three hours would wear anyone out worn-out partadj When something has made you very tired you are worn-out l have to sit down and rest for a minute Im worn-out EXERCISE 50a Complete the sentences with phrasal verbs from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 I lent Sally 1000 last year but she still hasntme 2 Children usually get too big for their clothes long before the clothes 392
3 The companys new CEO promised the shareholders that he would the company 4 Judy told me that she said all those terrible things about me at work to me for stealing her boyfriend 5 Dr Woods new bookwith preventive medicine 6 Carrying those boxes of books up to the attic me 7 Like so many things in life this problem money 8 Jim drove right past Bobs house so he had to and go back 9 to my hand Susie its very crowded here and I dont want you to get lost 10 I that problem yesterday so you dont need to worry about it anymore 11 Linda isnt sure who shell go to the dance with but she said she might Todd 12 It was so windy that I had to to a signpost to keep from falling over 13 Mike has invited me to his house for dinner several times but Ive never him the offer 14 just a minute Where do you think youre going EXERCISE SOb Write answers to the questions using phrasal verbs participle adjectives and nouns from this section Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense 1 Toms been waiting for ten minutes What has Tom been doing 2 My shoes have holes in the bottom and now I cant wear them What has happened to my shoes 3 In Question 2 how would you describe my shoes 4 The countrys economy was bad but now its improving What is the countrys economy doing 5 The main thing that Lydia will consider when she chooses a college is how good the MBA program is What is important to Lydia in choosing a college 6 You called Betty and asked her to go to a movie What did you do 393
7 Bills baseball team was way behind but they ended up winning the game What would you call the game 8 Mike lent Frank 20 and tomorrow Frank is going to give Mike 20 What is going to happen to Mike tomorrow 9 Sarah asked me if I would like her to come to my house to help me with my homework and I said yes What did I do 10 Ms Cummings will do whatever she needs to do to solve the problem after dinner What will Ms Cummings do after dinner 11 The purse snatcher couldnt take my mothers purse because she held it tightly in her hand What did my mother do to her purse 12 Shampooing the carpet was a lot of work and it made Janice really tired What did shampooing the carpet do to Janice 13 In Question 12 how did Janice feel after shampooing the carpet EXERCISE 50c Write eight original sentences using phrasal verbs from this section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EXERCISE 50d Review Complete the sentences with these participle adjectives from this section and previous sections To check their meanings review the section number given after each one
beat-up 44 mixed up 44 turned off 45 built-in 46 pissed off 44 turned on 45 clogged up 49 stressed-out 44 worn-out 50 grossed out 43 switched off 48 locked up 44 switched on 48 394
1 Trying to take care of my family and work full-time has made me really 2 You should get rid of those shoes and buy some new ones 3 I felt really after dancing the merengue with Maria 4 Maria seemed a little when she saw my big belly hanging over my belt 5 While I was driving on the interstate about a billion bugs splattered all over the windshield I was really 6 My car looks pretty but it runs all right 7 This sink is all Well have to call a plumber 8 Could you help me with my calculus homework I dont understand it at all and Im totally 9 You should keep guns if there are children in the house 10 Mikes really about having to work on Sunday He was planning to go to the football game but now he cant 11 Most computers today have a CD-ROM drive 12 I like to leave the radio when Im not home so that burglars will think that someone is at home 13 It sure is hot in here Why is the air conditioner EXERCISE 50e Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number given after each one build inlinto 46 get on 49 throw away 49 turn off 45 clog up 49 get to 49 turn down 45 turn on 45 get ahead 49 hang on 49 turn in 45 turn out 45 get back to 49 make for 46 turn into 45 turn up 45 1 Jake was nice when he was a boy but as he got older he a criminal 2 Stop bothering me about washing the dishes Ill it when I have time 395
3 The teacher said quotAfter you your tests you can leavequot 4 These stereo speakers werent added later they were right the wall 5 Business has been very good in fact this may to be our best year ever 6 Ill have to you I dont have time to talk now 7 If I had known you wanted those old clothes I wouldnt have them 8 It was getting dark so I the light 9 Ive gained so much weight that I cant these pants 10 Having a good education helped me to 11 Im almost ready 12 Its too hot in here could you the heat a little 13 My father saidquot the TV and do your homeworkquot 14 Who put all this stuff in the sink and it 15 The champagne flowers and gourmet dinner a very special evening 16 Its hot in here who keeps the heat EXERCISE 50f Review Complete the sentences with these phrasal verbs from this section and previous sections Be sure the phrasal verbs are in the correct tense To check their meanings review the section number qiven after each one ask out 50 get ahead 49 hold on 50 start off 49 come down to 50 get back to 49 pay back 50 take up on 50 deal with 50 get to 49 put inlinto 47 turn around 50 freak out 46 give out 43 run out 47 wear out 50 1 I like to go to the supermarket on Saturday because they free samples 2 My teacher said that my project wasnt very good and that it was obvious I hadnt much effort it 3 Dont lend money to Marvin hell never you 396
4 Thanks for inviting me to go sailing with you I just might you the offer someday 5 Sergeant Jones the problem in his usual efficient manner 6 Were of coffee Can you make some more 7 Jim likes Maria but hes too shy to her 8 Nowadays its hard to in the business world if you dont know something about computers 9 Janice was talking to her father on the other telephone line when I called so she asked me to for just a minute while she said good-bye to him 10 Ann used to have a lot of problems but she has her life and now she is very happy and successful in her job 11 I called the restaurant manager to complain about the bad food we were served yesterday a she said she would investigate and me 12 Heather was very excited that she had go backstage after the concert and meet the band 13 We had a hard time deciding which of the two houses to buy We liked both of them but it which one was in a better school district 14 Im not as young as I used to be That fifteen-mile hike me 15 I hate walking through cemeteries at night it really me 16 The president of the company the meeting by welcoming everyone
Answers When questions require complete sentences as answers several variations of the answer are often possible depending on whether contractions are used whether separable phrasal verbs are separated and whether the object of the phrasal verb is repeated in the answer replaced by a pronoun or ellipted not repeated because it is understood The answers given below would be natural and likely in everyday American English contractions are used more often than not and separable phrasal verbs are separated more often than not but any grammatical and logical sentence with the correct verb in the correct tense is acceptable Phrasal verbs separated by their objects but not adverbs or adverbials are indicated with three dots between the verb and particle Remember that questions asked with or we are answered with you and questions asked with you are answered with or we
1a 1 took off 2 took off 3 put on 4 run into 5 shows up 6 showed up 7 came from 8 put on 9 figure out 10 take off 11 coming from 12 put on 13 took off 14 looked for 15 gave back 16 run into 17 take off 18 Take off 19 run into 20 Taking off 21 putting on 22 put on 23 put on 24 took off 25 ran into 1b 1 I finally figured out the instructions I finally figured the instructions out I finally figured them out 2 Give back my tools when you are finished Give my tools back when you are finished Give them back when you are finished 3 She put on her slippers She put her slippers on She put them on 4 I took off my shoes I took my shoes off I took them off 5 The hurricane took off the roof The hurricane took the roof off The hurricane took it off 1c 1 They didnt show up 2 He figured it out 3 Its taking off 4 it was a takeoff 5 He speaks Arabic because he comes from Egypt 6 You took off 7 You ran into him 8 It came from the tenth floor 9 I almost ran into a tree 10 He put his name on it 11 You have to take it off 12 You figured it out 13 Youre taking them off 14 They took off 15 Shes looking for it 16 They dont show up 17 He always forgets to put them on the table 18 He took Friday off 19 She gave it back 2a 1 falling for 2 came off 3 dozed off 4 threw up 5 fell for 6 pulls through 7 stay off 8 came off 9 giving in 10 heard about 11 throwing up 12 come off 2b 1 Did the sick boy throw up 2 Does Rosa fall for every boy she meets 3 Do the tops come off easily 4 Does the dog stay off the bed 5 Did Erik hear about the new job 2c 1 I dont always give in to her demands 2 Mrand MrsTaylor didnt fall for the salesmans promises 3 These machines dont throw up sparks 4 The patient didnt pull through 5 The plot didnt come off as planned 2d 1 She told you to stay off it 2 He fell for it 3 Theyre starting to doze off 4 She hears about everything 5 It didnt come off the way you planned it 6 One of the wheels came off my car 7 Youre not giving in 8 You fell for them 9 She doesnt think Ted will pull through 10 He was throwing up 2e 1 takeoff 2 showed up 3 took off 4 looking for 5 came from 6 Give back 7 ran into 8 figure out 3a 1 go in for 2 put up with 3 go along with 4 looks down on 5 feel up to 6 screw out of 7 looking forward to 8 get over with 9 go along with 3b 1 He talks down to him 2 She should get it over with 3 He screwed them out of 5000 4 Shes looking forward to it 5 I have to put up with it 6 He doesnt feel up to it 7 You went along with it 3c 1 fall for 2 threw up 3 come off 4 gave in 5 stay off 6 pull through 7 dozed off 8 heard about 4a 1 wrap up 2 put to 3 points to 4 pay for 5 cheated on 6 put to 7 looking up 8 went after 9 cheated on 10 plan for 11 pointing to 12 went after 13 pay for 14 looked up 15 wrapped up 16 going after 17 lookup 18 going after 19 put to
4b 1 I was looking up a word in the dictionary I was looking a word up in the dictionary I was looking it up in the dictionary 2 I was in Boston looking up some old army buddies I was in Boston looking some old army buddies up I was in Boston looking them up 3 Dads in the bedroom wrapping up Moms birthday present Dads in the bedroom wrapping Moms birthday present up Dads in the bedroom wrapping it up The committee is wrapping their discussion up The committee is wrapping it up 4c 1 He pointed it our 2 Youre planning for them 3 Its looking up 4 He went after him 5 Shes going to go after it 6 You put him to a lot of trouble 7 Youre paying for it 8 Its paid for 9 Theyre wrapping it up 10 She looked her up 11 He put it to me 12 Shes looking up Eriks telephone number 13 He cheated on her 4d 1 fell for 2 came from 3 showed up 4 figure out 5 pulled through 6 gave in 7 heard about 8 looking for 5a 1 broke down 2 set up 3 pile up 4 handed back 5 find out 6 called in 7 looked at 8 breaks down 9 breaking down 10 set up 11 look at 12 break down 13 look at 14 calling in 15 break down 16 burn down 17 setting up 18 broke down 19 piling up 20 looking at 5b 1 broke DOWN 2 set UP 3 pile UP 4 handed BACK 5 find OUT 6 called IN 7 LOOKED at 8 breaks DOWN 9 breaking DOWN 10 set UP 11 LOOK at 12 break DOWN 13 LOOK at 14 calling IN 15 break DOWN 16 burn DOWN 17 setting UP 18 broke DOWN 19 piling UP 20 LOOKING at 5c 1 The firefighters broke down the door The firefighters broke the door down The firefighters broke it down 2 They burned down the old barn They burned the old barn down They burned it down 3 He called in Dr Shapiro He called Dr Shapiro in He called her in 4 Our teacher handed back the papers Our teacher handed the papers back Our teacher handed them back 5 I set up the ironing board I set the ironing board up I set it up 5d 1 She set it up 2 It was set up 3 Theyre piling up 4 Theyre piled up 5 He handed it back 6 It broke down 7 Its broken-down 8 He had a breakdown 9 They burned it down 10 It burned down 11 He broke down 12 He had a breakdown 13 She was angry because I didnt call in 14 She set it up 15 Its setup 16 He broke in 17 You found out that Alis excuse was a big lie 5e 1 put up with 2 felt up to 3 Stay off 4 come off 5 looking forward to 6 go along with 7 threw up 8 goes in for 9 talked down to 10 get over with 6a 1 coming down with 2 went through with 3 come up with 4 get around to 5 got out of 6 get out of 7 boils down to 8 monkey around with 9 get out of 10 gone back on 6b 1 He went through with it 2 You didnt get around to it 3 You told him youd get around to it tomorrow 5 She came up with a way to manufacture her companys products more cheaply 6 It comes down to location 7 I feel like Im coming down with a cold 8 Youll monkey around with it 9 You got it out of her 10 She went back on her promise 6c 1 wrap up 2 plan for 3 looked up 4 cheated on 5 look at 6 finds out 7 going after 8 pointed to
9 put to 10 pile up 11 handed back 12 burned down 6d 1 wrap UP 2 PLAN for 3 looked UP 4 CHEATED on 5 LOOK at 6 finds OUT 7 GOING after 8 POINTED to 9 putTO 10 pile UP 11 handed BACK 12 burned DOWN 7a 1 let out 2 holding up 3 ran over 4 let out 5 cut up 6 pointed out 7 let out 8 taken in 9 took in 10 taking apart 11 holding up 12 took in 13 hold up 14 seeing about 15 let out 16 held up 17 ran over 18 pointed out 19 ran over 20 take in 21 take in 22 held up 23 run over 24 see about 25 hold up 7b 1 The cook cut up the meat The cook cut the meat up The cook cut it up 2 The snowstorm held up air travelers The snowstorm hed air travelers up The snowstorm held them up 3 Dont let out the dog Dont let the dog out Dont let it out 4 The real estate agent pointed out the swimming pool The real estate agent pointed the swimming pool out The real estate agent pointed it out 5 The truck ran over the man The truck ran the man over The truck ran him over 6 Im going to take apart the broken doorknob Im going to take the broken door knob apart Im going to take it apart 7 The tailor took in the pants The tailor took the pants in The tailor took them in 7c 1 Youre going to see about changing to a different room 2 They havent held up 3 Shes going to take them in 4 He was taken in 5 I was run over 6 He pointed them out 7 It held up the game 8 Shes cutting a piece of paper up 9 Theyre holding it up 10 She held the bank up 11 There was a holdup 12 You took it in 13 He took it apart 14 It ran over 15 They took you in 16 He let it out 17 You ra1n over and grabbed it 18 She let out a scream 19 It has held up 20 He let them out 21 He took it in 22 Its running over 23 Youre letting them out 7d 1 go through with 2 come off 3 got out of 4 get around to 5 monkeying around with 6 boil down to 7 figure out 8 put on 9 went after 10 gone back on 11 came up with 12 looking forward to 13 dozed off 14 came down with 8a 1 fallen over 2 burned out 3 fought back 4 ring up 5 work in 6 pick out 7 picked out 8 burn out 9 rung up 10 heard of 11 fell over 12 burned out 13 hear of 14 fight back 15 tear down 8b 1 The sheriff burned out the escaped convicts The sheriff burned the escaped convicts out The sheriff burned them out 2 Bill has picked out a new car Bill has picked a new car out Bill has picked it out 3 The clerk hasnt rung up these CDs yet The clerk hasnt rung these CDs up yet The clerk hasnt rung them up yet 4 The new owners have torn down the garage The new owners have torn the garage down The new owners have torn it down 5 The mayor tried to work in a tour of the factory The mayor tried to work a tour of the factory in The mayor tried to work it in 8c 1 He said he wouldnt hear or it 2 Its burned itself our 3 Hes rung them up 4 Theyve picked it out 5 She couldnt fight back the tears 6 It burned out 7 Its burned out 8 They fell over 9 It was burned out 10 Its burned out 11 You didnt fight back 12 Youve worked it in 13 She hasnt rung you up 14 They tore it down 15 He fall over himself 16 You asked him if hes ever heard of the new seafood restaurant in the mall 8d
1 took apart 2 pull through 3 shown up 4 ran over 5 taken in 6 fall for 7 cut up 8 held up 9 pointed to 10 looked up 11 let out 12 gave in 13 get over with 14 see about 15 goes in for 16 put up with 9a 1 give up 2 broke out 3 getting along 4 work up 5 gave up 6 catch up 7 hang up 8 worked up 9 catch up 10 getting along 11 gave up 12 hang up 13 chickened out 14 hook up 15 catch up 16 broken out 17 hook up 9b 1 on 2 to 3 on 4 of 5 with 6 with 7 of 8 to
9 on 9c 1 Tonight Im going to try to hook up my fax machine Tonight Im going to try to hook my fax machine up Tonight Im going to try to hook it up 2 After my accident I had to give up scuba diving After my accident I had to give scuba diving up After my accident I had to give it up 3 You can hang up your coat in the closet You can hang your coat up in the closet You can hang it up in the closet 9d 1 You want to catch up 2 She has to give up driving 3 She needs to catch up 4 I was worked up 5 Hooking up a computer to a printer is easy 6 Its hooked up7 Theyre going to try to break out 8 It would be called a breakout 9 They dont get along 10 You gave up on it 11 Fights break out 12 He worked up the courage to ask his boss for a raise 13 He didnt chicken out 14 They told him to give up 15 Shes working up to it 16 She hung up on him 9e 1 heard of 2 piled up 3 put to 4 fallen over 5 looked at 6 pick out 7 ran into 8 pointed to 9 hand back 10 cheating on 11 work in 12 fight back 13 rang up 14 found out 15 torn down 16 burned out 10a 1 hand out 2 screw up 3 fallen off 4 gave up 5 screwed up 6 laid off 7 growing up 8 kick back 9 went ahead 10 fill in 11 go ahead 12 fall off 13 layoff 14 fill in 15 kick back 16 fill in 17 Grow up 10b 1 grown-ups 2 screwup 3 kickbacks 4 handouts 5 fill-in 6 handout 7 layoffs 8 falloff 9 go-ahead 10c 1 You havent filled in all the spaces You havent filled all the spaces in You havent filled them in 2 Is the teacher handing out the tests Is the teacher handing the tests out Is the teacher handing them out 3 The company is going to lay off my brother The company is going to lay my brother off The company is going to lay him off 4 Im sorry I screwed up your plan Im sorry I screwed your plan up Im sorry I screwed it up 10d 1 You went ahead with it 2 She told you to fill it in 3 Its filled in 4 Shes screwing it up 5 Its screwed up 6 I kick back 3000 to the mayor 7 Its a kickback 8 She was laid off 9 He screwed you up 10 You grew up there 11 Its for grown-ups 12 It will falloff 13 It would be called a falloff 14 She told him to lay off 15 Hes filling in for Omar 16 Theyll be handed out 17 She filled her in l0e 1 takeoff 2 breakdown 3 hookup 4 breakout 5 holdup 6 setup 7 put-on 10f 1 work up 2 gave up 3 pick out 4 hook up 5 get along 6 talk down to 7 catch up 8 chickened out of 11a 1 cut off 2 back up 3 back up 4 work out 5 backing up 6 cut off 7 back up 8 follows up 9 drop off 10 backed up 11 wake up 12 work out 13 take out 14 back up 15 worked out 16 works out 17 drops off 18 cut off 19 taking out 20 back up 21 cutoff 22 fell off 23 try out 24 woke up 25 worked out 26 try out 27 take out 28 worked out 29 cutoff 30 took out 31 taken out 11b 1 Did you back up your work Did you back your work up Did you back it up 2 Theyre cutting off the power Theyre cutting the power off Theyre cutting it off
3 I dropped off Prank at the airport I dropped Frank off at the airport I dropped him off at the airport 4 Mom asked me to take out the garbage Mom asked me to take the garbage out Mom asked me to take it out 5 Alex tried out his new bicycle Alex tried his new bicycle out Alex tried it out 6 Mike has woken up Ali Mike has woken Ali up Mike has woken him up 11C 1 Its his backup camera 2 Its the cutoff date 3 Shes his back-up 4 I gave it a tryout 5 She made a follow-up visit 6 Your workout clothes got dirty 7 You ate takeout food 8 There was a backup on the interstate 9 There has been a falloff 10 She didnt make a backup 11 Theres a dropoff 12 You gave it a workout 11d 1 They cut it off 2 You bought takeout food 3 Working out is good for my health 4 Youre going to try it out 5 Theyre letting me give their service a tryout 6 It cut them off 7 They were cur off 8 Im backing it up 9 Its a backup 10 Shes following up 11 My workout routine is difficult 12He backed up his 13 She wants to try out 14lt backs it up 15 Its a backup 16 She drops her off 17 Its a follow-up appointment 18 Its not working out the way she expected 19 He took Judy out 20 It works out to 9000 21 Youve never woken up at 330 in the morning 11e 1 lay off 2 handed out 3 grew up 4 screwed up 5 go ahead 6 fell off 7 stay off 8 looking for 9 coming from 10 feel up to 11 screw out of 12 kickback 13 go along with 14 give back 15 fill in 16 heard of 12a 1 sign out 2 came up 3 put up 4 came across 5 signed out 6 fell through 7 puts up 8 backoff 9 fallen through 10 come up 11 put up 12 screw on 13 sign in 14 put up 15 screwed on 16 put up 17 came up 18 come across 19 put up 20 comes across 21 came up 22 put up 23 coming up 12b 1 Hed backed off 2 He had signed in 3 Shed fallen through 4 He had put up a fight 5 It had come across well 6 She had put up the money 7 Hed said that it was coming up 8 Hed screwed it on 9 It was screwed on 10 It had put them up 11 Something had come up 12 It had fallen through 13 It had come up 14 Theyd put up a fence 15 I had come across some old newspapers 16 Hed come up to New York 17 She had signed out 12d 1 pay for 2 followed up 3 thrown up 4 fallen off 5 put to 6 work out 7 drop off 8 woke up 9 try out 10 back up 11 pointed to 12 wrap up 13 cut off 14 planned for 15 take out 16 go after 13a 1 let off 2 called off 3 hit on
4 light up 5 tracked down 6 lighting up 7 closed off 8 left off 9 hit on 10 handed in 11 drop off 12 left off 13 hand in 14 letoff 15 hand in 13b 1 The bride hasnt called off the wedding The bride hasnt called the wedding off The bride hasnt called it off 2 Are they closing off the gallery Are they closing the gallery off Are they closing it off 3 The accountant handed in her report The accountant handed her report in The accountant handed it in 4 Have you left off Carmen Have you left Carmen off Have you left her off 5 The judge let off the pickpocket The judge let the pickpocket off The judge let him off 6 I told him not to light up the cigarette I told him not to light the cigarette up I told him not to light it up 7 The EPA tracked down the polluters The EPA tracked the polluters down The EPA tracked them down 13c 1 It was tracked down 2 They were handed in 3 Theyre always let off 4 She was hit on 5 It was left off 6 It was called off 7 Its being closed off 8 Its closed off 9 It was lit up 10 It was lit up 13d 1 burned down 2 taken off 3 talked down to 4 set up 5 screwed out of 6 let out 7 called in 8 pointed out 9 run into 10 piled up 11 given back 12 handed back 13 taken apart 14 planned for 15 run over 16 looked at 14a 1 wound up 2 fill out 3 put away 4 stick up 5 dress up 6 dries up 7 put away 8 winding up 9 stuck up 10 winding up 11 dressed up 12 dries up 13 wind up 14 stick up 15 filled out 16 put away 17 stuck up 18 put away 19 used up 20 butts in 14b 1 dried up 2 dressed up 3 filled out 4 stuck-up 5 used up 6 wound up 7 put away 14c 1 Janice dressed up her son Janice dressed her son up Janice dressed him up 1 The sun quickly dries up the water The sun quickly dries the water up The sun quickly dries it up 3 Filling out the entire form isnt necessary Filling the entire form out isnt necessary Filling it out isnt necessary 4 Ed put away six beers in an hour Ed put six beers away in an hour Ed put them away in an hour 5 They stuck up notices They stuck notices up They stuck them up 6 Im winding up my clock Im winding my clock up Im winding it up 14d 1 He wound up in the hospital 2 She kept butting in 3 It dried up 4 He put them away 5 Theyre put away 6 Theyre dried up 7 You wound it up S It was wound up 9 She dressed up 10 She was dressed up 11 He filled it out 12 It was filled out 14e 1 hung up 2 paid for 3 hooked up 4 cutoff 5 broken-down 6 set up 7 filled in 8 screwed up 9 caught up 10 worked up 11 grown-up 12 cut up 13 burned-out 14 backed up 15 wake-up 16 piled up 15a 1 blew away 2 set up 3 came through 4 fix up 5 tell on 6 comes through 7 headingheaded for 8 fix up 9 comes through 10 headingheaded for 11 go with 12 dried out 13 blow away 14 come through 15 set up 16 go with 17 came through 18 blown away 19 went with 20 came through 21 went with 22 head back 23 go with 15b 1 Hes going to fix you up with a table next to the fireplace 2 Shes sure that her father will come through 3 Its going to blow him away 4 Hell fix it up 5 It will be fixed up 6 He wont tell on her 7 Its going to blow them away 8 They wont come through it
9 Shell fix herself up 10 Shell be fixed up 11 Im going to head for Tucson 12 Im going to head back to San Diego 13 He wont set Mike up with his sister 14 She isnt going to go with blue 15 Its going to blow away the competition 16 Hes going to come through town 17 Its going to dry up 18 Itll be dried up 15d 1 came up 2 fell through 3 lightup 4 put up 5 track down 6 lit up 7 closed off 8 screw on 9 call off 10 backoff 11 hand in 12 leftoff 13 sign in 14 signed out 15 letoff 16 came across 16a 1 thinking about 2 carry on 3 counting on 4 go for 5 believe in 6 get through 7 count on 8 get through 9 held off 10 put past 11 carried on 12 held off 13 went for 14 going for 15 carry on 16 get through 17 believe in 18 carry on 19 believe in 20 get through 21 goes for 22 get through 23 count on 16b 1 She goes for it 2 She didnt get through studying until 1100 PM 3 They carried them on 4 They kept carry-on bags with them 5 Shes thinking about spending the summer in Bolivia 6 He doesnt believe in it 7 He couldnt carry on his career as a dancer 8 You held off having children 9 I wouldnt put stealing past him 10 Shes going to try to get through to her 11 I cant count on him 12 He carried on 13 You cant count on it 14 They believe in monsters 16d 1 stuck-up 2 fixed up 3 used up 4 put away 5 wound up 6 wrapped up 7 filled out 8 dried up 9 dressed up 10 screwed on 11 closed off 12 lit up 16e 1 wound up 2 goes in for 3 put up with 4 looking forward to 5 give up 6 feel up to 7 see about 8 get around to 9 get out of 10 get over with 11 left off 12 worked out 13 broke down 14 took in 15 put up 16 broke out 17 butt in 17a 1 came over 2 falling apart 3 rip up 4 headingheaded into 5 got back at 6 came over 7 worn down 8 go about 9 grow out of 10 falling apart 11 wear down 12 fell apart 13 come over 14 grows out of 17b any two of the possible 1 Taylor comes over Ms Taylor frequently comes over Ms Taylor comes over frequently 401 2 Sometimes these cheap toys fall apart These cheap toys sometimes fall apart These cheap toys fall apart sometimes 3 Nervously he went about making the bomb He nervously went about making the bomb He went about making the bomb nervously 4 Eventually Sally will grow out other childish behavior Sally will eventually grow out ofher childish behavior Sally will grow out of her childish behavior eventually 5 Reluctantly Jim headed into the swamp Jim reluctantly headed into the swamp Jim headed reluctantly into the swamp 6 Suddenly Pat ripped up Mikes letter Pat suddenly ripped up Mikes letter Pat ripped up Mikes letter suddenly 7 Soon Frank will get back at Todd Frank will soon get back at Todd Frank will get back at Todd soon 8 Gradually he wore down my resistance He gradually wore down my resistance He wore down my resistance gradually 17c 1 It was ripped up 2 It was ripped up 3 Its falling apart 4 They came over 5 He doesnt know how to go about applying for a mortgage 6 Were going to head into the city 7 She grew out of it 8 Theyve worn down 9 Theyre worn down 10 Hes gotten back at you 11 They came over before Columbus 12 She came over and looked at my paper 13 He fell apart 14 Shell grow out of it soon 15 Its falling apart 16 Theyre trying to wear her down
17d 1 find out 2 get along 3 go through with 4 chickened out of 5 set up 6 work in 7 fight back 8 came down with 9 monkey around with 10 kicking back 11 heard of 12 boils down to 13 come up 14 fell over 15 Go ahead 18a 1 get off 2 breakthrough 3 tell apart 4 get off 5 line up 6 stood around 7 goes beyond 8 get off 9 figured on 10 get off 11 lined up 12 get off 13 broke through 14 Get off 15 lift up 16 get off 17 line up 18 Get off 18b 1 He said hed get it off the table 2 You cant tell them apart 3 He cant lift it up 4 He said he hadnt figured on snow in May 5 She lined up a great band 6 Its lined up 7 He said it goes beyond that 8 They broke through it 9 He gets off at 500 10 I got off with a warning 11 He lined up the desks 12 Theyre lined up 13 She asked you to get off the phone 14 You stood around waiting for the bus 15 He said youd get Sundays off 16 They have to be lined up 17 He got off the train 18 He told him to get off the grass 18d 1 went for 2 thought about 3 held off 4 goes with 5 came through 6 counting on 7 told on 8 putpast 9 come over 10 goes along with 11 head for 12 head back 13 carried on 14 get off 15 grown out of 16 believe in 19a 1 heat up 2 pulled over 3 bring back 4 cool off 5 go back 6 brought back 7 hand over 8 brought back 9 aiming at 10 bring over 11 warm up 12 aim at 13 handed over 14 cooled off 15 aimed at 16 goes back 17 warm up 18 went back 19 cools off 20 pulled over 21 warm up 19b 1 Could you bring back my tool kit Could you bring my tool kit back Could you bring it back 2 Ill bring over your tool kit Ill bring your tool kit over Ill bring it over 3 The air conditioner quickly cooled off my apartment The air conditioner quickly cooled my apartment off The air conditioner quickly cooled it off 4 Todd handed over his wallet Todd handed his wallet over Todd handed it over 5 The sheriff pulled over the suspects The sheriff pulled the suspects over The sheriff pulled them over 6 The drivers are warming up their trucks The drivers are warming their trucks up The drivers are warming them up 19c 1 It warmed right up 2 Ill go right back to work 3 It cooled right off 4 You would pull right over 5 He aimed it right at him 6 She told you to give her dictionary right back 7 He told her to hand it right over 8 She brought it right over 19d 1 broke through 2 standing around 3 went beyond 4 track down 5 headed into 6 backed off 7 come up with 8 hit on 9 fell through 10 wind up 11 tell apart 12 figure on 13 came across 14 lifted up 15 put up 16 let off 20a 1 go off 2 went around 3 go on 4 go off 5 hang around 6 ended up 7 lies around 8 hangs around 9 start out 10 go around 11 stay up 12 ended up 13 lying around 14 went around 15 go on 16 goes off 17 going around 18 go off 19 stay up 20 goes around 21 hangs around 22 go around 23 went on 24 went around 25 Go ahead 26 go on 27 went on 28 went around 29 goes around 30 go on 20b 1 Im going to lie around watching TV 2 She went around making
decorating plans 3 It ended up in Australia 4 It goes off at 200 5 He asked quotWhats going onquot 6 He goes around telling awful jokes 7 She stayed up all night 8 He hangs around the house 9 It didnt go off 10 He went around wearing a Hawaiian shirt 11 They go on automatically 12 They didnt get a hot dog because I didnt buy enough to go around 13 You have to go around the potholes 14 You ended up buying the red car 15 You couldnt go on 16 She started out thinking it would take only a few weeks 20d 1 screwed out of 2 cooled off 3 ripped up 4 blow away 5 gave up 6 work up 7 paid for 8 heard of 9 came over 10 called off 11 see about 12 go about 13 dry out 14 aimed at 15 broke out 16 bring over 21a 1 take out on 2 step on 3 picking on 4 looked around 5 settling down 6 looked over 7 settle down 8 zip up 9 settled down 10 look around 11 think ahead 12 step on 21b 1 He should took it over
402 2 I looked around 3 They settled down 4 I should zip it up 5 Its zipped up 6 She didnt think ahead 7 He picks on him 8- He took it our on his wife 9 He stepped on it 21c 1 Business in this restaurant shouldought to fall off in January 2 They shouldought to be winding up the investigation 3 These cheap shoes shouldnt hold up more than three months 4 Jim flies from Florida to Boston every year in April and its April now Jim shouldought to come up to Boston soon 5 It almost always gets cooler in October and its October 1st today so it shouldought to cool off soon 6 Pauls disease is not serious so he shouldought to pull through 7 Francisco almost never works past 500 and its 450 now He shouldought to get off in a few minutes 8 Lydia likes skiing a lot so if you suggest that we go skiing next weekend she shouldought to go for the idea 9 The enemy soldiers have been trying to smash a hole in the wall of the fort for two hours and they shouldought to break through soon 10 Sally said she would come to my house at 530 and its 540 now She shouldought to come over soon 11 This work normally takes four hours to finish so if you start at 900 you shouldought to get through around 100 12 The train almost always passes through town at 325 and its 320 now so the train shouldought to come through town in five minutes 13 I put a lot of wood on the fire so it shouldnt burn out before morning 14 The car heater is on maximum so it shouldought to warm up soon 21d 1 went around 2 Hand over 3 goes off 4 pull over 5 line up 6 stayed up 7 falls apart 8 get back at 9 started out 10 hang around 11 end up 12 brought back 13 lie around 14 go on 15 rang up 16 go back 22a 1 eat up 2 plug up 3 burns up 4 clear up 5 pay up 6 cleared up 7 count up 8 cleared up 9 burn up 10 wipe up 11 heat up 12 burn up 13 ate up 22b 1 They burned up the wood They burned the wood up They burned it up 2 He ought to clear up the misunderstanding He ought to clear the misunderstanding up He ought to clear it up 3 Would you count up the votes Would you count the votes up Would you count them up 4 Have they eaten up ail the candy Have they eaten all the candy up Have they eaten it up 5 I cant plug up the hole I cant plug the hole up I cant plug it up 6 Wipe up that water right now Wipe that water up right now Wipe it up right now 22c 1 I plugged it up 2 It was plugged up 3 Youre heating it up 4 Itll be heated up 5 He hasnt counted up his money 6 Ill pay it up 7 Ill be paid up 8 They burned them up 9 Theyre burned up 10 It cleared right up 11 Shes wiping it up 12 He eats his food right up 22d 1 count on 2 go with 3 Think ahead 4 signed in 5 signed out 6 put away 7 hand in 8 go with 9 dress up 10 looked around 11 step on 12 dry up 13 Zip up 14 takes out on 15 headingheaded for 16 head back 23a 1 make up 2 Watch out 3 cut down 4 cut down 5 Stay out 6 hold out 7 made up 8 drop out 9 makeup 10 crack down 11 got away 12 hold out 13 gotten away 14 stay out 15 holding out 16 make up 17 gotten away 18 get away 19 stayed out 20 cuts down
21 holdout 22 made up 23 make up 23b 1 on 2 on 3 of 4 with 5 for 6 for 7 of 23c 1 Theyre holding out for a 10 percent raise 2 Theyre holdouts 3 They made up 4 He dropped out 5 Hes a dropout 6 I made up my mind 7 She told me to cut down on tennis 8 Theyre holding out 9 Theyre holdouts 10 They stayed out until 300 AM 11 It has to hold out 12 He made up a story 13 It was made-up 14 He has gotten away with it 15 I have to watch out for big trucks 16 Theyre going to crack down on crime 17 Its a crackdown 23d 1 grown out of 2 hold off 3 wipe up 4 think about 5 get through 6 tell apart 7 breakthrough 8 counted up 9 aimed at 10 falling apart 11 went for 12 put past 13 burned up 14 believes in 15 stand around 16 come over 24a 1 slowdown 2 Shake up 3 comedown 4 traded in 5 come down 6 Stopping over 7 shaken up 8 showed off 9 letup 10 come down 11 print out 12 shook up 13 stop over 24b 1 shake-up 2 stopover 3 comedown 4 letup 5 trade-ins 6 slowdown 7 printout 8 show-off 24c 1 The rain slowed down traffic The rain slowed traffic down The rain slowed it down 2 He printed out his letter He printed his letter our He printed it out 3 The bad news has shaken up Jim and Nancy The bad news has shaken Jim and Nancy up The bad news has shaken them up 4 I got 5000 for trading in my old car I got 5000 for trading my old car in I got 5000 for trading it in 5 Chelseas parents showed off her perfect report card Chelseas parents showed her perfect report card off Chelseas parents showed it off 24d 1 You printed them out 2 Its a printout 3 Hes going to come down to New Orleans 4 He shows off 5 Hes a show-off 6 Youll trade it in 7 Its a trade-in 8 He shook things up 9 It was a shake-up 10 Shes come down in life 11 Its a comedown 12 It let up 13 It was a let up 14 It slowed it down 15 It was a slowdown 16 I stopped over 17 it was a stopover 18 it shook him up 19 He was shaken up 24e 1 follow-up 2 crackdown 3 dropout 4 lineup 5 tryout 6 workout 7 backup 8 drop-off 24f 1 stay out 2 lift up 3 goes beyond 4 told on 5 watch out 6 figure on 7 cool off 8 holding out 9 bringing over 10 look around 11 settle down 12 step on 13 counted up 14 wipe up 15 hung up 403
25a 1 hurry up 2 settle for 3 had on 4 lighten up 5 knocked over 6 do with 7 plan ahead 8 think up 9 hurry up 10 lighten up 11 have on 25b 1 He had a red shirt on 2 He wont settle for less 3 Shes planning ahead 4 He knocked him over 5 He told him to hurry up 6 It had to do with my income taxes 7 He should lighten up 8 Shes thinking up a Halloween costume 25d 1 zipped up 2 warmed up 3 cleared up 4 dried up 5 made-up 6 paid up 7 shaken up 8 ripped up 9 lined up 10 warmed up 11 plugged up 12 burned up 13 worn down 25e 1 comedown 2 hookup 3 screw on 4 show off 5 called in 6 stops over 7 trade in 8 stuck up 9 cleared up 10 let up 11 warm up 12 slow down 13 hand out 14 print out 15 gone back 26a 1 get together 2 start up 3 go over 4 open up 5 went up 6 put together 7 shut off 8 go up 9 let in on 10 go over 11 goes up 12 go over 13 put together 14 opens up 15 goes up 16 go over 17 get together 18 gets together 19 went over 20 open up 21 Put together 22 goes up 23 start up 26b 1 I wish they would open up a branch office near me I wish they would open a branch office up near me I wish they would open one up near me 2 Lydia put together the food processor Lydia put the food processor together Lydia put it together 3 Do you know how to shut off the photocopier Do you know how to shut the photocopier off Do you know how to shut it off 4 Push this button to start up the generator Push this button to start the generator up Push this button to start it up 26c 1 He went over it 3 She went up to the king and gave him the petition 4 He let you in on a secret 5 Theyre going to get together 6 Its called a get-together 7 It starts up from the hard disk 8 Its the start-up disk 9 It went over well 10 It shuts off 11 Its called the shutoff point or the shutoff temperature 12 I quit my job so that I could start up my own company 13 Id call it a start-up company 14 I put it together 15 It goes up to December 31 16 It opens up at 700 AM 26d 1 settle for 2 lighten up 3 knocked over 4 ended up 5 hurry up 6 takes out on 7 looked over 8 Put on 9 hurry up 10 gone off 11 picked on 12 think up 13 do with 14 showing off 15 go on 16 have on 27a 1 tore off 2 wiped off 3 knock off 4 dries off 5 bite off 6 wear off 7 wash off 8 knocked off 9 broke off 10 Knock off 11 worn off 12 broke down 13 knock off 14 wore off 15 knock off 27b 1 Alex has bitten off the head of the gingerbread man Alex has bitten the head of the gingerbread man off Alex has bitten it off 2 The movers broke off the cup handle The movers broke the cup handle right off The movers broke it right off 3 Please dry off the dishes Please dry the dishes off Please dry them off Dont knock the ashtray off Dont knock it off Can I trear these mattress tags off Can I tear them off
6 The janitor washed off the blood The janitor washed the blood right off The janitor washed it right off 7 She didnt wipe off the milk She didnt wipe the milk off She didnt wipe it off 27c 1 You washed it off 2 He broke them off 3 Theyre broken off 4 It bit it right off 5 It wore off 6 Its worn off 7 You knocked it off 8 I wiped it off 9 Its wiped off 10 I have to dry it off 11 Its dried off 12 I tore it off 13 Its torn off 27d 1 cut off 2 pay up 3 let up 4 thought ahead 5 cleared up 6 go over 7 put together 8 came down 9 opened up 10 ate up 11 heats up 12 gone up 13 let in on 14 trade in 15 started up 16 plugged up 28a 1 breakup 2 messed up 3 give away 4 beef up 5 call up 6 carried out 7 stand up 8 broke up 9 messed up 10 stood up 11 broke up 12 carry out 13 broke up 14 call back 15 given away 16 broke up 17 calledback 18 give away 28b 1 The White House beefed up security The White House beefed security up The White House beefed it up 2 The police are breaking up the protest The police are breaking the protest up The police are breaking it up 3 A trained technician ought to carry out the experiment A trained technician ought to carry the experiment out A trained technician ought to carry it out 4 The foundation gave away the money The foundation gave the money away The foundation gave it away 5 Susie always messes up the bathroom Susie always messes the bathroom up Susie always messes it up 6 Todd stood up Heather Todd stood Heather up Todd stood her up 28c 1 It will be carried out by DrWood 2 It was broken up 3 It was messed up 4 It was messed up 5 He was stood up 6 She wasnt called back 7 It was given away 8 Its being beefed up 9 Its beefed up 10 Theyll be called up 28d 1 backed up 2 torn down 3 used up 4 woken up 5 taken in 6 taken out 7 blown away 8 torn down 9 laid off 10 cutoff 11 ripped up 12 held up 13 handed out 14 held up 15 dropped off 16 tracked down 29a 1 make out 2 look out 3 coming apart 4 make out 5 drop in 6 flip out 7 made out 8 ran across 9 asking for 10 lucked out 11 ask for 12 made out 29b 1 I flipped out 2 He might ask Santa Claus for a new bicycle 404
3 You ran across your college roommate 4 He mode the check out to Fred Baker 5 Its made out 6 You might drop in on her 7 Its coming apart 8 I lucked out 9 You cant make it out 10 He told her to look out for cars 29d 1 cutoff 2 warm-up 3 fixer-upper 4 takeout 5 holdouts 6 crackdown 7 start-ups 8 shutoff 9 handover 10 stickup 29e 1 lighten up 2 stood up 3 messed up 4 settle for 5 do with 6 gave away 7 call up 8 call back 9 broke up 10 dry off 11 carry out 12 knock off 13 went over 14 zip up 15 go up 16 think up 30a 1 locked out 2 put out 3 locked in 4 put out 5 sort out 6 punched in 7 put out 8 wash up 9 punched out 10 put out 11 lock in 12 locked out 13 spaced out 14 sorted out 15 put out 16 washed up 17 put out 18 put out 30b 1 He locked in the crazy guy He locked the crazy guy in He locked him in 2 Jim locked out his wife Jim locked his wife out Jim locked her out 3 Did you punch in Rosa Did you punch Rosa in Did you punch her in 4 Would you punch out Linda and Erik Would you punch Linda and Erik out Would you punch them out 5 They couldnt put out the fire They couldnt put the fire out They couldnt put it out 6 The bright lights spaced out Janice The bright lights spaced Janice out The bright lights spaced her out 30c 1 punched out 2 locked in 3 sorted out 4 locked out 5 sorted out 6 spaced out 7 put out 8 punched in 30d 1 You put it out 2 Youre going to lock them out 3 Theyre locked out 4 He spaced out 5 He is spaced-out 6 She told you to wash up 7 Its put out 8 She punched him in 9 Hes punched in 10 I should sort them out 11 Theyre sorted out 12 You locked him HI 13 Hes locked in 14 He was put out 15 He was put out 16 They cant punch out before 430 17 Theyre punched out 18 She didnt put herself out 30e 1 messed up 2 beefed up 3 shutoff 4 worn off 5 torn off 6 washed off 7 closed off 8 made out 9 lit up 10 broken off 11 wiped off 12 dried off 13 made-up 30f 1 Dropping out 2 filled out 3 trade in 4 standing up 5 had on 6 asked for 7 hurry up 8 knock over 9 opened up 10 wash off 11 wipe off 12 carried out 13 drop in 14 working out 15 headed into 16 made out 17 butt in 31a 1 ruled out 2 cutout 3 do away with 4 cut out 5 do without 6 put off 7 care for 8 look into 9 done away with 10 cutout 11 care for 12 cutout 13 planned on 14 put off 15 planning on 31b 1 I put it off 2 He cut out acting like such a big shot 3 He said that nothing has been ruled out 4 They dont care for him 5 It does away with child labor 6 Ill have to do without it 7 Youre going to look into having it painted 8 You can plan on freezing to death 9 She was put off 10 She was put off 11 They suspected that he had been done away with by a coworker 12 He cur it our 13 He cared for it
31d 1 go about 2 make out 3 made up 4 coming apart 5 get back at 6 lucked out 7 beefed up 8 cut down 9 flipped out 10 ran across 11 crackdown 12 asking for 13 getaway 14 drop in 15 got off 16 lockout 32a 1 fell out 2 came out 3 coming out 4 sticking out 5 comes out 6 went out 7 stick out 8 cleaned out 9 left out 10 Go out 11 empty out 12 come out 13 go out 14 come out 15 clear out 16 fell out 17 come out 18 clear out 19 came out 20 emptied out 21 going out 22 stick out 23 go out 24 coming out 25 cleaned out 26 come out 27 come out 28 clean out 29 sticks out 32b 1 of 2 of 3 to 4 with 5 forin favor of 6 against 7 with over 8 of 9 to 10 with 11 of 32c 1 My son cleaned out the basement My son cleaned the basement out My son cleaned it out 2 I need to clear out the storeroom I need to clear it out 3 Sarah emptied out the boxes Sarah emptied the boxes out Sarah emptied them out 4 The factory left out an important part The factory left an important part out The factory left it out 5 Dont stick out your neck Dont stick your neck our Dont stick it out 32d 1 Its coming out 2 They cleared out 3 It cleared out 4 Youre going to go out with her 5 He didnt come out of the battle alive 6 You left him out 7 He feels left out 8 They cleaned me our 9 They came out with a new CD 10 He sticks out 11 They came out forin favor of the Republican candidate 12 He fell out with him 13 They had a falling-out 32e 1 cut out 2 do without 3 sort out 4 spaced out 5 watch out 6 punch in 7 look into 8 holding out 9 put out 10 punch out 11 do away with 12 rule out 13 wash up 14 lock in 15 care for 16 put off 33a 1 help out 2 catch on 3 fall behind 4 pulled off 5 blow up 6 goofs around 7 blow up 8 come a bout 9 pulled over 10 fall behind 11 know about 12 catch on 13 Blow up 14 caught on 15 fall behind 16 knows about 17 blow up 33b 1 at 2 over 3 to 4 in 5 with 33c 1 It didnt catch on 2 Shes helping him out 3 They pulled it off 4 He goofs around 5 They blow them up 6 He blows up 7 She knows about it 8 They fell behind 9 She asked me to explain how the situation come about 405
33d 1 rule out 2 put off 3 put out 4 look into 5 came out 6 fell out 7 spaced out 8 go around 9 cut out 10 plan on 11 sorted out 12 gave away 13 do without 14 sticks out 15 empty out 16 go out 34a 1 stick to 2 floating around 3 stick around 4 take back 5 led up to 6 take back 7 stick to 8 taken back 9 put up to 10 stick to 11 stands for 12 took back 13 stick to 14 took back 15 stands for 16 take back 17 stand for 18 do over 19 leading up to 20 take back 21 going around 34b 1 STICK to 2 FLOATING around 3 stick AROUND 4 take BACK 5 led UP to 6 take BACK 7 STICK to 8 taken BACK 9 put UP to 10 STICK to 11 STANDS for 12 took BACK 13 STICK to 14 took BACK 15 STANDS for 16 take BACK 17 STANDS for 18 doOVER 19 leading UP to 20 take BACK 21 going AROUND 34c 1 She took it back 2 They led up to it 3 Ive done it over 4 You took it back 5 He sticks to it 6 He wont stand for it 7 It took him back 8 He stuck around 9 Its been floating around 10 She asked you what quotPhDquot stands for 11 He put you up to it 34d 1 came out 2 came about 3 wears off 4 shakeup 5 plan ahead 6 get together 7 goofs a round 8 put together 9 bitten off 10 fell behind 11 stayed out 12 caught on 13 let in on 14 stop over 15 pulloff 16 print out 35a 1 left behind 2 tricked into 3 went by 4 living with 5 narrowed down 6 make of 7 holds against 8 fooling around 9 goes by 10 Living with 11 Leaving behind 12 fooled around 13 went by 14 fool around 15 live with 16 go by 17 left behind 18 go by 35b 1 Shell have to learn to live with it 2 You hold it against him 3 Theyre fooling around 4 He has to live with them 5 He narrowed it down 6 I fool around 7 He tricked her into giving him money 8 She asked him what he made of the test results 9 It went by you 10 Theyre going to leave her behind 11 It went by quickly 35d 1 lucked out 2 lay around 3 flip out 4 stayed up 5 stand for 6 take back 7 hangs out 8 lead up to 9 messed up 10 do over 11 broke up 12 floating around 13 coming apart 14 stick around 15 ended up 16 run across 36a 1 puts down 2 calmed down 3 goes down 4 run down 5 fell down 6 sit down 7 ran over 8 go down 9 put down 10 backed down 11 goes down 12 lay down 13 sat down 14 put down 15 calm down 16 go down 17 lay down 18 gone down 19 Put down 20 run down 21 went down 22 Putting down 23 run down 36b 1 The jockey calmed down the horse The Jockey calmed the horse down The jockey calmed it down 2 The mechanic laid down her tools The mechanic laid her tools down The mechanic laid them down 3 I put down my books I put my books down I put them down 4 The taxi ran down the traffic cop The taxi ran the traffic cop down The taxi ran him down
36c 1 He ran down the list 2 He gave me a rundown of the cars options 3 He calmed it down 4 Its rundown 5 It went down well 6 He put her down 7 It was a put-down 8 He sat down 9 It backed down 10 She put my name down 11 They laid them down 12 I fell down 36d 1 spaced-out 2 torn off 3 paid up 4 punched in 5 burned up 6 punched out 7 plugged up 8 locked in 9 locked out 10 shaken up 11 sorted out 12 left out 13 put out 14 cleaned out 15 emptied out 36a 1 washed up 2 care for 3 caught on 4 came about 5 stuck with 6 make out 7 locked out 8 make of 9 putoff 10 pulled off 11 did without 12 went out 13 blew up 14 planning on 15 cleaned out 16 narrowed down 37a 1 cover up 2 cover up 3 brush off 4 pay off 5 comes on 6 let down 7 came on 8 talk to 9 Hanging out 10 brushed off 11 pay off 12 comes on 13 coming on 14 leftover 15 coming on 16 paying off 37b 1 payoff 2 leftovers 3 letdown 4 brush-off 5 payoff 6 come-on 7 cover-up 8 hangout 9 talking-to 37c 1 He hangs our there 2 Its a hangout 3 You told him to come off it 4 I had100 left over 5 It comes on 6 He let her down 7 Shes going to pay it off 8 Its paid off 9 She talked to him 11 It comes on 12 I ate leftovers 13 He paid him off 14 It was a payoff 15 He tried to cover them up 16 It was a cover-up 17 He brushed her off 19 He said quotCome onquot 20 It was a letdown 21 You were let down 37d 1 put-down 2 breakup 3 get-together 4 grown-ups 5 lockout 6 blowup 7 lookout 8 giveaway 9 going-over 10 cutouts 11 rundown 37a 1 hold against 2 narrowed down 3 emptied out 4 go by 5 caught on 6 pulled off 7 make of 8 fool around 9 leave behind 10 done away with 11 Living with 12 calmed down 13 fall down 14 go down 15 put down 16 sit down 38a 1 keep from 2 keep to 3 kept up 4 Keep at 5 keeping down 6 keep off 7 keep to 8 keep up 9 keep away 10 keep up 11 keep up 12 keep off 13 keep up 14 keep down 15 keep from 16 keep on 17 keep on 18 keepto 19 keep away 38b 1 He asked you to keep it down 2 You asked her to keep it to 4000 3 You cant keep from falling asleep 4 You have to keep at it 5 Its hard to keep up with the political situation in Washington 6 She kept on running 7 Ive got to keep away 8 She thinks hes keeping something from her 406
9 You hope she can keep it up 10 You asked him to keep the children away from your computer 11 He said its important to keep inflation down 12 Hes kept off drugs for five years 13 You cant keep him from joining the Army 14 Its hard for her to keep up with the other students 38d 1 brush off 2 running down 3 fell behind 4 go down 5 backed down 6 come on 7 fell down 8 Calm down 9 came about 10 goof around 11 know about 12 sat down 13 leftover 14 lay down 15 hang out 16 talk to 39a 1 picked up 2 sold out 3 straighten out 4 took over 5 clean up 6 take over 7 pickup 8 pick up 9 chop up 10 wipe out 11 pickup 12 taken over 13 filled up 14 pickup 15 filled up 16 straightened out 17 pick up 18 wipe out 19 picking up 20 straighten out 21 picked up 22 fill up 23 pick up 24 take over 25 pick up 26 pick up 27 cross off 39b 1 Have you chopped up the onions Have you chopped the onions up Have you chopped them up 2 You can cross off Lindas name You can cross Lindas name off You can cross her off 3 Fill up the aquarium with water Fill the aquarium up with water Fill it up with water 4 I need to pick up my parents at the train station I need to pick my parents up at the train station I need to pick them up at the train station 5 Can you straighten out this mess Can you straighten this mess out Can you straighten it out 6 The rebels took over the royal palace The rebels took the royal palace over The rebels took it over 7 They wiped out the palace guard They wiped the palace guard out 8 They wiped them out 39c 1 It always picks up in the spring 2 It might be taken over by pirates 3 It would be a takeover 4 She straightened everything out 5 Its straightened out 6 He was supposed to be picked up 7 Theyll be wiped out 8 It ought to be crossed off 9 Itll be crossed off 10 It sold out of the CDs 11 They were sold out 12 It had sold out 13 It was chopped up 14 It has to be picked up before 600 15 He took over for the pilot 16 He often asks you to pick up a newspaper 17 Youll tell her not to let the water run over 18 You picked up on page 95 39d 1 settling down 2 slowed down 3 cut down 4 left out 5 blew up 6 Hand over 7 came out 8 bring back 9 knock off 10 makeup 11 picking on 12 bitten off 13 pulled over 14 wear down 15 look over 16 broken off 40a 1 stuck with 2 going away 3 blow off 4 got off on 5 came back 6 running around 7 stick with 8 brought up 9 brought up 10 stick with 11 come back 12 come back 13 going away 14 burst out 15 ran around 16 stick with 17 going away 18 come back 19 go away 20 brings up 40b 1 Theyre not sticking with the original plan 2 It came back 3 I burst out crying 4 He blew it off 5 He gave me the runaround 6 She asked him to go away 7 She gets off on it 8 He got stuck with unloading the truck 9 She brought up joining the Peace Corps 10 Its coming back 11 It never goes away 121 havent come back 13 He ran around looking for a telephone 14 It would be nice to getaway 15 They brought me up to believe in the golden rule
40d 1 holds against 2 do over 3 go down 4 went out 5 stick a round 6 run down 7 make of 8 take back 9 lay down 10 fool around 11 backed down 12 stick to 13 put up to 14 led up to 15 go by 16 trick into 41a 1 letting in 2 sneaked in 3 broke in 4 check out 5 check in 6 plug into 7 go in 8 check in 9 sneaked in 10 go in 11 check out 12 go into 13 letting in 14 checkout 15 check into 16 checkout 17 break into 18 checked in 41b 1 She sneaked in 2 She let him in 3 She checked out 4 Its the checkout time 5 It was broken into 6 There was a break-in 7 Youll check in counter 9 She doesnt want to go in 10 Youll check it out 11 He checks them in 12 Theyre checked in 13 I sneaked out 14 He hasnt checked in 15 He plugged it in 16 Its plugged in 17 He was checked out 18 You didnt break in your boots 41d 1 left over 2 lets down 3 come on 4 put down 5 started out 6 help out 7 blow off 8 narrowed down 9 straighten out 10 takeover 11 live with 12 filled up 13 go away 14 hang out 15 talked to 16 gets off on 42a 1 get back 2 got out 3 gets out 4 Getting over 5 gotten into 6 got out 7 get up 8 get out 9 get in 10 Get in 11 got in 12 getin 13 get in 14 gets out 15 gets by 16 get down 17 Get down 18 get by 19 gotten up 20 get behind 21 get to 22 get by 23 gets back 24 getdown 25 get over 26 getting back 27 get over 28 Get out 29 get out 30 get out 31 get into 42b 1 He got you up 2 Its difficult to get up to Minnesota 3 I got into a lot of trouble 4 I need to get right back home 5 She can barely get by 6 Shell get behind 7 He hasnt gotten over it 8 She got me out of it 9 Hes getting it out 10 Hes getting it down 11 They couldnt get it in 12 You cant get by 13 She got out 14 She got back in 15 He got it back 16 They got her down 17 He asked you to get right over to his house 42c 1 pick up 2 clear out 3 selling out 4 leave behind 5 floating around 6 running around 7 punching in 8 punched out 9 call up 10 call back 11 go in 12 startup 13 Sneaking into 14 sneak out 15 brushes off 16 crossed off 17 plug in 43a 1 head toward 2 tried on 3 blew out 4 gave out 5 run up 407
6 blew out 7 shutup 8 stop off 9 grosses out 10 Shut up 11 ran up 12 blown out 13 given out 14 ran up 43b 1 of 2 to 3 on 4 to 5 in 6 at 43c 1 The wind blew out the candle The wind blew the candle out The wind blew it out 2 They gave out information They gave information out They gave it out 3 She ran up a 4000 bill She ran a 4000 bill up She ran it up 4 Can I try on these pants Can I try these pants on Can I try them on 5 The smell grossed out everyone The smell grossed everyone out The smell grossed them out 43d 1 She should have tried it on 2 It gave out 3 It was a run-up 4 It must have grossed him out 5 He must have been grossed out 6 They ran up to her 7 She wouldnt have headed toward Detroit 8 She blew it out 9 Shutting him up is nearly impossible 10 She asked him how he could have run up such a large credit card bill 11 He stopped off in Denver 12 You had a blowout 43e 1 leftover 2 chopped up 3 covered up 4 rundown 5 broken in 6 paid off 7 letdown 8 crossed off 9 checked in 10 checked out 11 sold out 12 plugged in 13 filled up 14 straightened out 15 put off 43f 1 sneaked into 2 sneak out 3 keep off 4 coming back 5 go into 6 kept on 7 get back 8 gotten behind 9 keep from 10 keep at 11 keepto 12 burst out 13 keep up 14 wiped out 15 keep away 16 kept down 44a 1 locked up 2 carried away 3 pisses off 4 stressing out 5 kicked out 6 beat up 7 mix up 8 lock up 9 ripped off 10 mixes up 44b 1 The thugs beat up the woman The thugs beat the woman up The thugs beat her up 2 The hotel manager kicked out the rock group The hotel manager kicked the rock group out The hotel manager kicked them out 3 The cops are going to lock up the crook The cops are going to lock the crook up The cops are going to lock her up 4 Mixing up the twins is easy Mixing the twins up is easy Mixing them up is easy 5 Getting a tattoo must have pissed off your father Getting a tattoo must have pissed your father off Getting a tattoo must have pissed him off 6 The contractor was accused of ripping off homeowners The contractor was accused of ripping homeowners off The contractor was accused of ripping them off 7 All these problems are stressing out the staff All these problems are stressing the staff out All these problems are stressing them out 44c 1 He ripped him off 2 It was a rip-off 3 Shes going to kick them out 4 I locked up 5 Its locked up 6 Its easy to mix them up 7 It pissed him off 8 He was pissed off 9 Shes mixed up 10 Its stressing me out 11 Im stressed out 12 They were beat up 13 He was locked up 14 He was locked up 15 She got carried away 16 They beat him up 17 I have to mix them up 44d 1 cover up 2 paid off 3 takes over 4 keep down 5 keep on 6 broken in 7 keep away 8 bringing up 9 keep from 10 stuck with 11 keep off 12 keep to 13 help out 14 kept at 15 put up to 16 keep up 45a 1 turn out
2 turn in 3 turned off 4 turns over 5 turned on 6 turn in 7 turned in 8 turned up 9 turn into 10 turn on 11 turn up 12 turn down 13 turn off 14 turned on 15 turn over 16 turn up 17 turning in 18 turn off 19 turned on 20 turned down 21 turning out 22 turn over 23 turn out 24 turning out 25 turn in 26 turning out 27 turn in 45b 1 They turn into butterflies 2 He turned up 3 It turned him off 4 He thinks its a turnoff 5 He was turned off 6 It turns you on 7 You think its a turn-on 8 You feel turned on 9 Im turning it up 10 Turnover is very low 11 It turns our 2 5000 cars every year 12 She didnt turn it up 13 She hasnt turned up anything 14 It was turned into a Chinese restaurant 15 It turned out orange 16 She couldnt turn him down 17 It will probably turn over 4 million 18 He hasnt turned his paper in 19 Shes not going to turn him in 20 There wasnt enough room because so many people turned out 21 The turnout was large 22 He turned it over 45d 1 get back 2 ran up 3 gotten up 4 tried on 5 Get out 6 get there 7 grossing out 8 get into 9 head toward 10 get out 11 lockup 12 beaten up 13 stopped off 14 getting behind 15 getting over 16 carried away 46a 1 talk into 2 build in 3 bump into 4 freak out 5 talk out of 6 conned into 7 bumped into 8 make for 9 con out of 10 made for 46b 1 Shes trying to talk you into helping her paint her house 2 He bumped into Raul 3 Hes trying to con me out of everything I own 4 It will make for an uncomfortable evening 5 He conned her into selling him her house for a lot less than its worth 6 Shes freaking out 7 A shelf was built into it 8 Its built-in 9 No one can talk him out of quitting his job 46d 1 lockup 2 comeback 3 wipeout 4 check-in 5 checkout 6 mix-up 7 break-in 8 pickup 9 takeover 10 run-up 11 blowout 46e 1 turn in 2 brought up 3 lock up 4 gone away 5 stands for 6 got by 7 stressing out 8 shut up 9 stick with 10 gave out 11 turning into 12 blewoff 13 pisses off 14 let in 15 kicked out 16 burst out 47a 1 run out 2 put into 3 pull out 4 comes in 5 cut back 6 ran out 7 moving into 8 put in 9 brush up 10 move in 11 comes in 12 putting in 13 put in 14 come in 15 move out 16 runs out 17 put in 18 coming in 19 cutback 20 pulled out 408
21 move out 22 put in 23 come in 24 move into 25 put in 26 pull out 47b 1 Hes going to move in with his Uncle John 2 Its cutting back 3 Its a cutback 4 You cant figure out where theyre coming in 5 It didnt come in on time 6 Hes moving out 7 I ran out of money 8 Shes pulling out 9 She shouldnt have put a 10 Shes brushing up on Italian 11 He might pull out 12 She told me to cut back on candy 13 Hes going to come in late 14 Shes putting a lot of effort into learning Chinese 15 They ran out of time 16 He hasnt put them in 17 He asked her when she was moving in 18 He puts 1000 into his checking account 47c 1 tried on 2 kicked out 3 rips off 4 get down 5 conned into 6 stop off 7 talked into 8 conned out of 9 make for 10 bumped into 11 shut up 12 gotten up 13 talkout of 14 get into 15 get out 16 freaked out 48a 1 put back 2 switch off 3 knocked out 4 looked up to 5 put back 6 switched on 7 kicked out 8 knocked out 9 put back 10 throw out 11 closed down 12 looks down on 13 put back 14 knockout 15 knocked out 48b 1 The health department should closedown the restaurant The health department should close the restaurant down The health department should close it down 2 Alis left hook knocked out Joe Alis left hook knocked Joe out Alis left hook knocked him out 3 General Chambers had to put back the attack General Chambers had to put the attack back General Chambers had to put it back 4 Have you switched on the TV Have you switched the TV on Have you switched it on 5 Are you going to switch off the lights Are you going to switch the lights off Are you going to switch them off 6 Throwing out all this junk is going to be a big job Throwing all this junk out is going to be a big job Throwing it out is going to be a big job 48c 1 It has put back your fight for justice 2 He looks up to him 3 I knocked him out 4 Its a knockout 5 I switched it on 6 Its switched on 7 They must have been switched off 8 Theyre switched off 9 It will be closed down 10 He looks down on them 11 He would have been kicked out 48d 1 turnoff 2 cutback 3 make-up 4 turn-on 5 pullout 6 carryout 7 runaround 8 turnover 9 rip-off 10 lockout 11 turnout 12 falling-out 48e 1 put into 2 talked out of 3 carried away 4 con out of 5 pulled out 6 stick out 7 bumped into 8 turn up 9 con into 10 brush up 11 talked into 12 move in 13 Turn over 14 move out 15 blow out 16 stressing out 49a 1 get to 2 hang on 3 get to 4 start off 5 get to 6 get back to 7 get on 8 clogged up 9 get on 10 gotten to 11 Throwing away 12 getting on 13 get to 14 get a head 15 starts off 16 get on 17 Hang on 18 throw away 19 get to 20 got to 21 got on 22 Get to 49b 1 She cant get her shoes on 2 He got to feeling depressed 3 He threw them away 4 Youre going to get back to work 5 Shes going to get back to me 6 It got clogged up 7 It was clogged up 8 He has never gotten to work after 930
9 I got on with work 10 It should be taken out when the temperature gets to 190 degrees 11 He said he couldnt bang on any longer 12 Youve got to get to them 13 It must have been thrown away 14 He showed you how to get on a horse 15 It started off well but things got worse 16 He told you that you shouldnt let it get to you 17 He got to pet a baby tiger 18 He hung on to the ropes 19 He got on the diving board 20 He got right back on 21 She couldnt have gotten to the airport already 22 He always starts off by introducing himself 23 It should help you to get ahead 49d 1 cutting back 2 come in 3 conned into 4 throw out 5 looked up to 6 look down on 7 know about 8 put back 9 gets off on 10 closed down 11 knocked out 12 turned down 13 letting in 14 get over 15 turn down 16 switch on 50a 1 paid back 2 wear out 3 turn around 4 payback 5 deals with 6 wore out 7 comes down to 8 turn around 9 Hold on 10 dealt with 11 ask out 12 hold on 13 taken upon 14 Hold on 50b 1 Hes been holding on for ten minutes 2 They wore out 3 Theyre worn-out 4 Its turning around 5 It comes down to the MBA program 6 I asked her out 7 It was a turnaround 8 Hes going to be paid back 9 You took her up on the offer 10 Shell deal with the problem 11 She held on to it 12 It wore her out 13 She felt worn-out 50d 1 stressed-out 2 worn-out 3 turned on 4 turned off 5 grossed out 6 beat-up 7 clogged up 8 mixed up 9 locked up 10 pissed off 11 built-in 12 turned on 13 turned off 50e 1 turned into 2 get to 3 turn in 4 built into 5 turn out 6 get back to 7 thrown away 8 turned on 9 get on 10 get ahead 11 Hang on 12 turn down 13 Turnoff 14 clogged up 15 made for 16 turning up 50f 1 give out 2 put into 3 payback 4 take up on 5 dealt with 6 running out 7 askout 8 get ahead 9 hold on 10 turned around 11 get back to 12 gotten to 13 came down to 14 wore out 15 freaks out 16 started off
Index Index of Phrasal Verbs by Section The number after each phrasal verb is the section in which that phrasal verb is described aim at 19 come over 17 get off on 40 keep down 38 plan for 4 step on 21 ask for 29 come through 15 get on 49 keep from 38 plan on 31 stick a round 34 ask out 50 come up 12 get out 42 keep off 38 plug in 41 stick out 32 back down 36 come up with 6 get out of 6 keep on 38 plug up 22 stick to 34 back off 12 con into 46 get over 42 keep to 38 point out 7 stick up 14 back up 11 con out of 46 get over with 3 keep up 38 point to 4 stick with 40 beat up 44 cool off 19 get through 16 kick back 10 print out 24 stop off 43 beef up 28 count on 16 get to 49 kick out 44 pull off 33 stop over 24 believe in 16 count up 22 get together 26 knock off 27 pull out 47 straighten out 39 bite off 27 cover up 37 get up 42 knock out 48 pull over 19 stress out 44 blow away 15 crack down 23 give away 28 knock over 25 pull through 2 switch off 48 blow off 40 cross off 39 give back 1 know about 33 punch in 30 switch on 48 blow out 43 cut back 47 give in 2 lay down 36 punch out 30 take apart 7 blow up 33 cut down 23 give out 43 lay off 10 put away 14 take back 34 boil down to 6 cut off 11 give up 9 lead up to 34 put back 48 take in 7 break down 5 cut out 31 go about 17 leave behind 35 put down 36 take off 1 break in 41 cut up 7 go after 4 leave off 13 put in 47 take out 11 break off 27 deal with 50 go ahead 10 leave out 32 put off 31 take out on 21 break out 9 do away with 31 go along with 3 leave over 37 put on 1 take over 39 breakthrough 18 do over 34 go around 20 let down 37 put out 30 take up on 50 break up 28 do with 25 go away 40 let in 41 put past 16 talk down to 3 bring back 19 do without 31 go back 19 let in on 26 put to 4 talkinto46 bring over 19 doze off 2 go back on 6 let off 13 put together 26 talk out of 46 bring up 40 dress up 14 go beyond 18 let out 7 put up 12 talk to 37 brush off 37 drop in 29 go by 35 let up 24 put up to 34 tear down 8 brush up 47 drop off 11 go down 36 lie around 20 put up with 3 tear off 27 build in 46 drop out 23 go for 16 lift up 18 ring up 8 tell apart 18 bump into 46 dry off 27 go in41 light up 13 rip off 44 tell on 15 burn down 5 dry out 15 go in for 3 lighten up 25 rip up 17 think about 16 burn out 8 dry up 14 go off 20 line up 18 rule out 31 think ahead 21 burn up 22 eat up 22 go on 20 live with 35 run across 29 think up 25 burst out 40 empty out 32 go out 32 lock in 30 run around 40 throw away 49 butt in14 end up 20 go over 26 lock out 30 run down 36 throw out 48 call back 28 fail apart 17 go through with 6 lock up 44 run into 1 throw up 2 call in5 fall behind 33 go up 26 look around 21 run out 47 track down 1 call off 13 fall down 36 go with 15 look at 5 run over 7 trade in 24 call up 28 fall for 2 goof around 33 look down on 48 run up 43 trick into 35 calm down 36 fall off 10 gross out 43 look for 1 screw on 12 try on 43 care for 31 fall out 32 grow out of 17 look forward to 3 screw out of 3 try out 11 carry away 44 fall over 8 grow up 10 look into 31 screw up 10 turn around 50 carry on 16 fall through 12 hand back 5 look out 29 see about 7 turn down 45 carry out 28 feel up to 3 hand in 13 look over 21 sell out 39 turn in 45 catch on 33 fight back 8 hand out 10 look up 4 set up 5 turn into 45 catch up 9 figure on 18 hand over 19 look up to 48 settle down 21 turn off 45 cheat on4 figure out 1 hang around 20 luck out 29 settle for 25 turn on 45 check in 41 fill in10 hang on 49 make for 46 shake up 24 turn out 45 check out 41 fill out 14 hang out 37 make of 35 show off 24 turn over 45 chicken out 9 fill up 39 hang up 9 make out 29 show up 1 turn up 45 chop up 39 find out 5 have on 25 make up 23 shut off 26 use up 14 clean out 32 fix up 15 head back 15 mess up 28 shut up 43 wake up 11 clear out 32 flip out 29 head for 15 mix up 44 sign in 12 warm up 19 clear up 22 float around 34 head into 17 monkey around sign out 12 wash off 27 clog up 49 follow up 11 head toward 43 with 6 sit down 36 wash up 30 close down 48 fool around 35 hear about 2 move in 47 slow down 24 watch out 23 close off 13 freak out 46 hear of 8 move out 47 sneak in 41 wear down 17 come about 33 get a head 49 heat up 22 narrow down 35 sneak out 41 wear off 27 come across 12 get along 9 help out 33 open up 26 sort out 30 wear out 50 come apart 29 get around to 6 hit on 13 pay back 50 space out 30 wind up 14 come back 40 get away 23 hold against 35 pay for 4 stand around 18 wipe off 27 come down 24 get back 42 hold off 16 pay off 3 7 stand for 34 wipe out 39 come down to 50 get back at 17 hold on 50 pay up 22 stand up 28 wipe up 22 come down with 6 get back to 49 hold out 23 pick on 21 start off 49 work in 8 come from 1 get behind 42 hold up 7 pick out 8 start out 20 work out 11 come in 47 get by 42 hook up 9 pick up 39 start up 26 work up 9 come off 2 get down 42 hurry up 25 pile up 5 stay off 2 wrap up 4 come on 37 get in 42 keep at 38 piss off 44 stay out 23 zip up 21 come out 32 get off 18 keep away 38 plan ahead 25 stay up 20
come from figure out give back look for put on run into show up take off come off doze off fall for give in hear about pull through stay off throw up feel up to get over with go along with go in for look forward to put up with screw out of talk down to cheat on go after look up pay for plan for point to put to wrap up break down burn down call in find out hand back look at setup boil down to come down with come up with get around to get out of go back on go through with monkey around with cut up hold up let out point out run over see about take in burn out fall over fight back hear of pick out tear down work in break out catch up chicken out get along give up hang up hook up work up fall off kick back lay off screw up backup cut off drop off follow up take out try out wake up work out back off come across come up fall through put out call off dose off hand in let off light up track down butt in dress up dry up fill out put away stick up use up blow away come through dry out fix up go with head back tell on believe in carry on count on get through go for hold off put past think about come over get back at go about grow out of rip up wear down breakthrough figure on get off go beyond lift upon line up stand around tell apart aim at bring back bring over cool off go back hand over pull over warm up end up go around Go off hang around lie around start out stay up look around look over pick on settle down step on take out on think ahead zip up burn up clear up count up eat up heat up pay up plug up wipe up crack down cut down drop out get away hold out make up stay out watch out come down Let up print out show off slow down stop over trade in do with have on hurry up knock over lighten up plan ahead settle for think up get together go over go up let in on open up put together shut off start up bite off break off dry off knock off tear off wash off wear off wipe off beef up break up call back call up carry out give away mess up stand up ask for come apart drop in flip out look out luck out make out run across lock in Lock out punch in put out sort out space out wash up care for cut out do away with do without look into plan on put off rule out clean out clear out come out empty out fall out go out leave out stick out blow up catch on come about fall behind goof around help out know about pull off do over float around lead up to put up to stand for stick around stick to take back fool around go by hold against leave behind live with make of narrow down trick into back down calm down fall down go down lay down put down run down sit down brush off come on cover up hang out leave over left over Let down talk to keep at keep away keep down keep from keep off keep on keep to keep up chop up cross off fill up pick up sell out straighten out take over wipe out blow off burst out come back get off on go away run around stick with break in Check out go in let in plug in sneak in sneak out get back get behind get down get in get out get over get up blow out give out gross out run up shut up stop off try on
beat up mix up piss off rip off turn down turn in turn into turn off turn on turn out turn over turn up build in bump into con into con out of freak out make for talk into talk out of brush up come in cut back move in move out pull out put in run out close down knock out look down on look up to put back switch off throw out dog up get ahead get back to get on get to hang on start off throw away ask out come down to deal with hold on pay back take up on turn around wear out
Page 19 1 Comment S10 Slava n 1 dodge device f pl he knows all the tricks of the trade he tried every trick in the book I know a trick worth two of that 2 deception mischievous act he is always playing tricks on me he is up to his old tricks again a trick of the light a dirty trick play a dirty trick on so pf - he is good at card tricks 3 feat their dog can do a lot of tricks you cant teach him any new tricks that will do the trick theres no trick to it coll trick cyclist lit joc psychiatrist 4 knack theres a trick to operating this machine 5 mannerism he has a trick of repeating himself 6 at cards we won by the odd trick he never misses a trick fig vt 1 cheat beguile - - they tricked him out of a fortune she was tricked into marriage 2 trick out up adorn - - tricked out in all her finery Page 19 2 Comment S13 Slava vi 1 go on continue - - winter lasts six months will the performance last much longer the rain wont last long if the good weather lasts or 2 hold out as long as my health lasts out be preserved survive - the tradition has lasted until today 3 of clothes this suit has lasted well 4 of the dying he wont last long coll 5 be sufficient for - a 30 lasts me a week 30 the bread wont last us today
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Hassan AlAmouch

Hassan AlAmouch

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جميع مصطلحات phrasalverbs أساس اللغة الانجليزية
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